Areopagus - the Latin form of the Greek word rendered "Mars' hill."
But it denotes also the council or court of justice which met in the open
air on the hill. It was a rocky height to the west of the Acropolis at Athens,
on the south-east summit of which the council was held which was constituted
by Solon, and consisted of nine archons or chief magistrates who were then
in office, and the ex-archons of blameless life.
On this hill of Mars (Gr. Ares) Paul delivered his memorable address
to the "men of Athens" (Acts 17:22-31).
Aretas - the father-in-law of Herod Antipas,
and king of Arabia Petraea. His daughter returned to him on the occasion
of her husband's entering into an adulterous alliance with Herodias, the
wife of Herod-Philip, his half-brother (Luke 3:19, 20; Mark 6:17; Matt.
14:3). This led to a war between Aretas and Herod Antipas. Herod's army
was wholly destroyed (A.D. 36). Aretas, taking advantage of the complications
of the times on account of the death of the Emperor Tiberius (A.D. 37),
took possession of Damascus (2 Cor. 11:32; comp. Acts 9:25). At this time
Paul returned to Damascus from Arabia.
Argob - stony heap, an "island," as
it has been called, of rock about 30 miles by 20, rising 20 or 30 feet
above the table-land of Bashan; a region of crags and chasms wild and
rugged in the extreme. On this "island" stood sixty walled cities, ruled
over by Og. It is called Trachonitis ("the rugged region") in the New
Testament (Luke 3:1). These cities were conquered by the Israelites (Deut.
3:4; 1 Kings 4:13). It is now called the Lejah. Here "sixty walled cities
are still traceable in a space of 308 square miles. The architecture is
ponderous and massive. Solid walls 4 feet thick, and stones on one another
without cement; the roofs enormous slabs of basaltic rock, like iron;
the doors and gates are of stone 18 inches thick, secured by ponderous
bars. The land bears still the appearance of having been called the 'land
of giants' under the giant Og." "I have more than once entered a deserted
city in the evening, taken possession of a comfortable house, and spent
the night in peace. Many of the houses in the ancient cities of Bashan
are perfect, as if only finished yesterday. The walls are sound, the roofs
unbroken, and even the window-shutters in their places. These ancient
cities of Bashan probably contain the very oldest specimens of domestic
architecture in the world" (Porter's Giant Cities). (See BASHAN.)
Arieh - the lion, the name of one of the
body-guard slain with Pekahiah at Samaria (2 Kings 15:25) by the conspirator
Ariel - the lion of God. (1.) One of the
chief men sent by Ezra to procure Levites for the sanctuary (Ezra 8:16).
(2.) A symbolic name for Jerusalem (Isa. 29:1, 2, 7) as "victorious
under God," and in Ezek. 43:15, 16, for the altar (marg., Heb. 'ariel)
of burnt offerings, the secret of Israel's lion-like strength.
Arimathea - a "city of the Jews" (Luke 23:51),
the birth-place of Joseph in whose sepulchre our Lord was laid (Matt. 27:57,
60; John 19:38). It is probably the same place as Ramathaim in Ephraim,
and the birth-place of Samuel (1 Sam. 1:1, 19). Others identify it with
Ramleh in Dan, or Rama (q.v.) in Benjamin (Matt. 2:18).
Arioch - lion-like, venerable. (1.)
A king of Ellasar who was confederate with Chedorlamer (Gen. 14:1,9).
The tablets recently discovered by Mr. Pinches (see CHALDEA) show the
true reading is Eri-Aku of Larsa. This Elamite name meant "servant of
the moon-god." It was afterwards changed into Rimsin, "Have mercy, O moon-god."
(2.) Dan. 2:14.
Aristarchus - best ruler, native of Thessalonica
(Acts 20:4), a companion of Paul (Acts 19:29; 27:2). He was Paul's "fellow-prisoner"
at Rome (Col. 4:10; Philemon 1:24).
Aristobulus - a Roman mentioned in Paul's
Epistle to the Romans (16:10), whose "household" is saluated.
Ark - Noah's ark, a building of gopher-wood,
and covered with pitch, 300 cubits long, 50 cubits broad, and 30 cubits
high (Gen. 6:14-16); an oblong floating house of three stories, with a door
in the side and a window in the roof. It was 100 years in building (Gen.
5:32; 7:6). It was intended to preserve certain persons and animals from
the deluge which God was about to bring over the earth. It contained eight
persons (Gen. 7:13; 2 Pet. 2:5), and of all "clean" animals seven pairs,
and of "unclean" one pair, and of birds seven pairs of each sort (Gen. 7:2,
3). It was in the form of an oblong square, with flat bottom and sloping
roof. Traditions of the Deluge, by which the race of man was swept from
the earth, and of the ark of Noah have been found existing among all nations.
The ark of bulrushes in which the infant Moses was laid (Ex. 2:3) is
called in the Hebrew teebah, a word derived from the Egyptian teb,
meaning "a chest." It was daubed with slime and with pitch. The bulrushes
of which it was made were the papyrus reed.
The sacred ark is designated by a different Hebrew word, 'aron',
which is the common name for a chest or coffer used for any purpose (Gen.
50:26; 2 Kings 12:9, 10). It is distinguished from all others by such
titles as the "ark of God" (1 Sam. 3:3), "ark of the covenant" (Josh.
3:6; Heb. 9:4), "ark of the testimony" (Ex. 25:22). It was made of acacia
or shittim wood, a cubit and a half broad and high and two cubits long,
and covered all over with the purest gold. Its upper surface or lid, the
mercy-seat, was surrounded with a rim of gold; and on each of the two
sides were two gold rings, in which were placed two gold-covered poles
by which the ark could be carried (Num. 7:9; 10:21; 4:5,19, 20; 1 Kings
8:3, 6). Over the ark, at the two extremities, were two cherubim, with
their faces turned toward each other (Lev. 16:2; Num. 7:89). Their outspread
wings over the top of the ark formed the throne of God, while the ark
itself was his footstool (Ex. 25:10-22; 37:1-9). The ark was deposited
in the "holy of holies," and was so placed that one end of the poles by
which it was carried touched the veil which separated the two apartments
of the tabernacle (1 Kings 8:8). The two tables of stone which constituted
the "testimony" or evidence of God's covenant with the people (Deut. 31:26),
the "pot of manna" (Ex. 16:33), and "Aaron's rod that budded" (Num. 17:10),
were laid up in the ark (Heb. 9:4). (See TABERNACLE) The ark and the sanctuary
were "the beauty of Israel" (Lam. 2:1). During the journeys of the Israelites
the ark was carried by the priests in advance of the host (Num. 4:5, 6;
10:33-36; Ps. 68:1; 132:8). It was borne by the priests into the bed of
the Jordan, which separated, opening a pathway for the whole of the host
to pass over (Josh. 3:15, 16; 4:7, 10, 11, 17, 18). It was borne in the
procession round Jericho (Josh. 6:4, 6, 8, 11, 12). When carried it was
always wrapped in the veil, the badgers' skins, and blue cloth, and carefully
concealed even from the eyes of the Levites who carried it. After the
settlement of Israel in Palestine the ark remained in the tabernacle at
Gilgal for a season, and was then removed to Shiloh till the time of Eli,
between 300 and 400 years (Jer. 7:12), when it was carried into the field
of battle so as to secure, as they supposed, victory to the Hebrews, and
was taken by the Philistines (1 Sam. 4:3-11), who sent it back after retaining
it seven months (1 Sam. 5:7, 8). It remained then at Kirjath-jearim (7:1,2)
till the time of David (twenty years), who wished to remove it to Jerusalem;
but the proper mode of removing it having been neglected, Uzzah was smitten
with death for putting "forth his hand to the ark of God," and in consequence
of this it was left in the house of Obed-edom in Gath-rimmon for three
months (2 Sam. 6:1-11), at the end of which time David removed it in a
grand procession to Jerusalem, where it was kept till a place was prepared
for it (12-19). It was afterwards deposited by Solomon in the temple (1
Kings 8:6-9). When the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and plundered the
temple, the ark was probably taken away by Nebuchadnezzar and destroyed,
as no trace of it is afterwards to be found. The absence of the ark from
the second temple was one of the points in which it was inferior to the
Arkite - (Gen. 10:17; 1 Chr. 1:15), a designation
of certain descendants from the Phoenicians or Sidonians, the inhabitants
of Arka, 12 miles north of Tripoli, opposite the northern extremity of Lebanon.
Arm - used to denote power (Ps. 10:15; Ezek.
30:21; Jer. 48:25). It is also used of the omnipotence of God (Ex. 15:16;
Ps. 89:13; 98:1; 77:15; Isa. 53:1; John 12:38; Acts 13:17)
Armageddon - occurs only in Rev. 16:16 (R.V.,
"Har-Magedon"), as symbolically designating the place where the "battle
of that great day of God Almighty" (ver. 14) shall be fought. The word properly
means the "mount of Megiddo." It is the scene of the final conflict between
Christ and Antichrist. The idea of such a scene was suggested by the Old
Testament great battle-field, the plain of Esdraelon (q.v.).
Armenia - high land, occurs only in
Authorized Version, 2 Kings 19:37; in Revised Version, "Ararat," which
is the Hebrew word. A country in western Asia lying between the Caspian
and the Black Sea. Here the ark of Noah rested after the Deluge (Gen.
8:4). It is for the most part high table-land, and is watered by the Aras,
the Kur, the Euphrates, and the Tigris. Ararat was properly the name of
a part of ancient Armenia. Three provinces of Armenia are mentioned in
Jer. 51:27, Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz. Some, however, think Minni a
contraction for Armenia. (See ARARAT.)
Armoni - inhabitant of a fortress, the first-named
of the two sons of Saul and Rizpah. He was delivered up to the Gibeonites
by David, and hanged by them (2 Sam. 21:8, 9).
Armour - is employed in the English Bible
to denote military equipment, both offensive and defensive.
(1.) The offensive weapons were different at different periods of history.
The "rod of iron" (Ps. 2:9) is supposed to mean a mace or crowbar, an
instrument of great power when used by a strong arm. The "maul" (Prov.
25:18; cognate Hebrew word rendered "battle-axe" in Jer. 51:20, and "slaughter
weapon" in Ezek. 9:2) was a war-hammer or martel. The "sword" is the usual
translation of hereb, which properly means "poniard." The real
sword, as well as the dirk-sword (which was always double-edged), was
also used (1 Sam. 17:39; 2 Sam. 20:8; 1 Kings 20:11). The spear was another
offensive weapon (Josh. 8:18; 1 Sam. 17:7). The javelin was used by light
troops (Num. 25:7, 8; 1 Sam. 13:22). Saul threw a javelin at David (1
Sam. 19:9, 10), and so virtually absolved him from his allegiance. The
bow was, however, the chief weapon of offence. The arrows were carried
in a quiver, the bow being always unbent till the moment of action (Gen.
27:3; 48:22; Ps. 18:34). The sling was a favourite weapon of the Benjamites
(1 Sam. 17:40; 1 Chr. 12:2. Comp. 1 Sam. 25:29).
(2.) Of the defensive armour a chief place is assigned to the shield
or buckler. There were the great shield or target (the tzinnah),
for the protection of the whole person (Gen. 15:1; Ps. 47:9; 1 Sam. 17:7;
Prov. 30:5), and the buckler (Heb. mageen) or small shield (1 Kings
10:17; Ezek. 26:8). In Ps. 91:4 "buckler" is properly a roundel appropriated
to archers or slingers. The helmet (Ezek. 27:10; 1 Sam. 17:38), a covering
for the head; the coat of mail or corselet (1 Sam. 17:5), or habergeon
(Neh. 4;16), harness or breat-plate (Rev. 9:9), for the covering of the
back and breast and both upper arms (Isa. 59:17; Eph. 6:14). The cuirass
and corselet, composed of leather or quilted cloth, were also for the
covering of the body. Greaves, for the covering of the legs, were worn
in the time of David (1 Sam. 17:6). Reference is made by Paul (Eph. 6:14-17)
to the panoply of a Roman soldier. The shield here is the thureon, a door-like
oblong shield above all, i.e., covering the whole person, not the small
round shield. There is no armour for the back, but only for the front.
Armour-bearer - an officer selected by kings
and generals because of his bravery, not only to bear their armour, but
also to stand by them in the time of danger. They were the adjutants of
our modern armies (Judg. 9:54; 1 Sam. 14:7; 16:21; 31:6).
Armoury - the place in which armour was
deposited when not used (Neh. 3:19; Jer. 50:25). At first each man of the
Hebrews had his own arms, because all went to war. There were no arsenals
or magazines for arms till the time of David, who had a large collection
of arms, which he consecrated to the Lord in his tabernacle (1 Sa,. 21:9;
2 Sam. 8:7-12; 1 Chr. 26:26, 27).
Army - The Israelites marched out of Egypt
in military order (Ex. 13:18, "harnessed;" marg., "five in a rank"). Each
tribe formed a battalion, with its own banner and leader (Num. 2:2; 10:14).
In war the army was divided into thousands and hundreds under their several
captains (Num. 31:14), and also into families (Num. 2:34; 2 Chr. 25:5; 26:12).
From the time of their entering the land of Canaan to the time of the kings,
the Israelites made little progress in military affairs, although often
engaged in warfare. The kings introduced the custom of maintaining a bodyguard
(the Gibborim; i.e., "heroes"), and thus the nucleus of a standing army
was formed. Saul had an army of 3,000 select warriors (1 Sam. 13:2; 14:52;
24:2). David also had a band of soldiers around him (1 Sam. 23:13; 25:13).
To this band he afterwards added the Cherethites and the Pelethites (2 Sam.
15:18; 20:7). At first the army consisted only of infantry (1 Sam. 4:10;
15:4), as the use of horses was prohibited (Deut. 17:16); but chariots and
horses were afterwards added (2 Sam. 8:4; 1 Kings 10:26, 28, 29; 1 Kings
9:19). In 1 Kings 9:22 there is given a list of the various gradations of
rank held by those who composed the army. The equipment and maintenance
of the army were at the public expense (2 Sam. 17:28, 29; 1 Kings 4:27;
10:16, 17; Judg. 20:10). At the Exodus the number of males above twenty
years capable of bearing arms was 600,000 (Ex. 12:37). In David's time it
mounted to the number of 1,300,000 (2 Sam. 24:9).
Arnon - swift, the southern boundary of
the territory of Israel beyond Jordan, separating it from the land of Moab
(Deut. 3:8, 16). This river (referred to twenty-four times in the Bible)
rises in the mountains of Gilead, and after a circuitous course of about
80 miles through a deep ravine it falls into the Dead Sea nearly opposite
Engedi. The stream is almost dry in summer. It is now called el-Mujeb. The
territory of the Amorites extended from the Arnon to the Jabbok.
Aroer - ruins. (1.) A town on the north
bank of the Arnon (Deut. 4:48; Judg. 11:26; 2 Kings 10:33), the southern
boundary of the kingdom of Sihon (Josh. 12:2). It is now called Arair, 13
miles west of the Dead Sea.
(2.) One of the towns built by the tribe of Gad (Num. 32:34) "before
Rabbah" (Josh. 13:25), the Ammonite capital. It was famous in the history
of Jephthah (Judg. 11:33) and of David (2 Sam. 24:5). (Comp. Isa. 17:2;
2 Kings 15:29.)
(3.) A city in the south of Judah, 12 miles south-east of Beersheba,
to which David sent presents after recovering the spoil from the Amalekites
at Ziklag (1 Sam. 30:26, 28). It was the native city of two of David's
warriors (1 Chr. 11:44). It is now called Ar'arah.
Arpad - (Isa. 10:9; 36:19; 37:13), also
Arphad, support, a Syrian city near Hamath, along with which it is invariably
mentioned (2 Kings 19:13; 18:34; Isa. 10:9), and Damascus (Jer. 49:23).
After a siege of three years it fell (B.C. 742) before the Assyrian king
Tiglath-pileser II. Now Tell Erfud.
Arphaxad - son of Shem, born the year after
the Deluge. He died at the age of 438 years (Gen. 11:10-13; 1 Chr. 1:17,
18; Luke 3:36). He dwelt in Mesopotamia, and became, according to the Jewish
historian Josephus, the progenitor of the Chaldeans. The tendency is to
recognize in the word the name of the country nearest the ancient domain
of the Chaldeans. Some regard the word as an Egypticized form of the territorial
name of Ur Kasdim, or Ur of the Chaldees.
Arrows - At first made of reeds, and then
of wood tipped with iron. Arrows are sometimes figuratively put for lightning
(Deut. 32:23, 42; Ps. 7:13; 18:14; 144:6; Zech. 9:14). They were used in
war as well as in the chase (Gen. 27:3; 49:23). They were also used in divination
The word is frequently employed as a symbol of calamity or disease inflicted
by God (Job 6:4; 34:6; Ps. 38:2; Deut. 32:23. Comp. Ezek. 5:16), or of
some sudden danger (Ps. 91:5), or bitter words (Ps. 64:3), or false testimony
Artaxerxes - the Greek form of the name
of several Persian kings. (1.) The king who obstructed the rebuilding of
the temple (Ezra 4:7). He was probably the Smerdis of profane history.
(2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 7:1, in the seventh year (B.C. 458)
of whose reign Ezra led a second colony of Jews back to Jerusalem, was
probably Longimanus, who reigned for forty years (B.C. 464-425); the grandson
of Darius, who, fourteen years later, permitted Nehemiah to return and
Artificer - a person engaged in any kind
of manual occupation (Gen. 4:22; Isa. 3:3).
Artillery - 1 Sam. 20:40, (Heb. keli, meaning
"apparatus;" here meaning collectively any missile weapons, as arrows and
lances. In Revised Version, "weapons"). This word is derived from the Latin
artillaria = equipment of war.
Arvad - wandering, (Ezek. 27:8), a small
island and city on the coast of Syria, mentioned as furnishing mariners
and soldiers for Tyre. The inhabitants were called Arvadites. The name is
written Aruada or Arada in the Tell-el-Amarna tablets.
Asa - physician, son of Abijah and grandson
of Rehoboam, was the third king of Judah. He was zealous in maintaining
the true worship of God, and in rooting all idolatry, with its accompanying
immoralities, out of the land (1 Kings 15:8-14). The Lord gave him and his
land rest and prosperity. It is recorded of him, however, that in his old
age, when afflicted, he "sought not to the Lord, but to the physicians"
(comp. Jer. 17:5). He died in the forty-first year of his reign, greatly
honoured by his people (2 Chr. 16:1-13), and was succeeded by his son Jehoshaphat.
Asahel - made by God, the youngest son of
Zeruiah, David's sister. He was celebrated for his swiftness of foot. When
fighting against Ish-bosheth at Gibeon, in the army of his brother Joab,
he was put to death by Abner, whom he pursued from the field of battle (2
Sam. 2:18, 19). He is mentioned among David's thirty mighty men (2 Sam.
23:24; 1 Chr. 11:26). Others of the same name are mentioned (2 Chr. 17:8;
31:13; Ezra 10:15).
Asaph - convener, or collector. (1.) A Levite;
one of the leaders of David's choir (1 Chr. 6:39). Psalms 50 and 73-83 inclusive
are attributed to him. He is mentioned along with David as skilled in music,
and a "seer" (2 Chr. 29:30). The "sons of Asaph," mentioned in 1 Chr. 25:1,
2 Chr. 20:14, and Ezra 2:41, were his descendants, or more probably a class
of poets or singers who recognized him as their master.
(2.) The "recorder" in the time of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:18, 37).
(3.) The "keeper of the king's forest," to whom Nehemiah requested from
Artaxerxes a "letter" that he might give him timber for the temple at
Jerusalem (Neh. 2:8).
Ascension - See CHRIST.
Asenath - an Egyptian name, meaning "gift
of the sun-god", daughter of Potipherah, priest of On or Heliopolis, wife
of Joseph (Gen. 41:45). She was the mother of Manasseh and Ephraim (50-52;
Ash - (Heb. o'ren, "tremulous"), mentioned
only Isa. 44:14 (R.V., "fir tree"). It is rendered "pine tree" both in the
LXX. and Vulgate versions. There is a tree called by the Arabs aran,
found still in the valleys of Arabia Petraea, whose leaf resembles that
of the mountain ash. This may be the tree meant. Our ash tree is not known
Ashdod - stronghold, a Philistine city (Josh.
15:47), about midway between Gaza and Joppa, and 3 miles from the Mediterranean.
It was one of the chief seats of the worship of Dagon (1 Sam. 5:5). It belonged
to the tribe of Judah (Josh. 15:47), but it never came into their actual
possession. It was an important city, as it stood on the highroad from Egypt
to Palestine, and hence was strongly fortified (2 Chr. 26:6; Isa. 20:1).
Uzziah took it, but fifty years after his death it was taken by the Assyrians
(B.C. 758). According to Sargon's record, it was captured by him in B.C.
711. The only reference to it in the New Testament, where it is called Azotus,
is in the account of Philip's return from Gaza (Acts 8:40). It is now called
Ashdoth-pisgah - (Deut. 3:17; Josh. 12:3;
13:20) in Authorized Version, but in Revised Version translated "slopes
of Pisgah." In Deut. 4:49 it is translated in the Authorized Version "springs
of Pisgah." The name Ashdoth is translated "springs" in the Authorized Version,
but "slopes" in the Revised Version, of Josh. 10:40 and 12:8. It has been
identified with the springs under Mount Nebo, now called 'Ayun Musa.
Asher - happy, Jacob's eigth son; his mother
was Zilpah, Leah's handmaid (Gen. 30:13). Of the tribe founded by him nothing
is recorded beyond its holding a place in the list of the tribes (35:26;
46:17; Ex. 1:4, etc.) It increased in numbers twenty-nine percent, during
the thirty-eight years' wanderings. The place of this tribe during the march
through the desert was between Dan and Naphtali (Num. 2:27). The boundaries
of the inheritance given to it, which contained some of the richest soil
in Palestine, and the names of its towns, are recorded in Josh. 19:24-31;
Judg. 1:31, 32. Asher and Simeon were the only tribes west of the Jordan
which furnished no hero or judge for the nation. Anna the prophetess was
of this tribe (Luke 2:36).
Asherah - and pl. Asherim in Revised
Version, instead of "grove" and "groves" of the Authorized Version. This
was the name of a sensual Canaanitish goddess Astarte, the feminine of
the Assyrian Ishtar. Its symbol was the stem of a tree deprived of its
boughs, and rudely shaped into an image, and planted in the ground. Such
religious symbols ("groves") are frequently alluded to in Scripture (Ex.
34:13; Judg. 6:25; 2 Kings 23:6; 1 Kings 16:33, etc.). These images were
also sometimes made of silver or of carved stone (2 Kings 21:7; "the graven
image of Asherah," R.V.). (See GROVE.).
Ashes - The ashes of a red heifer burned
entire (Num. 19:5) when sprinkled on the unclean made them ceremonially
clean (Heb. 9:13).
To cover the head with ashes was a token of self-abhorrence and humiliation
(2 Sam. 13:19; Esther 4:3; Jer. 6:26, etc.).
To feed on ashes (Isa. 44:20), means to seek that which will prove to
be vain and unsatisfactory, and hence it denotes the unsatisfactory nature
of idol-worship. (Comp. Hos. 12:1).
Ashkelon - =Askelon=Ascalon, was one
of the five cities of the Philistines (Josh. 13:3; 1 Sam. 6:17). It stood
on the shore of the Mediterranean, 12 miles north of Gaza. It is mentioned
on an inscription at Karnak in Egypt as having been taken by king Rameses
II., the oppressor of the Hebrews. In the time of the judges (Judg. 1:18)
it fell into the possession of the tribe of Judah; but it was soon after
retaken by the Philistines (2 Sam. 1:20), who were not finally dispossessed
till the time of Alexander the Great. Samson went down to this place from
Timnath, and slew thirty men and took their spoil. The prophets foretold
its destruction (Jer. 25:20; 47:5, 7). It became a noted place in the
Middle Ages, having been the scene of many a bloody battle between the
Saracens and the Crusaders. It was beseiged and taken by Richard the Lion-hearted,
and "within its walls and towers now standing he held his court." Among
the Tell Amarna tablets (see EGYPT) are found letters or official despatches
from Yadaya, "captain of horse and dust of the king's feet," to the "great
king" of Egypt, dated from Ascalon. It is now called 'Askalan.
Ashkenaz - one of the three sons of Gomer
(Gen. 10:3), and founder of one of the tribes of the Japhetic race. They
are mentioned in connection with Minni and Ararat, and hence their original
seat must have been in Armenia (Jer. 51:27), probably near the Black Sea,
which, from their founder, was first called Axenus, and afterwards the Euxine.
Ashpenaz - the master of the eunuchs of
Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 1:3), the "Rabsaris" of the court. His position was
similar to that of the Kislar-aga of the modern Turkish sultans.
Ashtaroth - a city of Bashan, in the kingdom
of Og (Deut. 1:4; Josh. 12:4; 13:12; 9:10). It was in the half-tribe of
Manasseh (Josh. 13:12), and as a Levitical city was given to the Gershonites
(1 Chr. 6:71). Uzzia, one of David's valiant men (1 Chr. 11:44), is named
as of this city. It is identified with Tell Ashterah, in the Hauran, and
is noticed on monuments B.C. 1700-1500. The name Beesh-terah (Josh. 21:27)
is a contraction for Beth-eshterah, i.e., "the house of Ashtaroth."
Ashteroth Karnaim - Ashteroth of the two
horns, the abode of the Rephaim (Gen. 14:5). It may be identified with Ashtaroth
preceding; called "Karnaim", i.e., the "two-horned" (the crescent moon).
The Samaritan version renders the word by "Sunamein," the present es-Sunamein,
28 miles south of Damascus.
Ashtoreth - the moon goddess of the Phoenicians,
representing the passive principle in nature, their principal female deity;
frequently associated with the name of Baal, the sun-god, their chief male
deity (Judg. 10:6; 1 Sam. 7:4; 12:10). These names often occur in the plural
(Ashtaroth, Baalim), probably as indicating either different statues or
different modifications of the deities. This deity is spoken of as Ashtoreth
of the Zidonians. She was the Ishtar of the Accadians and the Astarte of
the Greeks (Jer. 44:17; 1 Kings 11:5, 33; 2 Kings 23:13). There was a temple
of this goddess among the Philistines in the time of Saul (1 Sam. 31:10).
Under the name of Ishtar, she was one of the great deities of the Assyrians.
The Phoenicians called her Astarte. Solomon introduced the worship of this
idol (1 Kings 11:33). Jezebel's 400 priests were probably employed in its
service (1 Kings 18:19). It was called the "queen of heaven" (Jer. 44:25).
Ashurites - mentioned among those over whom
Ish-bosheth was made king (2 Sam. 2:9).
Asia - is used to denote Proconsular Asia,
a Roman province which embraced the western parts of Asia Minor, and of
which Ephesus was the capital, in Acts 2:9; 6:9; 16:6; 19:10,22; 20:4, 16,
18, etc., and probably Asia Minor in Acts 19:26, 27; 21:27; 24:18; 27:2.
Proconsular Asia contained the seven churches of the Apocalypse (Rev. 1:11).
The "chiefs of Asia" (Acts 19:31) were certain wealthy citizens who were
annually elected to preside over the games and religious festivals of the
several cities to which they belonged. Some of these "Asiarchs" were Paul's
Asnapper - probably the same as Assur-bani-pal
(Sardanapalos of the Greeks), styled the "great and noble" (Ezra 4:10),
was the son and successor (B.C. 668) of Esar-haddon (q.v.). He was "luxurious,
ambitious, and cruel, but a magnificent patron of literature." He formed
at Nineveh a library of clay tablets, numbering about 10,000. These are
now mostly in the British Museum. They throw much light on the history and
antiquities of Assyria.
Assur-bani-pal was a munificent patron of literature, and the conqueror
of Elam. Towards the middle of his reign his empire was shaken by a great
rebellion headed by his brother in Babylon. The rebellion was finally
put down, but Egypt was lost, and the military power of Assyria was so
exhausted that it could with difficulty resist the hordes of Kimmerians
who poured over Western Asia. (See NINEVEH.)
Asp - (Heb. pethen), Deut. 32:33; Job
20:14, 16; Isa. 11:8. It was probably the Egyptian cobra (Naja haje),
which was very poisonous (Rom. 3:13; Gr. aspis). The Egyptians worshipped
it as the uraeus, and it was found in the desert and in the fields.
The peace and security of Messiah's reign is represented by the figure
of a child playing on the hole of the asp. (See ADDER.)
Ass - frequently mentioned throughout Scripture.
Of the domesticated species we read of, (1.) The she ass (Heb. 'athon),
so named from its slowness (Gen. 12:16; 45:23; Num. 22:23; 1 Sam. 9:3).
(2.) The male ass (Heb. hamor), the common working ass of Western Asia,
so called from its red colour. Issachar is compared to a strong ass (Gen.
49:14). It was forbidden to yoke together an ass and an ox in the plough
(Deut. 22:10). (3.) The ass's colt (Heb. 'air), mentioned Judg. 10:4; 12:14.
It is rendered "foal" in Gen. 32:15; 49:11. (Comp. Job 11:12; Isa. 30:6.)
The ass is an unclean animal, because it does not chew the cud (Lev. 11:26.
Comp. 2 Kings 6:25). Asses constituted a considerable portion of wealth
in ancient times (Gen. 12:16; 30:43; 1 Chr. 27:30; Job 1:3; 42:12). They
were noted for their spirit and their attachment to their master (Isa. 1:3).
They are frequently spoken of as having been ridden upon, as by Abraham
(Gen. 22:3), Balaam (Num. 22:21), the disobedient prophet (1 Kings 13:23),
the family of Abdon the judge, seventy in number (Judg. 12:14), Zipporah
(Ex. 4:20), the Shunammite (1 Sam. 25:30), etc. Zechariah (9:9) predicted
our Lord's triumphal entrance into Jerusalem, "riding upon an ass, and upon
a colt," etc. (Matt. 21:5, R.V.).
Of wild asses two species are noticed, (1) that called in Hebrew 'arod,
mentioned Job 39:5 and Dan. 5:21, noted for its swiftness; and (2) that
called pe're, the wild ass of Asia (Job 39:6-8; 6:5; 11:12; Isa.
32:14; Jer. 2:24; 14:6, etc.). The wild ass was distinguished for its
fleetness and its extreme shyness. In allusion to his mode of life, Ishmael
is likened to a wild ass (Gen. 16:12. Here the word is simply rendered
"wild" in the Authorized Version, but in the Revised Version, "wild-ass
Asshur - second son of Shem (Gen. 10:22;
1 Chr. 1:17). He went from the land of Shinar and built Nineveh, etc.
(Gen. 10:11,12). He probably gave his name to Assyria, which is the usual
translation of the word, although the form Asshur is sometimes retained
(Num. 24:22, 24; Ezek. 27:23, etc.). In Gen. 2:14 "Assyria" ought to be
"Asshur," which was the original capital of Assyria, a city represented
by the mounds of Kalah Sherghat, on the west bank of the Tigris. This
city was founded by Bel-kap-kapu about B.C. 1700. At a later date the
capital was shifted to Ninua, or Nineveh, now Koyunjik, on the eastern
bank of the river. (See CALAH; NINEVEH.)
Assos - a sea-port town of Proconsular Asia,
in the district of Mysia, on the north shore of the Gulf of Adramyttium.
Paul came hither on foot along the Roman road from Troas (Acts 20:13, 14),
a distance of 20 miles. It was about 30 miles distant from Troas by sea.
The island of Lesbos lay opposite it, about 7 miles distant.
Assurance - The resurrection of Jesus (Acts
17:31) is the "assurance" (Gr. pistis, generally rendered "faith") or pledge
God has given that his revelation is true and worthy of acceptance. The
"full assurance [Gr. plerophoria, 'full bearing'] of faith" (Heb. 10:22)
is a fulness of faith in God which leaves no room for doubt. The "full assurance
of understanding" (Col. 2:2) is an entire unwavering conviction of the truth
of the declarations of Scripture, a joyful steadfastness on the part of
any one of conviction that he has grasped the very truth. The "full assurance
of hope" (Heb. 6:11) is a sure and well-grounded expectation of eternal
glory (2 Tim. 4:7, 8). This assurance of hope is the assurance of a man's
own particular salvation.
This infallible assurance, which believers may attain unto as to their
own personal salvation, is founded on the truth of the promises (Heb.
6:18), on the inward evidence of Christian graces, and on the testimony
of the Spirit of adoption (Rom. 8:16). That such a certainty may be attained
appears from the testimony of Scripture (Rom. 8:16; 1 John 2:3; 3:14),
from the command to seek after it (Heb. 6:11; 2 Pet. 1:10), and from the
fact that it has been attained (2 Tim. 1:12; 4:7, 8; 1 John 2:3; 4:16).
This full assurance is not of the essence of saving faith. It is the
result of faith, and posterior to it in the order of nature, and so frequently
also in the order of time. True believers may be destitute of it. Trust
itself is something different from the evidence that we do trust. Believers,
moreover, are exhorted to go on to something beyond what they at present
have when they are exhorted to seek the grace of full assurance (Heb.
10:22; 2 Pet. 1:5-10). The attainment of this grace is a duty, and is
to be diligently sought.
"Genuine assurance naturally leads to a legitimate and abiding peace
and joy, and to love and thankfulness to God; and these from the very
laws of our being to greater buoyancy, strength, and cheerfulness in the
practice of obedience in every department of duty."
This assurance may in various ways be shaken, diminished, and intermitted,
but the principle out of which it springs can never be lost. (See FAITH.)
Assyria - the name derived from the city
Asshur on the Tigris, the original capital of the country, was originally
a colony from Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. It
was a mountainous region lying to the north of Babylonia, extending along
the Tigris as far as to the high mountain range of Armenia, the Gordiaean
or Carduchian mountains. It was founded in B.C. 1700 under Bel-kap-kapu,
and became an independent and a conquering power, and shook off the yoke
of its Babylonian masters. It subdued the whole of Northern Asia. The Assyrians
were Semites (Gen. 10:22), but in process of time non-Semite tribes mingled
with the inhabitants. They were a military people, the "Romans of the East."
Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria little is positively
known. In B.C. 1120 Tiglath-pileser I., the greatest of the Assyrian kings,
"crossed the Euphrates, defeated the kings of the Hittites, captured the
city of Carchemish, and advanced as far as the shores of the Mediterranean."
He may be regarded as the founder of the first Assyrian empire. After
this the Assyrians gradually extended their power, subjugating the states
of Northern Syria. In the reign of Ahab, king of Israel, Shalmaneser II.
marched an army against the Syrian states, whose allied army he encountered
and vanquished at Karkar. This led to Ahab's casting off the yoke of Damascus
and allying himself with Judah. Some years after this the Assyrian king
marched an army against Hazael, king of Damascus. He besieged and took
that city. He also brought under tribute Jehu, and the cities of Tyre
About a hundred years after this (B.C. 745) the crown was seized by
a military adventurer called Pul, who assumed the name of Tiglath-pileser
III. He directed his armies into Syria, which had by this time regained
its independence, and took (B.C. 740) Arpad, near Aleppo, after a siege
of three years, and reduced Hamath. Azariah (Uzziah) was an ally of the
king of Hamath, and thus was compelled by Tiglath-pileser to do him homage
and pay a yearly tribute.
In B.C. 738, in the reign of Menahem, king of Israel, Pul invaded Israel,
and imposed on it a heavy tribute (2 Kings 15:19). Ahaz, the king of Judah,
when engaged in a war against Israel and Syria, appealed for help to this
Assyrian king by means of a present of gold and silver (2 Kings 16:8);
who accordingly "marched against Damascus, defeated and put Rezin to death,
and besieged the city itself." Leaving a portion of his army to continue
the siege, "he advanced through the province east of Jordan, spreading
fire and sword," and became master of Philistia, and took Samaria and
Damascus. He died B.C. 727, and was succeeded by Shalmanezer IV., who
ruled till B.C. 722. He also invaded Syria (2 Kings 17:5), but was deposed
in favour of Sargon (q.v.) the Tartan, or commander-in-chief of the army,
who took Samaria (q.v.) after a siege of three years, and so put an end
to the kingdom of Israel, carrying the people away into captivity, B.C.
722 (2 Kings 17:1-6, 24; 18:7, 9). He also overran the land of Judah,
and took the city of Jerusalem (Isa. 10:6, 12, 22, 24, 34). Mention is
next made of Sennacherib (B.C. 705), the son and successor of Sargon (2
Kings 18:13; 19:37; Isa. 7:17, 18); and then of Esar-haddon, his son and
successor, who took Manasseh, king of Judah, captive, and kept him for
some time a prisoner at Babylon, which he alone of all the Assyrian kings
made the seat of his government (2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38).
Assur-bani-pal, the son of Esarhaddon, became king, and in Ezra 4:10
is referred to as Asnapper. From an early period Assyria had entered on
a conquering career, and having absorbed Babylon, the kingdoms of Hamath,
Damascus, and Samaria, it conquered Phoenicia, and made Judea feudatory,
and subjected Philistia and Idumea. At length, however, its power declined.
In B.C. 727 the Babylonians threw off the rule of the Assyrians, under
the leadership of the powerful Chaldean prince Merodach-baladan (2 Kings
20:12), who, after twelve years, was subdued by Sargon, who now reunited
the kingdom, and ruled over a vast empire. But on his death the smouldering
flames of rebellion again burst forth, and the Babylonians and Medes successfully
asserted their independence (B.C. 625), and Assyria fell according to
the prophecies of Isaiah (10:5-19), Nahum (3:19), and Zephaniah (3:13),
and the many separate kingdoms of which it was composed ceased to recognize
the "great king" (2 Kings 18:19; Isa. 36:4). Ezekiel (31) attests (about
B.C. 586) how completely Assyria was overthrown. It ceases to be a nation.
(See NINEVEH; BABYLON.)
Astrologer - (Dan. 1:20; 2:2, 10, 27, etc.)
Heb. 'ashshaph', an enchanter, one who professes to divine future events
by the appearance of the stars. This science flourished among the Chaldeans.
It was positively forbidden to the Jews (Deut. 4:19; 18:10; Isa. 47:13).
Astronomy - The Hebrews were devout students
of the wonders of the starry firmanent (Amos 5:8; Ps. 19). In the Book of
Job, which is the oldest book of the Bible in all probability, the constellations
are distinguished and named. Mention is made of the "morning star" (Rev.
2:28; comp. Isa. 14:12), the "seven stars" and "Pleiades," "Orion," "Arcturus,"
the "Great Bear" (Amos 5:8; Job 9:9; 38:31), "the crooked serpent," Draco
(Job 26:13), the Dioscuri, or Gemini, "Castor and Pollux" (Acts 28:11).
The stars were called "the host of heaven" (Isa. 40:26; Jer. 33:22).
The oldest divisions of time were mainly based on the observation of
the movements of the heavenly bodies, the "ordinances of heaven" (Gen.
1:14-18; Job 38:33; Jer. 31:35; 33:25). Such observations led to the division
of the year into months and the mapping out of the appearances of the
stars into twelve portions, which received from the Greeks the name of
the "zodiac." The word "Mazzaroth" (Job 38:32) means, as the margin notes,
"the twelve signs" of the zodiac. Astronomical observations were also
necessary among the Jews in order to the fixing of the proper time for
sacred ceremonies, the "new moons," the "passover," etc. Many allusions
are found to the display of God's wisdom and power as seen in the starry
heavens (Ps. 8; 19:1-6; Isa. 51:6, etc.)
Asuppim - (1 Chr. 26:15, 17, Authorized
Version; but in Revised Version, "storehouse"), properly the house of stores
for the priests. In Neh. 12:25 the Authorized Version has "thresholds,"
marg. "treasuries" or "assemblies;" Revised Version, "storehouses."
Atad - buckthorn, a place where Joseph and
his brethren, when on their way from Egypt to Hebron with the remains of
their father Jacob, made for seven days a "great and very sore lamentation."
On this account the Canaanites called it "Abel-mizraim" (Gen. 50:10, 11).
It was probably near Hebron. The word is rendered "bramble" in Judg. 9:14,
15, and "thorns" in Ps. 58:9.
Ataroth - crowns. (1.) A city east of Jordan,
not far from Gilead (Num. 32:3).
(2.) A town on the border of Ephraim and Benjamin (Josh. 16:2, 7), called
also Ataroth-adar (16:5). Now ed-Da'rieh.
(3.) "Ataroth, the house of Joab" (1 Chr. 2:54), a town of Judah inhabited
by the descendants of Caleb.
Ater - shut; lame. (1.) Ezra 2:16. (2.)
Neh. 10:17. (3.) Ezra 2:42.
Athaliah - whom God afflicts. (1.) The daughter
of Ahab and Jezebel, and the wife of Jehoram, king of Judah (2 Kings 8:18),
who "walked in the ways of the house of Ahab" (2 Chr. 21:6), called "daughter"
of Omri (2 Kings 8:26). On the death of her husband and of her son Ahaziah,
she resolved to seat herself on the vacant throne. She slew all Ahaziah's
children except Joash, the youngest (2 Kings 11:1,2). After a reign of six
years she was put to death in an insurrection (2 Kings 11:20; 2 Chr. 21:6;
22:10-12; 23:15), stirred up among the people in connection with Josiah's
being crowned as king.
(2.) Ezra 8:7. (3.) 1 Chr. 8:26.
Athens - the capital of Attica, the most
celebrated city of the ancient world, the seat of Greek literature and art
during the golden period of Grecian history. Its inhabitants were fond of
novelty (Acts 17:21), and were remarkable for their zeal in the worship
of the gods. It was a sarcastic saying of the Roman satirist that it was
"easier to find a god at Athens than a man."
On his second missionary journey Paul visited this city (Acts 17:15;
comp. 1 Thess. 3:1), and delivered in the Areopagus his famous speech
(17:22-31). The altar of which Paul there speaks as dedicated "to the
[properly "an"] unknown God" (23) was probably one of several which bore
the same inscription. It is supposed that they originated in the practice
of letting loose a flock of sheep and goats in the streets of Athens on
the occasion of a plague, and of offering them up in sacrifice, at the
spot where they lay down, "to the god concerned."
Atonement - This word does not occur in
the Authorized Version of the New Testament except in Rom. 5:11, where in
the Revised Version the word "reconciliation" is used. In the Old Testament
it is of frequent occurrence.
The meaning of the word is simply at-one-ment, i.e., the state of being
at one or being reconciled, so that atonement is reconciliation. Thus
it is used to denote the effect which flows from the death of Christ.
But the word is also used to denote that by which this reconciliation
is brought about, viz., the death of Christ itself; and when so used it
means satisfaction, and in this sense to make an atonement for one is
to make satisfaction for his offences (Ex. 32:30; Lev. 4:26; 5:16; Num.
6:11), and, as regards the person, to reconcile, to propitiate God in
By the atonement of Christ we generally mean his work by which he expiated
our sins. But in Scripture usage the word denotes the reconciliation itself,
and not the means by which it is effected. When speaking of Christ's saving
work, the word "satisfaction," the word used by the theologians of the
Reformation, is to be preferred to the word "atonement." Christ's satisfaction
is all he did in the room and in behalf of sinners to satisfy the demands
of the law and justice of God. Christ's work consisted of suffering and
obedience, and these were vicarious, i.e., were not merely for our benefit,
but were in our stead, as the suffering and obedience of our vicar, or
substitute. Our guilt is expiated by the punishment which our vicar bore,
and thus God is rendered propitious, i.e., it is now consistent with his
justice to manifest his love to transgressors. Expiation has been made
for sin, i.e., it is covered. The means by which it is covered is vicarious
satisfaction, and the result of its being covered is atonement or reconciliation.
To make atonement is to do that by virtue of which alienation ceases and
reconciliation is brought about. Christ's mediatorial work and sufferings
are the ground or efficient cause of reconciliation with God. They rectify
the disturbed relations between God and man, taking away the obstacles
interposed by sin to their fellowship and concord. The reconciliation
is mutual, i.e., it is not only that of sinners toward God, but also and
pre-eminently that of God toward sinners, effected by the sin-offering
he himself provided, so that consistently with the other attributes of
his character his love might flow forth in all its fulness of blessing
to men. The primary idea presented to us in different forms throughout
the Scripture is that the death of Christ is a satisfaction of infinite
worth rendered to the law and justice of God (q.v.), and accepted by him
in room of the very penalty man had incurred. It must also be constantly
kept in mind that the atonement is not the cause but the consequence of
God's love to guilty men (John 3:16; Rom. 3:24, 25; Eph. 1:7; 1 John 1:9;
4:9). The atonement may also be regarded as necessary, not in an absolute
but in a relative sense, i.e., if man is to be saved, there is no other
way than this which God has devised and carried out (Ex. 34:7; Josh. 24:19;
Ps. 5:4; 7:11; Nahum 1:2, 6; Rom. 3:5). This is God's plan, clearly revealed;
and that is enough for us to know.
Atonement, Day of - the great annual day
of humiliation and expiation for the sins of the nation, "the fast" (Acts
27:9), and the only one commanded in the law of Moses. The mode of its observance
is described in Lev. 16:3-10; 23:26-32; and Num. 29:7-11.
It was kept on the tenth day of the month Tisri, i.e., five days before
the feast of Tabernacles, and lasted from sunset to sunset. (See AZAZEL.)
Augustus - the cognomen of the first Roman
emperor, C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, during whose reign Christ was born
(Luke 2:1). His decree that "all the world should be taxed" was the divinely
ordered occasion of Jesus' being born, according to prophecy (Micah 5:2),
in Bethlehem. This name being simply a title meaning "majesty" or "venerable,"
first given to him by the senate (B.C. 27), was borne by succeeding emperors.
Before his death (A.D. 14) he associated Tiberius with him in the empire
(Luke 3:1), by whom he was succeeded.
Augustus band - (Acts 27:1.: literally,
of Sebaste, the Greek form of Augusta, the name given to Caesarea in honour
of Augustus Caesar). Probably this "band" or cohort consisted of Samaritan
soldiers belonging to Caesarea.
Ava - a place in Assyria from which colonies
were brought to Samaria (2 Kings 17:24). It is probably the same with Ivah
(18:34; 19:13; Isa. 37:13). It has been identified with Hit on the Euphrates.
Aven - nothingness; vanity. (1.) Hosea speaks
of the "high places of Aven" (10:8), by which he means Bethel. He also calls
it Beth-aven, i.e., "the house of vanity" (4:15), on account of the golden
calves Jeroboam had set up there (1 Kings 12:28).
(2.) Translated by the LXX. "On" in Ezek. 30:17. The Egyptian Heliopolis
or city of On (q.v.).
(3.) In Amos 1:5 it denotes the Syrian Heliopolis, the modern Baalbec.
Avenger of blood - (Heb. goel, from verb
gaal, "to be near of kin," "to redeem"), the nearest relative of a murdered
person. It was his right and duty to slay the murderer (2 Sam. 14:7, 11)
if he found him outside of a city of refuge. In order that this law might
be guarded against abuse, Moses appointed six cities of refuge (Ex. 21:13;
Num. 35:13; Deut. 19:1,9). These were in different parts of the country,
and every facility was afforded the manslayer that he might flee to the
city that lay nearest him for safety. Into the city of refuge the avenger
durst not follow him. This arrangement applied only to cases where the death
was not premeditated. The case had to be investigated by the authorities
of the city, and the wilful murderer was on no account to be spared. He
was regarded as an impure and polluted person, and was delivered up to the
goel (Deut. 19:11-13). If the offence was merely manslaughter, then
the fugitive must remain within the city till the death of the high priest
Avim - a people dwelling in Hazerim, or
"the villages" or "encampments" on the south-west corner of the sea-coast
(Deut. 2:23). They were subdued and driven northward by the Caphtorim. A
trace of them is afterwards found in Josh. 13:3, where they are called Avites.
Awl - an instrument only referred to in
connection with the custom of boring the ear of a slave (Ex. 21:6; Deut.
15:17), in token of his volunteering perpetual service when he might be
free. (Comp. Ps. 40:6; Isa. 50:5).
Axe - used in the Authorized Version of
Deut. 19:5; 20:19; 1 Kings 6:7, as the translation of a Hebrew word which
means "chopping." It was used for felling trees (Isa. 10:34) and hewing
timber for building. It is the rendering of a different word in Judg. 9:48,
1 Sam. 13:20, 21, Ps. 74:5, which refers to its sharpness. In 2 Kings 6:5
it is the translation of a word used with reference to its being made of
iron. In Isa. 44:12 the Revised Version renders by "axe" the Hebrew maatsad,
which means a "hewing" instrument. In the Authorized Version it is rendered
"tongs." It is also used in Jer. 10:3, and rendered "axe." The "battle-axe"
(army of Medes and Persians) mentioned in Jer. 51:20 was probably, as noted
in the margin of the Revised Version, a "maul" or heavy mace. In Ps. 74:6
the word so rendered means "feller." (See the figurative expression in Matt.
3:10; Luke 3:9.)
Azal - (Zech. 14:5) should perhaps be rendered
"very near" = "the way of escape shall be made easy." If a proper name,
it may denote some place near the western extremity of the valley here spoken
of near Jerusalem.
Azariah - whom Jehovah helps. (1.) Son of
Ethan, of the tribe of Judah (1 Chr. 2:8).
(2.) Son of Ahimaaz, who succeeded his grandfather Zadok as high priest
(1 Chr. 6:9; 1 Kings 4:2) in the days of Solomon. He officiated at the
consecration of the temple (1 Chr. 6:10).
(3.) The son of Johanan, high priest in the reign of Abijah and Asa
(2 Chr. 6:10, 11).
(4.) High priest in the reign of Uzziah, king of Judah (2 Kings 14:21;
2 Chr. 26:17-20). He was contemporary with the prophets Isaiah, Amos,
(5.) High priest in the days of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 31:10-13). Of the house
(6.) Several other priests and Levites of this name are mentioned (1
Chr. 6:36; Ezra 7:1; 1 Chr. 9:11; Neh. 3:23, etc.).
(7.) The original name of Abed-nego (Dan. 1:6, 7, 11, 16). He was of
the royal family of Judah, and with his other two companions remarkable
for his personal beauty and his intelligence as well as piety.
(8.) The son of Oded, a remarkable prophet in the days of Asa (2 Chr.
15:1). He stirred up the king and the people to a great national reformation.
Azazel - (Lev. 16:8, 10, 26, Revised Version
only here; rendered "scape-goat" in the Authorized Version). This word has
given rise to many different views. Some Jewish interpreters regard it as
the name of a place some 12 miles east of Jerusalem, in the wilderness.
Others take it to be the name of an evil spirit, or even of Satan. But when
we remember that the two goats together form a type of Christ, on whom the
Lord "laid the iniquity of us all," and examine into the root meaning of
this word (viz., "separation"), the interpretation of those who regard the
one goat as representing the atonement made, and the other, that "for Azazel,"
as representing the effect of the great work of atonement (viz., the complete
removal of sin), is certainly to be preferred. The one goat which was "for
Jehovah" was offered as a sin-offering, by which atonement was made. But
the sins must also be visibly banished, and therefore they were symbolically
laid by confession on the other goat, which was then "sent away for Azazel"
into the wilderness. The form of this word indicates intensity, and therefore
signifies the total separation of sin: it was wholly carried away. It was
important that the result of the sacrifices offered by the high priest alone
in the sanctuary should be embodied in a visible transaction, and hence
the dismissal of the "scape-goat." It was of no consequence what became
of it, as the whole import of the transaction lay in its being sent into
the wilderness bearing away sin. As the goat "for Jehovah" was to witness
to the demerit of sin and the need of the blood of atonement, so the goat
"for Azazel" was to witness to the efficacy of the sacrifice and the result
of the shedding of blood in the taking away of sin.
Azaziah - whom Jehovah strengthened. (1.)
One of the Levitical harpers in the temple (1 Chr. 15:21).
(2.) The father of Hoshea, who was made ruler over the Ephraimites (1
(3.) One who had charge of the temple offerings (2 Chr. 31:13).
Azekah - dug over, a town in the Shephelah
or low hills of Judah (Josh. 15:35), where the five confederated Amoritish
kings were defeated by Joshua and their army destroyed by a hailstrom (10:10,
11). It was one of the places re-occupied by the Jews on their return from
the Captivity (Neh. 11:30).
Azel - noble, a descendant of king Saul
(1 Chr. 8:37; 9:43, 44).
Azmaveth - strong as death. (1.) One of
David's thirty warriors (2 Sam. 23:31).
(2.) An overseer over the royal treasury in the time of David and Solomon
(1 Chr. 27:25).
(3.) A town in the tribe of Judah, near Jerusalem (Neh. 12:29; Ezra
(4.) 1 Chr. 8:36
Azotus - the Grecized form (Acts 8:40, etc.)
of Ashdod (q.v.).
Azubah - deserted. (1.) The wife of Caleb
(1 Chr. 2:18, 19).
(2.) The daughter of Shilhi, and mother of king Jehoshaphat (1 Kings
Azur and Azzur - helper. (1.) The father
of Hananiah, a false prophet (Jer. 28:1).
(2.) The father of Jaazaniah (Ezek. 11:1).
(3.) One of those who sealed the covenant with Jehovah on the return
from Babylon (Neh. 10:17).
Baal - lord. (1.) The name appropriated
to the principal male god of the Phoenicians. It is found in several places
in the plural BAALIM (Judg. 2:11; 10:10; 1 Kings 18:18; Jer. 2:23; Hos.
2:17). Baal is identified with Molech (Jer. 19:5). It was known to the Israelites
as Baal-peor (Num. 25:3; Deut. 4:3), was worshipped till the time of Samuel
(1 Sam 7:4), and was afterwards the religion of the ten tribes in the time
of Ahab (1 Kings 16:31-33; 18:19, 22). It prevailed also for a time in the
kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 8:27; comp. 11:18; 16:3; 2 Chr. 28:2), till finally
put an end to by the severe discipline of the Captivity (Zeph. 1:4-6). The
priests of Baal were in great numbers (1 Kings 18:19), and of various classes
(2 Kings 10:19). Their mode of offering sacrifices is described in 1 Kings
18:25-29. The sun-god, under the general title of Baal, or "lord," was the
chief object of worship of the Canaanites. Each locality had its special
Baal, and the various local Baals were summed up under the name of Baalim,
or "lords." Each Baal had a wife, who was a colourless reflection of himself.
(2.) A Benjamite, son of Jehiel, the progenitor of the Gibeonites (1
Chr. 8:30; 9:36).
(3.) The name of a place inhabited by the Simeonites, the same probably
as Baal-ath-beer (1 Chr. 4:33; Josh. 19:8).
Baalah - mistress; city. (1.) A city in
the south of Judah (Josh. 15:29), elsewhere called Balah (Josh. 19:3) and
Bilhah (1 Chr. 4:29). Now Khurbet Zebalah.
(2.) A city on the northern border of the tribe of Judah (Josh. 15:10),
called also Kirjath-jearim, q.v. (15:9; 1 Chr. 13:6), now Kuriet-el-Enab,
or as some think, 'Erma.
(3.) A mountain on the north-western boundary of Judah and Dan (Josh.
Baalath - a town of the tribe of Dan (Josh.
19:44). It was fortified by Solomon (1 Kings 9:18; 2 Chr. 8:6). Some have
identified it with Bel'ain, in Wady Deir Balut.
Baalath-beer - Baalah of the well, (Josh.
19:8, probably the same as Baal, mentioned in 1 Chr. 4:33, a city of Simeon.
Baalbec - called by the Greeks Heliopolis
i.e., "the city of the sun", because of its famous Temple of the Sun, has
by some been supposed to be Solomon's "house of the forest of Lebanon" (1
Kings 7:2; 10:17; 2 Chr. 9:16); by others it is identified with Baal-gad
(q.v.). It was a city of Coele-Syria, on the lowest declivity of Anti-Libanus,
about 42 miles north-west of Damascus. It was one of the most splendid of
Syrian cities, existing from a remote antiquity. After sustaining several
sieges under the Moslems and others, it was finally destroyed by an earthquake
in 1759. Its ruins are of great extent.
Baal-berith - covenant lord, the name of
the god worshipped in Shechem after the death of Gideon (Judg. 8:33; 9:4).
In 9:46 he is called simply "the god Berith." The name denotes the god of
the covenant into which the Israelites entered with the Canaanites, contrary
to the command of Jehovah (Ex. 34:12), when they began to fall away to the
worship of idols.
Baale of Judah - lords of Judah, a city
in the tribe of Judah from which David brought the ark into Jerusalem
(2 Sam. 6:2). Elsewhere (1 Chr. 13:6) called Kirjath-jearim. (See BAALAH.)
Baal-gad - lord of fortune, or troop of
Baal, a Canaanite city in the valley of Lebanon at the foot of Hermon, hence
called Baal-hermon (Judge. 3:3; 1 Chr. 5:23), near the source of the Jordan
(Josh. 13:5; 11:17; 12:7). It was the most northern point to which Joshua's
conquests extended. It probably derived its name from the worship of Baal.
Its modern representative is Banias. Some have supposed it to be the same
Baal-hamon - place of a multitude, a place
where Solomon had an extensive vineyard (Cant. 8:11). It has been supposed
to be identical with Baal-gad, and also with Hammon in the tribe of Asher
(Josh. 19:28). Others identify it with Belamon, in Central Palestine, near
Baal-hanan - lord of grace. (1.) A king
of Edom, son of Achbor (Gen. 36:38, 39; 1 Chr. 1:49, 50).
(2.) An overseer of "the olive trees and sycomore trees in the low plains"
(the Shephelah) under David (1 Chr. 27:28).
Baal-hazor - having a courtyard, or Baal's
village, the place on the borders of Ephraim and Benjamin where Absalom
held the feast of sheep-shearing when Amnon was assassinated (2 Sam. 13:23).
Probably it is the same with Hazor (Neh. 11:33), now Tell' Asur, 5 miles
north-east of Bethel.
Baal-hermon - lord of Hermon. (1.) A city
near Mount Hermon inhabited by the Ephraimites (1 Chr. 5:23). Probably identical
with Baal-gad (Josh. 11:17).
(2.) A mountain east of Lebanon (Judg. 3:3). Probably it may be the
same as Mount Hermon, or one of its three peaks.
Baali - my lord, a title the prophet (Hos.
2:16) reproaches the Jewish church for applying to Jehovah, instead of the
more endearing title Ishi, meaning "my husband."
Baalim - plural of Baal; images of the god
Baal (Judg. 2:11; 1 Sam. 7:4).
Baalis - king of the Ammonites at the time
of the Babylonian captivity (Jer. 40:14). He hired Ishmael to slay Gedaliah
who had been appointed governor over the cities of Judah.
Baal-meon - lord of dwelling, a town of
Reuben (Num. 32:38), called also Beth-meon (Jer. 48:23) and Beth-baal-meon
(Josh. 13:17). It is supposed to have been the birth-place of Elisha. It
is identified with the modern M'ain, about 3 miles south-east of Heshbon.
Baal-peor - lord of the opening, a god of
the Moabites (Num. 25:3; 31:16; Josh. 22:17), worshipped by obscene rites.
So called from Mount Peor, where this worship was celebrated, the Baal of
Peor. The Israelites fell into the worship of this idol (Num. 25:3, 5, 18;
Deut. 4:3; Ps. 106:28; Hos. 9:10).
Baal-perazim - Baal having rents, bursts,
or destructions, the scene of a victory gained by David over the Philistines
(2 Sam. 5:20; 1 Chr. 14:11). Called Mount Perazim (Isa. 28:21). It was near
the valley of Rephaim, west of Jerusalem. Identified with the modern Jebel