A LIST OF THE CHIEF INTERPRETERS,
ANCIENT AND MODERN.
1. Jewish Commentators.
Schelomoh Jarchi Ben Jizchak, commonly called Solomon Jarchi, son of Isaac, known to the Jews by the word Raschi, made up of the initials of
David Kimchi, son of Joseph, known to the Jews by the name of Radak, from the initial letters of
Isaac Abarbanel, a Portuguese Jew, born at Lisbon, A.D. 1437, and died in Apulia, A.D. 1508. His comments on Ezekiel appeared first at Pesaro, in Italy, A.D. 1520; and then again at Amsterdam, A.D. 1641. He is highly esteemed for his extensive erudition and his clear style.
Shelomoh Ben Melech, a Spaniard, who lived at Constantinople in the middle of the sixteenth century. Under the title, The Perfection of Beauty, he wrote an elaborate commentary on the Old Testament, Constantinople, A.D. 1554, It was reprinted at Amsterdam, A.D. 1661 and 1685, fol., with the additions of Jacob Abendana. Tympius and Danzius have illustrated the manner in which he has improved upon or misunderstood D. Kimchi, according to Wolf, Bibliothec. Hebr., volume 4 pages 989, 991.
These references to Jewish interpreters will enable the reader to judge how far their opinion on the sense of a passage is decisive. It must be remembered that they all lived more than a thousand years after the Christian era., and that consequently they are not to be esteemed of decisive authority.
Further information may be obtained from Jo. Christ. Wolf's Bibliotheca Hebraee, volume 2. page 368, and elsewhere. Le Long and Boerner's Bib. Sac. ab. A. G. Masch, pt. 1. p. 135; and De Rossi's Annal. Hebrews Typ., Parmae, 1795, page 131; and Hartwell Horne, volume 2. part 2, where he has chiefly followed Carpzov.
2. The Early Fathers.
Origin (between A.D. 185 and 254) appears to have commented very voluminously on Ezekiel, as, from the fragments which remain, it appears that the twentieth volume only reached to chap. 11. Jerome has translated fourteen homilies of Origen's on Ezekiel into Latin, which are found in his works. Edit., Vallarsii, Venet. 1736, tom. 5 page 877; and in De La Rue's collected edition of Origen's Works, volume 3. page 325.
Ephrem of Edessa, who lived about A.D. 370, wrote a Commentary on this Prophet in Syriac, which is found in volume H of his works, as edited by Pet. Benedict, in Syriac and Latin, at Rome, 1740, fol.
Eusebius Hieronymus -- the well-known Jerome -- wrote fourteen books of Comments on Ezekiel. See his works, edit. Martiani, volume 3, and Valarsii, volume 5 Rosenmuller esteems his interpretations highly, and often quotes them at length. Smith's Biographical Dictionary, Art. Ineronymus, page 465, states, that the fourteen books of his Comments on this Prophet were written at intervals, between A.D. 411 and 414, having been commenced immediately after his Comments on Isaiah, but repeatedly broken off. See also the prolegomena to the 126th Epistle to Marcellinus, etc.; the Benedictine edition, volume 3. page 1072.
Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrus, in Syria, who lived about A.D. 420, wrote a Commentary on Ezekiel, found in his works, edited by Jac. Sirmond, volume 2 page 300; and in the edit. Halen., volume 2 part 2.
3. Commentators of the
Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.
Jo. Cecolampadh Commentarius in Ezekielem. Argentorati, 1534, 4to; Basileae, 1548, fol.
Victorini Strigelh Ezechiel Propheta ad Ebraicam veritatem recognitus, et argumentis atque scholiis illustratus. Lipsiae, 1564, 1575, 1579, 8vo.
Hectoris Pinti Commentarius in Ezechielem. Salmanticae, 1568, fol.; Antverp, 1570, 1582; Lugduni, 1581, 4to; Ibid. 1584, fol.; Colon., 1615, 4to.
Phil. Heilbrunner Ezechielis Prophetae vaticinia illustrata. Lavingae, 1587, 8vo.
Hieron. Padri Et Jo. Bapt. Villalpandi, in Ezechielem Explanationes. Romae, 1596, 3 vols. fol.
This work is much praised and quoted by Rosenmuller. The first volume contains the Comments of Pradus on the first six-and-twenty chapters: he died before it was published; so that his coadjutor edited it, and compiled the two latter volumes. They had access to a Catena Patrum Graecorum in Ezechielem, preserved in the Vatican Library, which they inserted, translated into Latin by a member of their own order; and they enriched their work with valuable illustrations of the city and temple at Jerusalem. A full description of the work will be found in den Nachrichten von einer Hallischen Bibliothek, part 8 page 18, and foll.
Amandi Polani A Polansdorf Commentaria in Ezechielem. Basileae, 1601, 4to; and 1608, 4to.
A digest of public lectures delivered in the old Academy at Basil.
Franc. Junh Commentaria in Ezechielem Prophetam. Genevae, 1609, fol.; and 1610, 8vo.
Jo. Maldonati Commentarii in Ezechielem. Moguntiae, 1611, small 4to.
This work, by a learned Jesuit, is very explanatory. The Latin translation is good, and the Jewish interpretations freely used. Many Hebrew words we have found well explained.
Gasper Sancth Commentarius in Ezechielem. Lugduni, 1612, 1619, fol.
Jac. Brandmulleri Commentarius in Ezechielem. Basil. 1621, 4to.
An Exposition of the Prophecy of Ezekiel. By GEORGE GREENHILL. London, 1645. 5 vols. 4to.
Doctrinal and practical lectures delivered to a congregation at Stepney by the writer, a member of the Westminster Assembly of Divines. Excellent of its kind, but not critical. Various editions, originally published at different times, from 1645 to 1658.
Jo. Cocceh Commentarius in Ezekielem. 1668, 4to.
4. Later Commentators.
George Calixti Scholae Propheticae ex Prelectionibus in...Ezekielem collectae. Quedlinburgi, 1715, 4to.
Das Zeugniss Iesu aus dem Propheten Ezechiel durch den Geist der Weissagung dargethan von Wilhelm Petersen. Francofurti, 1719, 4to.
Jo. Frid. Starckh, V.D.M., Francofurtani, Commentarius in Prophetam Ezechielem. Francof. ad Moen., 1731, 4to.
A laborious, useful, and practical Commentary.
George Costard Dissertationes H. Critico-Sacrae quarum prima explicata Ezech. ch. 13:18. Oxon. 1752, 8vo.
Ezechiel aufs Neue aus dem Hebraischen ubersetzt, und mit kurgen Anmerkungen fur unstudirte Leser begleitet von Joh. Carl. Volborth. Goett. 1787.
For an account of this work, see Eichhorn's Allgem. Biblioth. der Bib. Lit., volume 1. page 807.
An Attempt towards an Improved Version, a Metrical Arrangement, and an Explanation of the Prophet Ezekiel. By Wm. Newcome, D.D., Bishop of Waterford, and afterwards Archbishop of Armagh. Dublin, 1788, 4to.
This is an invaluable work: to the mere English reader of this Prophet. Tegg, in his edition of 1836, 1 volume 8vo, page 294, has rendered it very accessible: it is safe, sound, and judicious, with excellent notes. See also Eichhorn Bibl., volume 2. page 131; and J. D. Michaelis Neue orient. u. exeget. Bibli., pt. 6 page 87.
Hermanni Venema Lectiones Academicae ad Ezechielem. Part 1 usque ad cap. 21 Edidit. Jo. Hen. Verschuir. Leovard, 1790, 4to, 2 parts. See again, Eich. Bibl., volume 3. page 694.
Jo. Godofr Eichhorn die Biblischen Propheten, volume 2 and volume 3. Ezekielis Vaticinia. Gotting. 1818, 1819.
The Temple of Ezekiel; viz., an Elucidation of the 40th and following Chapters. By Solomon Bennett, R.A., of Berlin. London, 1824. 4to.
Em. F. Rosenmuller's Scholia in Ezekielem. 2 vols. 8vo, 2d edition. 1826. Lipsiae.
Invaluable. The Editor is much indebted to it for many references to other valuable works.
Havernick's Introduction to Ezekiel, translated from the German by the Revelation F.W. Gotch, M.A. See Kitto's Journal of Sacred Literature, No. 1, January 1848; also the Article "Ezekiel" -- Kitto's Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature.
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