19. And Moses said, Let no man leave of it till the morning.
19. Et ait Moses ad eos, Nemo relinquat quicquam ex eo usque mane.
20. Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and stank: and Moses was wroth with them.
20. Sed non audierunt Mosen: quia quidam reservarunt ex eo usque mane. Et scatere coepit vermibus, et computruit: ideoque iratus est contra eos Moses.
21. And they gathered it every morning, every man according to his eating: and when the sun waxed hot, it melted.
21. Itaque collegerunt illud singulis diebus mane: quisque secundum mensuram suam: et quum sol incaluerat, liquefiebat.
22. And it came to pass, that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for one man: and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses.
22. Fuit autem die sexto ut colligerent panem duplum, duo scilicet homer pro uno. Et venientes principes congregationis retulerunt Mosi.
23. And he said unto them, This is that which the Lord hath said, Tomorrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the Lord: bake that which ye will bake today, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over lay up for you, to be kept until the morning.
23. Qui dixit eis, Hoc est quod loquutus est Jehova, Quies Sabbathi sancti cras est Jehovae; quod cocturi estis, coquite, et quod elixaturi estis, elixate: et quicquid residuum erit reponite vobis usque mane.
24. And they laid it up till the morning, as Moses bade; and it did not stink, neither was there any worm therein.
24. Et reposuerunt illud usque mane, sicut praeceperat Moses: et non computruit, nec vermis fuit in eo.
25. And Moses said, Eat that today; for today is a sabbath unto the Lord: today ye shall not find it in the field.
25. Dixitque Moses, Comedite illud hodie: quia Sabbathum est bodie Jehovae. Hodie non invenietis illud in agro.
26. Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day, which is the sabbath, in it there shall be none.
26. Sex diebus colligetis illud: die autem septimo est Sabbathum, non erit in illo.
27. And it came to pass, that there went out some of the people on the seventh day for to gather, and they found none.
27. Accidit autem die septimo ut egrederentur quidam e populo ad colligendum illud: et non invenerunt.
28. And the Lord said unto Moses, How long refuse ye to keep my commandments and my laws?
28. Tunc ait Jehova ad Mosen, Usque quo renuitis servare praecepta mea et leges meas?
29. See, for that the Lord hath given you the sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days: abide ye every man in his place; let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.
29. Videte quod Jehova posuerit vobis Sabbathum: ideo ipse dat vobis die sexto panem duorum dierum; quisque apud se quiescat nec ullus egrediatur e loco suo die septimo.
30. So the people rested on the seventh day.
30. Quievit itaque populus die septimo.
19. And Moses said, Let no man. Moses here recounts that, when he had commanded them all not to take more than enough for their daily food, and to gather a double portion the day before the Sabbath, some were disobedient on both points. As to the former, since God would supply their food to them just as the breast is given to babes, it was a sign of perverse unbelief that they would not depend on God's providence, but sought for a provision which would last them many days. It was also a proof of their obstinacy that they would give credit to no warnings until they were convinced by experience that they laid up in their houses nothing' but a mass of corruption; for they were not induced to cease from their insatiable greediness till they had received their just punishment. Now, although the case of the manna and the food of our ordinary nourishment is not; altogether similar, yet the comparison holds to a certain extent, for it is so far lawful to keep our corn and wine laid up in granaries and cellars, as that all should still ask truly their daily bread of God. And this will be, if the rich do not greedily swallow up whatsoever they can get together; if they do not avariciously scrape up here and there; if they do not gorge themselves upon the hunger of the poor; if they do not, as far as in them lies, withhold the blessing of God; in a word, if they do not immoderately accumulate large possessions, but: are liberal out of their present abundance, are not too anxious as to the future, and are not troubled, if needs be, that their wealth should suffer diminution; nay, if they are ready to endure poverty, and glory not in their abundance, but repose upon the paternal bounty of God. And surely we often see that what misers collect by theft, rapine, fraud, cruelty, trickery, or meanness, is often turned into corruption. When he adds that, after they saw that their intemperate ardor profited them nothing, they submitted to the command, he implies that their obedience was not voluntary, but extorted from them, for fools are never wise except after adversity. 1 The melting of the manna when the sun waxed hot was a stimulus to correct their idleness or laziness; for, if the manna had remained entire during the whole day, they would not have been so intent upon their duty. Wherefore, by giving them only a short time for its collection, God urged them to diligence.
22. And it came to pass on the sixth day. The violation of the Sabbath is not yet recounted, but only the stupidity or dense ignorance of their rulers is set forth, for although they had heard from the mouth of Moses that God would on that day give what would be sufficient for two days' provision, still they marvel, and tell it to Moses as if it were something strange and incredible. It is plain enough that they obeyed the command, and did not spare their labor in gathering the double quantity; but their unbelief and folly betrays itself in their astonishment when they see that God has really performed what he promised. We may conjecture that they accurately observed what awakened in them so much astonishment; so that it follows that they refused to credit God's word until its truth was effectively proved. It came to pass, then, in God's admirable wisdom, that their wicked and perverse doubting availed both for the confirmation of the miracle and the observation of the Sabbath. Hence occasion was given to Moses again to enjoin upon them what otherwise, perhaps, they would have neglected, viz., that they should honor the seventh day by a holy rest.
27. And it came to pass. This is the second transgression, that by going out on the seventh day they trenched upon its religious observance; and this monstrous greediness arose from their not believing to be true what we have just heard Moses saying, for he had plainly declared to them that they would not find the manna. They, therefore, accuse him of falsehood, refusing' to believe anything but their own eyes. Meanwhile the obligation of the Sabbath was set at naught by them, nay, they sought to profane the day which God had hallowed, so that it should in no wise differ from other days. Therefore does God justly inveigh against them with much bitterness, for, addressing Moses, in his person He arraigns the obstinate wickedness of the whole people. Assuredly Moses was not of the number of those who had refused to obey God's laws, but by this general charge, the multitude, who had transgressed, were more severely rebuked, and a greater obligation is laid on Moses to chastise the people, when a part of the blame is transferred to himself. By the expression "How long?" God implies the intolerableness of their perversity, because there is no end of their offenses, but, by thus provoking greater vengeance by new crimes, they prove themselves to be incorrigible.