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B. W. Johnson
The People's New Testament (1891)


Names and Order of the Hebrew Months. Names and Order of the Hebrew Months.
1. Nisan. { March.April. 7.--1. Tizri. { September.October.
2. Zif or Jiar. { April.May. 8.--2. Marchesvan. { October.November.
3. Sivan. { May.June. 9.--3. Chisleu. { November.December.
4. Thamuz. { June.July. 10.--4. Tebeth. { December.January.
5. Ab. { July.August. 11.--5. Shebat. { January.February.
6. Elul. { August.September. 12.--6. Adar. { February.March.
7. Ethanim or Tizri. { September.October. 1.--7. Nisan. { March.April.
8. Marchesvan or Bul. { October.November. 2.--8. Zif or Jiar. { April.May.
9. Chisleu. { November.December. 3.--9. Sivan. { May.June.
10. Tebeth. { December.January. 4.--10. Thamuz. { June.July.
11. Shebat. { January.February. 5.--11. Ab. { July.August.
12. Adar. { February.March. 6.--12. Elul. { August.September.
13. Ve-Adar or Second Adar.

      The Jews reckoned their months according to the moon; and every third year they added a month, which they called Ve-Adar, in the same way we add a day in every fourth or leap year.

      They began their civil year in the month of Tizri, or September, according to which they computed and settled all temporal affairs. But after coming out of Egypt they began their ecclesiastical year in the month of Nisan, or March, from which they computed all their great festivals.

      Their day was twofold: the natural, consisting of twenty-four hours, which commenced at sunset; and the natural, beginning at sunrising and ending at sunset, which was divided into twelve equal parts or hours. See John 11:9.

      Their night was divided into four parts or watches, each consisting of three hours. The first began at sunset; the second at nine o'clock; the third at midnight; the fourth at three in the morning, and continued until sunrise. These were sometimes otherwise expressed; viz., even, midnight, cock-crowing, and the dawn. See Mark 13:35.

      Their artificial day was divided into four equal parts. The first began at sunrise, and continued until nine o'clock; the second began at nine, and continued till noon; the third began at noon, and ended at three in the afternoon (which is sometimes termed the ninth hour); the fourth began at three, and continued till sunset.


      A Cubit, somewhat more than one foot nine inches English.
      A Span, half a cubit, or nearly eleven inches.
      A Hand-breadth, sixth part of a cubit, or a little more than three inches and a half.
      A Fathom, four cubits, about seven feet and three inches and a half.
      A Measuring Reed, six cubits and a hand-breadth, or nearly eleven feet. The was used in measuring buildings.
      A Measuring Line, fourscore cubits, about one hundred and forty-five feet eleven inches. This was used to measure grounds; hence the lines (Psalm 16:6) are taken figuratively for the inheritance itself. [14]
      A Stadium, or Furlong, nearly 146 paces .
      A Sabbath Day's Journey, about 729 paces.
      An Eastern Mile, one mile and 403 paces, English measure.
      A Day's Journey, upwards of thirty-three miles and a half.
      NOTE.--A pace is equal to five feet.
      There were different kinds of cubits. The common cubit, called the cubit of a man, was about eighteen inches (Deut. 3:11). The king's cubit was three inches longer than the common one. The holy cubit was a yard, or two common ones.


      A Shekel, nearly half an ounce, Troy weight.
      A Maneh, sixty shekels, about two pounds and a quarter.
      A Talent, three thousand shekels, or 113 pounds, and upwards of ten ounces.


A Shekel of Gold, worth about $8.75
A Golden Daric, about 5.24
A Talent of Gold, about 26,280.00
A Shekel of Silver, about .55
A Bekah, half a shekel, about .28
A Gerah, twentieth part of a shekel .25
A Maneh, or Mina, fifty shekels 27.32
A Talent of Silver, 3000 shekels, about 1,639.30
A Silver Drachma, about .16
Tribute Money, two drachmas .31
A Piece of Silver (Stater) .62
A Pound (Mornai), 100 drachmas 15.50
A Roman Penny (Denarius) .16
A Farthing (Assarium), about .03
Another Farthing (Quadrans), half the former  
A Mite, the half of this latter  


      The Cor, or Chomer, seventy-five gallons and somewhat above five pints.
      The Bath, the tenth of the chomer, or seven gallons and four pints and and a half.
      The Hin, sixtieth of a chomer, about a gallon and a quart.
      The Log, about three-fourths of a pint.
      The Firkin (Metretes), somewhat more than seven pints.


      The Cab, somewhat above two pints.
      The Omer, above five pints.
      The Seah, one peck and about half a pint.
      The Ephah, three pecks and about three pints.
      The Letech, about four bushels.
      The Homer, about eight bushels.
      The Choenix (Rev.6:6) was the daily allowance to maintain a slave. It contained about a quart, some say only a pint and a half. When this measure was sold for a denarius, or Roman penny, corn must have been above twenty shillings an English bushel, which indicates a scarcity next to famine. [15]

[PNTA 14-15]

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B. W. Johnson
The People's New Testament (1891)

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