1. And the Lord spake unto Moses and to Aaron, saying unto them,
1. Et loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen et Aharon, dicendo ad eos:
2. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These are the beasts which ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth.
2. Loquimini ad filios Israel, dicendo, Haec sunt animalia quae comedetis ex omnibus animalibus quae sunt super terram:
3. Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat.
3. Omne dividens ungulam et findens fissuram ungularum, et ruminans inter animalia, illud come-detis.
4. Nevertheless, these shall ye not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the hoof: as the camel, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.
4. Veruntamen hoc non comedetis ex his quae ruminant, et ex his quae dividunt ungulam, camelum, quia ruminat, et ungulam ipse non divi-dit: immundus erit vobis.
5. And the coney, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.
5. Et cuniculum: quia ruminat, et ungulam non dividit, immundus erit vobis.
6. And the hare, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.
6. Et leporem: quia ruminat, et ungulam non dividit, imnmndus erit vobis.
7. And the swine, though he divide the hoof, and be cloven-footed, yet he cheweth not the cud; he is unclean to you.
7. Suem quoque: quia dividit ungulam, et findit fissuram ungulae, ipse vero non ruminat, immundus erit vobis.
8. Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcase shall ye not touch; they are unclean to you.
8. De carne eorum non comedetis, neque cadaver eorum tangetis: immunda erunt vobis.
9. These shall ye eat of all that are in the waters: Whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them shall ye eat.
9. Hoe autem comedetis ex omnibus quae sunt in aquis: onmia quibus sunt pinnae et squamae in aquis maris, et in fluminibus, illa comedetis.
10. And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of any living thing which is in the waters, they shall be an abomination unto you.
10. Omnia vero quibus non sunt pinnae et squamae in mari, et in fluminibus, tam de omni reptili aquatili, quam de omni anima vivente quae est in aquis: abominatio erunt vobis.
11. They shall be even an abomination unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, but ye shall have their carcases in abomination.
11. Abominatio, inquam, erunt vobis: de carne eorum non comedetis, et cadaver eorum abomina-bimini.
12. Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that shall be an abomination unto you.
12. Quicquid non habet pinnas et squamas in aquis, abominatio erit vobis.
13. And these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: The eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
13. Haec autem abominabimini ex volatilibus, (non comedetur: quia abominatio sunt:) aquilam, et gry-phum, et haliaeetum,
14. And the vulture, and the kite after his kind;
14. Et vulturem, et milvum secundum speciem suam.
15. Every raven after his kind;
15. Et omnem corvum secundum speciem suam.
16.And the owl, and the nighthawk, and the cuckoo, and the hawk after his kind,
16. Et filiam struthionis, et noctuam, et larum: et accipitrem secundum speciem suam.
17. And the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl,
17. Et nycticoracem, et mergulum, et ibin,
18. And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier-eagle,
18. Et porphyrionem, et pellicanum, et cygnum,
19. And the stork, the heron after her kind, and the lapwing, and the bat.
19. Et ciconiam, charadrium secundum speciem suam, et upupam, et vespertilionem.
20. All fowls that creep, going upon all four, shall be an abomination unto you.
20. Omne reptile alatum ambulans super quatuor pedes, abominatio erit vobis.
21. Yet these may ye eat, of every flying creeping thing that goeth upon all four, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth;
21. Veruntamen hoc comedetis ex omni reptili alato quod gradietur super quatuor pedes, cui sunt crura super pedes suos, quibus saliant super terram.
22. Even these of them ye may eat; the locust after his kind, and the bald locust after his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and the grasshopper after his kind.
22. Haec ex illis comedetis, locustam juxta speciem suam, et attacum juxta speciem suam, et ophiomacum secundum speciem suam, et bruchum secundum speciem suam.
23. But all other flying creeping things, which have four feet, shall be an abomination unto you.
23. Omne autem reliquum reptile alatum cui sunt quatuor pedes, abominatio erit vobis.
24. And for these ye shall be unclean: whosoever toucheth the carcase of them shall be unclean until the even.
24. Et his polluetis vos: quicunque tetigerit cadaver eorum, immundus erit usque ad vesperam
25. And whosoever beareth ought of the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.
25. Et quicunque portaverit cadavera, lavabit vestimenta sua, et immundus erit usque advesperam.
26. The carcases of every beast which divideth the hoof, and is not cloven-footed, nor cheweth the cud, are unclean unto you: every one that toucheth them shall be unclean.
26. Omne animal quod dividit ungulam, et fissuram non findit., et non ruminat, immunda erunt vobis: quicunque tetigerit ea, immundus erit.
27. And whatsoever goeth upon his paws, among all manner of beasts that go on all four, those are unclean unto you: whoso toucheth their carcase shall be unclean until the even.
27. Et quicquid graditur super volas suas inter omnes feras quae gradiuntur super quatuor pedes, immunda erunt vobis: quicunque tetigerit cadavera eorum, immundus erit usque ad vesperam.
28. And he that beareth the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: they are unclean unto you.
28. Et qui portaverit cadavera eorum, lavabit vestimenta, immundusque erit usque ad vesperam: immunda erunt vobis.
29. These also shall be unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; The weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind,
29. Et haec vobis immunda erunt inter reptilia quae reptant super terram, mustella, et mus, et rubeta secundum speciem suam.
30. And the ferret, and the chameleon, and the lizard, and the snail, and the mole.
30. Et mygale, et chameleon, et stellio, et lacerta, et talpa.
31. These are unclean to you among all that creep: whosoever doth touch them, when they be dead, shall be unclean until the even.
31. Ista immunda sunt vobis inter omnia reptilia: quicunque tetigerit illa postquam mortua fuerit, im-mundus erit usqne ad vesperam.
32. And upon whatsoever any of them, when they are dead, doth fall, it shall be unclean: whether it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel it be wherein any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the even; so it shall be cleansed.
32. Et omne super quod tetigerit aliquid ex eis postquam mortua fuerint, immudum erit, tam vas lineum quam vestis, aut pellis, aut saccus: omne vas in quo fieri solet opus, in aquam mittetur, et immundum erit usque ad vesperam, et mundabitur.
33. And every earthen vessel whereinto an.y of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be unclean; and ye shall break it.
33. Omne praeterea vas testaceum intra quod occiderit aliquid ex eis, quicquid erit in illo immundum erit, et ipsum confringetis.
34. Of all meat which may be eaten, that on which such water cometh shall be unclean; and all drink that may be drunk in every such vessel shall be unclean.
34. Omnis cibus qui comeditur, super quem venerit aqua, immundus erit, et omnis potus qui potatur in omni vase impuro, imnmndus erit.
35. And every thing whereupon any part of their carcase falleth. shall be unclean; whether it be oven, or ranges for pots, they shall be broken down:. for they are unclean, and shall be unclean unto you.
35. Et omne super quo ceciderit quicquam de cadavere eorum, imundum erit: clibanus et chytro-podes diruentur, immunda sunt, et immunda erunt vobis.
36. Nevertheless a fountain or pit, wherein there is plenty of water, shall be clean: but that which toucheth their carcase shall be unclean.
36. Veruntamen fons et cisterna congregationis aquarum erit munda: at quod tetigerit cadaver eorum, immundum erit.
37. And if any part of their carcase fall upon any sowing-seed which is to be sown, it shall be clean.
37. Praeterea si ceciderit quicquam de cadavere eorum super aliquod semen satum, quod seminabi-tur, mundum erit.
38. But if any water be put upon the seed, and any part of their carcase fall thereon, it shall be unclean unto you.
38. At quum fusa fuerit aqua super semen, et ceciderit quicquam de cadavere eorum super illud, immundum erit vobis.
39. And if any beast of which ye may eat die; he that toucheth the carcase thereof shall be unclean until the even.
39. Quum autem mortuum fuerit aliquod animal quod sit vobis in cibum, qui tetigerit cadaver ejus, immundus erit usque ad vesperam.
40. And he that eateth of the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: he also that beareth the carcase of it shall wash his dothes, and be unclean until the even.
40. Et qui comederit de cadavere ejus, lavabit vestimenta sua, immundusque erit usque ad vesperam: is quoque qui extulerit cadaver, lavabit vestimenta sua, atque immundus erit usque ad vesperam.
41. And every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth shall be an abomination; it shall not be eaten.
41. Et omne reptile reptans super terram, abominatio est, non comedetur.
42. Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon all four, or whatsoever hath more feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for they are an abomination.
42. Quicquid item graditur super pectus, et quicquid incedit super quatuor aut plures pedes inter omnia reptilia quae reptant super terram, non comedetis: quia abominatio sunt.
43. Ye shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping thing that creepeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with them, that ye should be defiled thereby.
43. Ne impuras reddatis animas vestras in omni reptili quod reptat, nec polluatis vos in eis, neque coinquinetis vos per ea.
44. For I am the Lord your God: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy; for I am holy: neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
44. Quia ego Jehova Deus vester, sanctificate ergo vos, et estote sancti, quia sanctus sum: et ne polluatis animas vestras per aliqua reptilia quae reptant super terram.
45. For I am the Lord that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy; for I am holy.
45. Ego enim sum Jehova, qui eduxi vos e terra AEgypti, ut essem vobis in Deum, et essetis sancti, quia sanctus sum.
46. This is the law of the beasts, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that creepeth upon the earth;
46. Haec est lex animalium terrestrium, et volatilium, atque omnium animalium viventium qae reptant, et omnium animantium reptantium super terram.
47. To make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the beast that may be eaten and the beast that may not be eaten.
47. Ad distinguendum inter im-mundum et mundum, et inter bes-tias qum comedi possunt, et bestias qum comedi non possunt.
Those who imagine that God here had regard to their health, as if discharging the office of a Physician, pervert by their vain speculation the whole force and utility of this law. I allow, indeed, that the meats which God permits to be eaten are wholesome, and best adapted for food; but, both from the preface, -- in which God admonished them that holiness was to be cultivated by the people whom He had chosen, -- as also from the (subsequent) abolition of this law, it is sufficiently plain that this distinction of meats was a part of that elementary instruction 3 under which God kept His ancient people.
"Let no man therefore judge you (says Paul) in meat or in drink, which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ." (Colossians 2:16-17.)
By which expressions he means, that what was spiritual had been shadowed forth in the external rite of abstaining from meats. To the same effect he elsewhere says, (Romans 14:14) that he knows and is persuaded, 4 that in the Lord Jesus Christ there is nothing unclean; viz., because Christ by his death has redeemed His people from slavish subjection. Hence it follows, that the prohibition of meats must be counted among the ceremonies, which were exercises in the worship of God. But here a question arises, how it is reconcilable that, even from the days of Noah, certain animals were unclean, and yet that all without exception were allowed to be eaten? I cannot agree with some in thinking that the distinction originally made by God grew obsolete by degrees; for God, in excepting the eating of blood only, makes a grant of whatsoever moves upon the earth as the food of the posterity of Noah. I therefore restrict to the sacrifices that uncleanness, with the knowledge of which the hearts of the Patriarchs were then inspired, nor do I doubt but that it was as lawful for Abraham, as well as for them, to eat swine's flesh as the flesh of oxen. Afterwards, when God imposed the yoke of the Law to repress the licentiousness of the people, He somewhat curtailed this general permission, not because He repented of His liberality; but because it was useful to compel in this way to obedience these almost rude and uncivilized people. But, since before the Law the condition of the saints was the same as our own, it must be remembered, as I said before, that, agreeably to the dictates of nature, they spontaneously avoided certain foods, just as at present no one will hunt wolves or lions for food, nor desire to eat serpents and other venomous animals. But the object of this ordinance was different, viz., lest they who were God's sacred and peculiar people, should freely and promiscuously communicate with the Gentiles.
Another question remains, how God should pronounce anything which He has created to be unclean; for, if an animal be rejected on account of its uncleanness, part of the reproach redounds to the Author Himself. Besides, this rejection seems also to be opposed to the first declaration of God, when, considering all things which He had made, He acknowledged them to be "very good." The solution is, that no animal was ever unclean in itself; but that this merely refers to its use. Thus in the tree of the knowledge of good and evil there was naturally neither fault nor harm, so that it should infect man by its pollution, yet he contracted death from it on account of God's prohibition. Wherefore, also, in this passage, God does not condemn His work in the animals, but, as to their being eaten, He would have them accounted unclean, that the people may abominate that which is forbidden them. In a word, it is only transgression which defiles: for the animals have never changed their nature; but it was in God's power to determine what He would have to be lawful or unlawful. Thus another objection is removed. Christ declares that
"not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man."
If any one should thence infer that harmless animals are improperly condemned, we must reply that they are not accounted unclean in themselves, but that the prohibition had a different object. For that doctrine was always true, that
"the kingdom of God is not meat and drink,"
but, when God forbade the Israelites to eat this or that kind of food, they were admonished by this ceremonial precept how abominable is the inward corruption of the heart. But by such elementary teaching they were prepared and led onwards to spiritual doctrine, that they might know that nothing defiles a man except what comes out of his mouth. Now-a-days the condition of believers is different. for liberty is obtained for them, since Christ, having abrogated the Law, has nailed
"the handwriting of ordinances to his cross."
"whether we eat, or drink, or whatsoever we do, to do all to the glory of God," (1 Corinthians 10:31;)
but in this respect we differ from the ancient people, that, being delivered from childish rudiments, we are directed only to what is spiritual, viz., that meat and drink are supplied to us by God, that we may serve in purity the Author of our life. But it was necessary to stimulate the Jews in various ways that they might be more attentive to this object; whilst God commanded them to keep their houses free from all uncleanness, and to be diligent in watching over the purity of their water, and all their vessels; that He might constantly set before their eyes how diligently He would have them to labor after true cleanliness; as follows in the end of the chapter.
1 "Rabins Juifs. " -- Fr.
3 "Pedagogiae." -- Lat. "La doctrine puerile." -- Fr.
4 Vide C. in loco, (Calvin Society Translation,) and Owen's note. C. evidently does not understand the words in the sense of our translation; "I know, and am persuaded by the Lord Jesus," -- but rather as I have given them in the text, supposing the Apostle to speak of Christ, not as the author of his persuasion, but as the remover of the uncleanness referred to. The Fr. is "il sait, et est persuade qu'il n'y a rien impur a ceux, qui croyent en Jesus Christ; "he knows and is persuaded that there is nothing unclean to them that believe in Jesus Christ.
5 Fr. "les Docteurs anciens." "Ungulam dividunt, qui secundum duo testamenta firmo se gradu innocentiae et justiciae statuunt. Judaei ruminant verba legis: sed ungulam non findunt, quia duo testamenta non recipiunt; nec in Patrem et Filium credunt:fidei gressum dividunt: heretici ungulam findunt, in Patrem et Filium credentes; seal doctrinam veritatis non ruminant." -- Glossa ordinaria, in loco.
6 "Toutefois ils gastent tout a la fin par une subtilite frivole, etc;" nevertheless they spoil all by a frivolous subtlety. -- Fr.
7 Addition in Fr. "qui ne prenent nulle refection de la doctrine de salut:" who receive no refreshment from the doctrine of salvation.
8 There is allusion to this in 1 Macc. 1:47, and 62-63. "Howbeit, many in Israel were fully resolved and confirmed in themselves, not to eat any unclean thing; wherefore they chose rather to die, that they might not be defiled with meats, and that they might not profane the holy covenant, so then they died."
9 Macrob., Saturnalia, 2 4.
10 "Hesychius, observing that no proper names are given here or elsewhere in Scripture, as I have said, to fishes, interprets it of the Gentiles gathered into the Church, whose names she does not desire to be written on earth, but in another generation, and in heaven; that these are born again in the waters of baptism; that they have fins, in the meditation of the law, which corresponds with the sublime and heavenly life; and scales, which may be easily removed, as also they may easily lay aside their ignorance, even as scales are said to have fallen from the eyes of Paul when he was converted. He declares that the adulterer, the covetous man, the drunkard, and the calumniator, have not fins, since their life is sordid and unclean; and says that the worshipper of idols cannot be counted among those who have scales, since he seems to be possessed of a hard and shellfish-like, and incurable ignorance of divine things." -- Lorinus, in loco.
11 "De contraindre les poures gens; " to constrain the poor people. -- Fr.
12 This word is added from the Fr.
13 "Quand ils se sont arrestez a l'observation une et simple de choses frivoles; comme si quelqu'un apprenoit 1' a, b, c, et qu'il ne luy chalust puis apres d'accoupler les lettres pour lire;" when they stopped at the bare and simple observation of frivolous things; as if one should learn the a, b, c, and cared not afterwards to join the letters together so as to read.--Fr.
14 Addition in Fr., "Comme si la religion eust este enclose en choses de neant;" as if religion had been comprised in things of nought.
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