1. And the Lord spake unto Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the first month of the second year after they were come out of the land of Egypt, saying,
1. Loquutus est autem Jehova ad Mosen in deserto Sinai, anno secundo quo egressi sunt e terra Aegypti, mense primo, dicendo:
2. Let the children of Israel also keep the passover at his appointed season.
2. Facient filii Israel Pesah in tempore suo.
3. In the fourteenth day of this month, at even, ye shall keep it in his appointed season: according to all the rites of it, and according to all the ceremonies thereof, shall ye keep it.
3. Decimoquarto die mensis hujus inter duas vesperas facietis illud tempore suo: secundum omnes titus suos, et juxta omnes ceremonias suas facietis illud.
4. And Moses spake unto the children of Israel, that they should keep the passover.
4. Alloquutus est itaque Moses filios Israel ut facerent Pesah.
5. And they kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the first month at even in the wilderness of Sinai: according to all that the Lord commanded Moses, so did the children of Israel.
5. Feceruntque Pesah in primo mense, decimoquarto die ejusdem inter duas vesperas in deserto Sinai: secundum omnia quae praeceperat Jehova Mosi, sic fecerunt filii Israel.
6. And there were certain men, who were defiled by the dead body of a man, that they could not keep the passover on that day: and they came before Moses and before Aaron on that day.
6. Fuerunt autem quidam immundi super anima hominis, qui non potuerunt facere Pesah die ipso: tunc accesserunt coram Mose et coram Aharon ipso die.
7. And those men said unto him, We are defiled by the dead body of a man: wherefore are we kept back, that we may not offer an offering of the Lord in his appointed season among the children of Israel?
7. Dixeruntque homines illi ad cum, Nos immundi sumus super anima hominis, ut quid prohibemur ne offeranms oblationem Jehovae tempore suo in medio filiorum Israel?
8. And Moses said unto them, Stand still, and I will hear what the Lord will command concerning you.
8. Et dixit ad eos Moses, State, et audiam quid praecipiat Jehova pro vobis.
9. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying,
9. Loquutus est autem Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
10. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, If any man of you, or of your posterity, shall be unclean by reason of a dead body, or be in a journey afar off, yet he shall keep the passover unto the Lord.
10. Alloquere filios Israel, dicendo, Quicunque fuerit immundus super anima, aut fuerit in via remota, ex vobis, vel ex generationibus vestris, faciet Pesah Jehovae.
11. The fourteenth day of the second month at even they shall keep it, and eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.
11. Mense secundo, decimoquarto die inter duas vesperas facient illud: cum infermentatis: et herbis amaris comedent illud.
12. They shall leave none of it unto the morning, nor break any bone of it: according to all the ordinances of the passover they shall keep it.
12. Non relinquent quicquam ex eo usque mane, neque os confringent in co: seeundum onmes ritus Pesah facient illud.
13. But the man that is clean, and is not in a journey, and forbeareth to keep the passover, even the same soul shall be cut off from his people: because he brought not the offering of the Lord in his appointed season, that man shall bear his sin.
13. Vir autem qui est mundus, aut in via non fuerit, et cessaverit facere Pesah, excidetur anima illa e populis suis, quia oblation era Jehovae non obtulit tempore suo, peccatum suum portabit vir ille.
14. And if a stranger shall sojourn among you, and will keep the passover unto the Lord; according to the ordinance of the passover, and according to the manner thereof, so shall he do: ye shall have one ordinance, both for the stranger, and for him that was born in the land.
14. Si vero habitaverit apud vos peregrinus, et fecerit Pesah Jehovae, juxta ritum Pesah, et juxta ceremonias ejus sic faciet: ritus unus erit vobis, tam peregrino quam indigenae terrae.
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses. We may infer how great was the carelessness, nay, even the ingratitude of the people, from the fact that God recalls to their recollection the celebration of the passover, before a year had elapsed. For what would they do fifty years hence, if there was any danger of their falling into forgetfulness of it in so short a time? If they had been voluntarily assiduous in their duty, it would have been unnecessary to repeat what had been so severely enjoined even with threats. But now God, as the year came to a close, reminds them that the day approaches on which He had fixed the passover to be held; that the Israelites might more surely learn that this solemn sacrifice is of yearly recurrence, and thus that it was sinful to omit it. He then commands that all the ceremonies should be diligently observed, and that they should not corrupt the pure institution with any strange leaven. Finally, their obedience is praised, because they had neither added anything to, nor diminished anything from, God's command.
6. And there were certain men. A question is here introduced incidentally, viz., what must be done, if any sudden defilement should prevent any persons from celebrating the passover with the rest; since God would expunge from amongst His people whosoever should not observe this memorial of their redemption? Although the history is here touched upon, yet because the doctrine as to the just and pure observance of the passover is its main subject, nay, because this passage is a kind of supplement to the general command, I have thought it proper to connect them here. Moses says that certain men were found defiled over the soul of a man, 1 viz., either because they had touched a dead body, or had gone into a house of mourning, or had been present at the funeral of a dead man; for the Law accounted such to be polluted, as will be seen elsewhere. Hence arose a kind of discrepancy; because, whilst the unclean were not permitted to approach the sacred feast, it was sinful to neglect this exercise of religion. Even Moses confessed that he was perplexed as to this matter, since he sought for time to inquire of God. The extraordinary modesty of the Prophet here displays itself, in not daring to pronounce on a doubtful matter, although he was their lawgiver. But he thus more clearly shewed that he by no means gave the Law out of his own head, since he did not dare even to interpret it, except after receiving a new command. God, therefore, by laying down a special exception, takes away the contradiction (ajntinomi>an). For to those, whom just necessity excused, He assigns the second month, that they too might be partakers of the passover, though they might not change the day at their own option. By this privilege He not only relieves the unclean, but also those who might be at a distance 2 from the society of their fellows, concerning whom the same question might be raised. For it was not suitable that any one should eat the passover by himself; and even if a family were too small, the neighbors were called in, that the number might be sufficient to eat the whole lamb; and therefore, the traveler abroad, or even at home, if he was far from his friends, had need of some remedy to preserve him from punishment. Moreover, we must remember that this was not a concession to despisers, nor was profane carelessness encouraged by this indulgence; but it was only a provision for the necessity of those who had inadvertently contracted defilement, or who could not escape it, or who were unexpectedly delayed on their journey. For they are said to have complained of their own accord to Moses that, on account of their uncleanness, they were prevented from eating the paschal lamb; and hence we infer their pious solicitude. For such, then, another passover is permitted; that, in the second month, they might recover what they had lost without their fault. Meanwhile it is strictly enjoined on them that they should change nothing in the whole ceremony; and on this account, what we have already seen is again repeated, viz., that they should eat it with bitter herbs, that they should not break a bone of it, and the like. But, that the permission might not be extended too far, the penalty is again denounced, if any, except for these two causes, should have neglected to celebrate the passover. For we know how men, unless they are restrained, permit themselves too great license in searching out excuses. It is more clearly expressed here than before, that the paschal lamb was a victim; 3 for it is said in verse 7, "wherefore are we kept back, that we may not offer an offering?" and in ver. 13, "because he brought not the offering of the Lord." I call attention to this, because there are some who think that the paschal lamb was so slain as not to be the offering of a sacrifice; whereas Paul distinctly teaches that a victim was offered in it, and then the feast annexed to it; for such is the meaning of his words, "Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us; therefore let us keep the feast," etc. (1 Corinthians 5:7, 8.) Whenever the word "soul" 4 is used for a dead body, I take it to be a tolerably common metaphor of the Hebrew language.