Black - properly the absence of all colour. In Prov. 7:9 the Hebrew
word means, as in the margin of the Revised Version, "the pupil of the eye."
It is translated "apple" of the eye in Deut. 32:10; Ps. 17:8; Prov. 7:2.
It is a different word which is rendered "black" in Lev. 13:31,37; Cant.
1:5; 5:11; and Zech. 6:2, 6. It is uncertain what the "black marble" of
Esther 1:6 was which formed a part of the mosaic pavement.
Blade - applied to the glittering point
of a spear (Job 39:23) or sword (Nah. 3:3), the blade of a dagger (Judg.
3:22); the "shoulder blade" (Job 31:22); the "blade" of cereals (Matt. 13:26).
Blains - occurs only in connection with
the sixth plague of Egypt (Ex. 9:9, 10). In Deut. 28:27, 35, it is called
"the botch of Egypt." It seems to have been the fearful disease of black
leprosy, a kind of elephantiasis, producing burning ulcers.
Blasphemy - In the sense of speaking evil
of God this word is found in Ps. 74:18; Isa. 52:5; Rom. 2:24; Rev. 13:1,
6; 16:9, 11, 21. It denotes also any kind of calumny, or evil-speaking,
or abuse (1 Kings 21:10; Acts 13:45; 18:6, etc.). Our Lord was accused of
blasphemy when he claimed to be the Son of God (Matt. 26:65; comp. Matt.
9:3; Mark 2:7). They who deny his Messiahship blaspheme Jesus (Luke 22:65;
Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost (Matt. 12:31, 32; Mark 3:28, 29; Luke
12:10) is regarded by some as a continued and obstinate rejection of the
gospel, and hence is an unpardonable sin, simply because as long as a
sinner remains in unbelief he voluntarily excludes himself from pardon.
Others regard the expression as designating the sin of attributing to
the power of Satan those miracles which Christ performed, or generally
those works which are the result of the Spirit's agency.
Blastus - chamberlain to king Herod Agrippa
I. (Acts 12:20). Such persons generally had great influence with their masters.
Blemish - imperfection or bodily deformity
excluding men from the priesthood, and rendering animals unfit to be offered
in sacrifice (Lev. 21:17-23; 22:19-25). The Christian church, as justified
in Christ, is "without blemish" (Eph. 5:27). Christ offered himself a sacrifice
"without blemish," acceptable to God (1 Pet. 1:19).
Bless - (1.) God blesses his people when
he bestows on them some gift temporal or spiritual (Gen. 1:22; 24:35; Job
42:12; Ps. 45:2; 104:24, 35).
(2.) We bless God when we thank him for his mercies (Ps. 103:1, 2; 145:1,
(3.) A man blesses himself when he invokes God's blessing (Isa. 65:16),
or rejoices in God's goodness to him (Deut. 29:19; Ps. 49:18).
(4.) One blesses another when he expresses good wishes or offers prayer
to God for his welfare (Gen. 24:60; 31:55; 1 Sam. 2:20). Sometimes blessings
were uttered under divine inspiration, as in the case of Noah, Isaac,
Jacob, and Moses (Gen. 9:26, 27; 27:28, 29, 40; 48:15-20; 49:1-28; Deut.
33). The priests were divinely authorized to bless the people (Deut. 10:8;
Num. 6:22-27). We have many examples of apostolic benediction (2 Cor.
13:14; Eph. 6:23, 24; 2 Thess. 3:16, 18; Heb. 13:20, 21; 1 Pet. 5:10,
(5.) Among the Jews in their thank-offerings the master of the feast
took a cup of wine in his hand, and after having blessed God for it and
for other mercies then enjoyed, handed it to his guests, who all partook
of it. Ps. 116:13 refers to this custom. It is also alluded to in 1 Cor.
10:16, where the apostle speaks of the "cup of blessing."
Blind - Blind beggars are frequently mentioned
(Matt. 9:27; 12:22; 20:30; John 5:3). The blind are to be treated with compassion
(Lev. 19:14; Deut. 27:18). Blindness was sometimes a punishment for disobedience
(1 Sam. 11:2; Jer. 39:7), sometimes the effect of old age (Gen. 27:1; 1
Kings 14:4; 1 Sam. 4:15). Conquerors sometimes blinded their captives (2
Kings 25:7; 1 Sam. 11:2). Blindness denotes ignorance as to spiritual things
(Isa. 6:10; 42:18, 19; Matt. 15:14; Eph. 4:18). The opening of the eyes
of the blind is peculiar to the Messiah (Isa. 29:18). Elymas was smitten
with blindness at Paul's word (Acts 13:11).
Blood - (1.) As food, prohibited in Gen.
9:4, where the use of animal food is first allowed. Comp. Deut. 12:23; Lev.
3:17; 7:26; 17:10-14. The injunction to abstain from blood is renewed in
the decree of the council of Jerusalem (Acts 15:29). It has been held by
some, and we think correctly, that this law of prohibition was only ceremonial
and temporary; while others regard it as still binding on all. Blood was
eaten by the Israelites after the battle of Gilboa (1 Sam. 14:32-34).
(2.) The blood of sacrifices was caught by the priest in a basin, and
then sprinkled seven times on the altar; that of the passover on the doorposts
and lintels of the houses (Ex. 12; Lev. 4:5-7; 16:14-19). At the giving
of the law (Ex. 24:8) the blood of the sacrifices was sprinkled on the
people as well as on the altar, and thus the people were consecrated to
God, or entered into covenant with him, hence the blood of the covenant
(Matt. 26:28; Heb. 9:19, 20; 10:29; 13:20).
(3.) Human blood. The murderer was to be punished (Gen. 9:5). The blood
of the murdered "crieth for vengeance" (Gen. 4:10). The "avenger of blood"
was the nearest relative of the murdered, and he was required to avenge
his death (Num. 35:24, 27). No satisfaction could be made for the guilt
of murder (Num. 35:31).
(4.) Blood used metaphorically to denote race (Acts 17:26), and as a
symbol of slaughter (Isa. 34:3). To "wash the feet in blood" means to
gain a great victory (Ps. 58:10). Wine, from its red colour, is called
"the blood of the grape" (Gen. 49:11). Blood and water issued from our
Saviour's side when it was pierced by the Roman soldier (John 19:34).
This has led pathologists to the conclusion that the proper cause of Christ's
death was rupture of the heart. (Comp. Ps. 69:20.)
Bloody sweat - the sign and token of our
Lord's great agony (Luke 22:44).
Blot - a stain or reproach (Job 31:7; Prov.
9:7). To blot out sin is to forgive it (Ps. 51:1, 9; Isa. 44:22; Acts 3:19).
Christ's blotting out the handwriting of ordinances was his fulfilling the
law in our behalf (Col. 2:14).
Blue - generally associated with purple
(Ex. 25:4; 26:1, 31, 36, etc.). It is supposed to have been obtained from
a shellfish of the Mediterranean, the Helix ianthina of Linnaeus. The
robe of the high priest's ephod was to be all of this colour (Ex. 28:31),
also the loops of the curtains (26:4) and the ribbon of the breastplate
(28:28). Blue cloths were also made for various sacred purposes (Num.
4:6, 7, 9, 11, 12). (See COLOUR.)
Boanerges - sons of thunder, a surname given
by our Lord to James and John (Mark 3:17) on account of their fervid and
impetuous temper (Luke 9:54).
Boar - occurs only in Ps. 80:13. The same
Hebrew word is elsewhere rendered "swine" (Lev. 11:7; Deut. 14:8; Prov.
11:22; Isa. 65:4; 66:3, 17). The Hebrews abhorred swine's flesh, and accordingly
none of these animals were reared, except in the district beyond the Sea
of Galilee. In the psalm quoted above the powers that destroyed the Jewish
nation are compared to wild boars and wild beasts of the field.
Boaz - alacrity. (1.) The husband of Ruth,
a wealthy Bethlehemite. By the "levirate law" the duty devolved on him of
marrying Ruth the Moabitess (Ruth 4:1-13). He was a kinsman of Mahlon, her
(2.) The name given (for what reason is unknown) to one of the two (the
other was called Jachin) brazen pillars which Solomon erected in the court
of the temple (1 Kings 7:21; 2 Chr. 3:17). These pillars were broken up
and carried to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar.
Bochim - weepers, a place where the angel
of the Lord reproved the Israelites for entering into a league with the
people of the land. This caused them bitterly to weep, and hence the name
of the place (Judg. 2:1, 5). It lay probably at the head of one of the valleys
between Gilgal and Shiloh.
Boil - (rendered "botch" in Deut. 28:27,
35), an aggravated ulcer, as in the case of Hezekiah (2 Kings 20:7; Isa.
38:21) or of the Egyptians (Ex. 9:9, 10, 11; Deut. 28:27, 35). It designates
the disease of Job (2:7), which was probably the black leprosy.
Bolled - (Ex. 9:31), meaning "swollen or
podded for seed," was adopted in the Authorized Version from the version
of Coverdale (1535). The Revised Version has in the margin "was in bloom,"
which is the more probable rendering of the Hebrew word. It is the fact
that in Egypt when barley is in ear (about February) flax is blossoming.
Bolster - The Hebrew word kebir,
rendered "pillow" in 1 Sam. 19:13, 16, but in Revised Version marg. "quilt"
or "network," probably means some counterpane or veil intended to protect
the head of the sleeper. A different Hebrew word (meraashoth') is used for
"bolster" (1 Sam. 26:7, 11, 16). It is rightly rendered in Revised Version
"at his head." In Gen. 28:11, 18 the Authorized Version renders it "for
his pillows," and the Revised Version "under his head." In Ezek. 13:18,
20 another Hebrew word (kesathoth) is used, properly denoting "cushions"
or "pillows," as so rendered both in the Authorized and the Revised Version.
Bond - an obligation of any kind (Num. 30:2,
4, 12). The word means also oppression or affliction (Ps. 116:16; Phil.
1:7). Christian love is the "bond of perfectness" (Col. 3:14), and the influences
of the Spirit are the "bond of peace" (Eph. 4:3).
Bondage - of Israel in Egypt (Ex. 2:23,
25; 5), which is called the "house of bondage" (13:3; 20:2). This word is
used also with reference to the captivity in Babylon (Isa. 14:3), and the
oppression of the Persian king (Ezra 9:8, 9).
Bonnet - (Heb. peer), Ex. 39:28 (R.V.,
"head-tires"); Ezek. 44:18 (R.V., "tires"), denotes properly a turban
worn by priests, and in Isa. 3:20 (R.V., "head-tires") a head-dress or
tiara worn by females. The Hebrew word so rendered literally means an
ornament, as in Isa. 61:10 (R.V., "garland"), and in Ezek. 24:17, 23 "tire"
(R.V., "head-tire"). It consisted of a piece of cloth twisted about the
head. In Ex. 28:40; 29:9 it is the translation of a different Hebrew word
(migba'ah), which denotes the turban (R.V., "head-tire") of the common
priest as distinguished from the mitre of the high priest. (See MITRE.)
Book - This word has a comprehensive meaning
in Scripture. In the Old Testament it is the rendering of the Hebrew word
sepher, which properly means a "writing," and then a "volume" (Ex.
17:14; Deut. 28:58; 29:20; Job 19:23) or "roll of a book" (Jer. 36:2, 4).
Books were originally written on skins, on linen or cotton cloth, and
on Egyptian papyrus, whence our word "paper." The leaves of the book were
generally written in columns, designated by a Hebrew word properly meaning
"doors" and "valves" (Jer. 36:23, R.V., marg. "columns").
Among the Hebrews books were generally rolled up like our maps, or if
very long they were rolled from both ends, forming two rolls (Luke 4:17-20).
Thus they were arranged when the writing was on flexible materials; but
if the writing was on tablets of wood or brass or lead, then the several
tablets were bound together by rings through which a rod was passed.
A sealed book is one whose contents are secret (Isa. 29:11; Rev. 5:1-3).
To "eat" a book (Jer. 15:16; Ezek. 2:8-10; 3:1-3; Rev. 10:9) is to study
its contents carefully.
The book of judgment (Dan. 7:10) refers to the method of human courts
of justice as illustrating the proceedings which will take place at the
day of God's final judgment.
The book of the wars of the Lord (Num. 21:14), the book of Jasher (Josh.
10:13), and the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah and Israel
(2 Chr. 25:26), were probably ancient documents known to the Hebrews,
but not forming a part of the canon.
The book of life (Ps. 69:28) suggests the idea that as the redeemed
form a community or citizenship (Phil. 3:20; 4:3), a catalogue of the
citizens' names is preserved (Luke 10:20; Rev. 20:15). Their names are
registered in heaven (Luke 10:20; Rev. 3:5).
The book of the covenant (Ex. 24:7), containing Ex. 20:22-23:33, is
the first book actually mentioned as a part of the written word. It contains
a series of laws, civil, social, and religious, given to Moses at Sinai
immediately after the delivery of the decalogue. These were written in
Booth - a hut made of the branches of a
tree. In such tabernacles Jacob sojourned for a season at a place named
from this circumstance Succoth (Gen. 33:17). Booths were erected also at
the feast of Tabernacles (q.v.), Lev. 23:42, 43, which commemorated the
abode of the Israelites in the wilderness.
Booty - captives or cattle or objects of
value taken in war. In Canaan all that breathed were to be destroyed (Deut.
20: 16). The "pictures and images" of the Canaanites were to be destroyed
also (Num. 33:52). The law of booty as to its division is laid down in Num.
31:26-47. David afterwards introduced a regulation that the baggage-guard
should share the booty equally with the soldiers engaged in battle. He also
devoted of the spoils of war for the temple (1 Sam. 30:24-26; 2 Sam. 8:11;
1 Chr. 26:27).
Borrow - The Israelites "borrowed" from
the Egyptians (Ex. 12:35, R.V., "asked") in accordance with a divine command
(3:22; 11:2). But the word (sha'al) so rendered here means simply and
always to "request" or "demand." The Hebrew had another word which is
properly translated "borrow" in Deut. 28:12; Ps. 37:21. It was well known
that the parting was final. The Egyptians were so anxious to get the Israelites
away out of their land that "they let them have what they asked" (Ex.
12:36, R.V.), or literally "made them to ask," urged them to take whatever
they desired and depart. (See LOAN.)
Bosom - In the East objects are carried
in the bosom which Europeans carry in the pocket. To have in one's bosom
indicates kindness, secrecy, or intimacy (Gen. 16:5; 2 Sam. 12:8). Christ
is said to have been in "the bosom of the Father," i.e., he had the most
perfect knowledge of the Father, had the closest intimacy with him (John
1:18). John (13:23) was "leaning on Jesus' bosom" at the last supper. Our
Lord carries his lambs in his bosom, i.e., has a tender, watchful care over
them (Isa. 40:11).
Bosor - the Chaldee or Aramaic form of the
name Beor, the father of Balaam (2 Pet. 2:15).
Bosses - the projecting parts of a shield
(Job 15:26). The Hebrew word thus rendered means anything convex or arched,
and hence the back, as of animals.
Botch - the name given in Deut. 28:27, 35
to one of the Egyptian plagues (Ex. 9:9). The word so translated is usually
rendered "boil" (q.v.).
Bottle - a vessel made of skins for holding
wine (Josh. 9:4. 13; 1 Sam. 16:20; Matt. 9:17; Mark 2:22; Luke 5:37, 38),
or milk (Judg. 4:19), or water (Gen. 21:14, 15, 19), or strong drink (Hab.
Earthenware vessels were also similarly used (Jer. 19:1-10; 1 Kings
14:3; Isa. 30:14). In Job 32:19 (comp. Matt. 9:17; Luke 5:37, 38; Mark
2:22) the reference is to a wine-skin ready to burst through the fermentation
of the wine. "Bottles of wine" in the Authorized Version of Hos. 7:5 is
properly rendered in the Revised Version by "the heat of wine," i.e.,
the fever of wine, its intoxicating strength.
The clouds are figuratively called the "bottles of heaven" (Job 38:37).
A bottle blackened or shrivelled by smoke is referred to in Ps. 119:83
as an image to which the psalmist likens himself.
Bow - The bow was in use in early times
both in war and in the chase (Gen. 21:20; 27:3; 48:22). The tribe of Benjamin
were famous for the use of the bow (1 Chr. 8:40; 12:2; 2 Chr. 14:8; 17:17);
so also were the Elamites (Isa. 22:6) and the Lydians (Jer. 46:9). The Hebrew
word commonly used for bow means properly to tread (1 Chr. 5:18; 8:40),
and hence it is concluded that the foot was employed in bending the bow.
Bows of steel (correctly "copper") are mentioned (2 Sam. 22:35; Ps. 18:34).
The arrows were carried in a quiver (Gen. 27:3; Isa. 22:6; 49:2; Ps.
127:5). They were apparently sometimes shot with some burning material
attached to them (Ps. 120:4).
The bow is a symbol of victory (Ps. 7:12). It denotes also falsehood,
deceit (Ps. 64:3, 4; Hos. 7:16; Jer. 9:3).
"The use of the bow" in 2 Sam. 1:18 (A.V.) ought to be "the song of
the bow," as in the Revised Version.
Bowels - (Phil. 1:8; 2:1; Col. 3:12), compassionate
feelings; R.V., "tender mercies."
Bowing - a mode of showing respect. Abraham
"bowed himself to the people of the land" (Gen. 23:7); so Jacob to Esau
(Gen. 33:3); and the brethren of Joseph before him as the governor of the
land (Gen. 43:28). Bowing is also frequently mentioned as an act of adoration
to idols (Josh. 23:7; 2 Kings 5:18; Judg. 2:19; Isa. 44:15), and to God
(Josh. 5:14; Ps. 22:29; 72:9; Micah 6:6; Ps. 95:6; Eph. 3:14).
Bowl - The sockets of the lamps of the golden
candlestick of the tabernacle are called bowls (Ex. 25:31, 33, 34; 37:17,
19, 20); the same word so rendered being elsewhere rendered "cup" (Gen.
44:2, 12, 16), and wine "pot" (Jer. 35:5). The reservoir for oil, from which
pipes led to each lamp in Zechariah's vision of the candlestick, is called
also by this name (Zech. 4:2, 3); so also are the vessels used for libations
(Ex. 25:29; 37:16).
Box - for holding oil or perfumery (Mark
14:3). It was of the form of a flask or bottle. The Hebrew word (pak) used
for it is more appropriately rendered "vial" in 1 Sam. 10:1, and should
also be so rendered in 2 Kings 9:1, where alone else it occurs.
Box-tree - (Heb. teashshur), mentioned in
Isa. 60:13; 41:19, was, according to some, a species of cedar growing in
Lebanon. The words of Ezek. 27:6 literally translated are, "Thy benches
they have made of ivory, the daughter of the ashur tree," i.e., inlaid with
ashur wood. The ashur is the box-tree, and accordingly the Revised Version
rightly reads "inlaid in box wood." This is the Buxus sempervirens of botanists.
It is remarkable for the beauty of its evergreen foliage and for the utility
of its hard and durable wood.
Bozrah - enclosure; fortress. (1.) The city
of Jobab, one of the early Edomite kings (Gen. 36:33). This place is mentioned
by the prophets in later times (Isa. 34:6; Jer. 49:13; Amos 1:12; Micah
2:12). Its modern representative is el-Busseireh. It lies in the mountain
district of Petra, 20 miles to the south-east of the Dead Sea.
(2.) A Moabite city in the "plain country" (Jer. 48:24), i.e., on the
high level down on the east of the Dead Sea. It is probably the modern
Bracelet - (1.) Anklets (Num. 31:50; 2 Sam.
1:10), and with reference to men.
(2.) The rendering of a Hebrew word meaning fasteners, found in Gen.
24:22, 30, 47.
(3.) In Isa. 3:19, the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning chains, i.e.,
twisted or chain-like bracelets.
(4.) In Ex. 35:22 it designates properly a clasp for fastening the dress
of females. Some interpret it as a nose-ring.
(5.) In Gen. 38:18, 25, the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning "thread,"
and may denote the ornamental cord with which the signet was suspended
from the neck of the wearer.
Bracelets were worn by men as well as by women (Cant. 5:14, R.V.). They
were of many various forms. The weight of those presented by Eliezer to
Rebekah was ten shekels (Gen. 24:22).
Bramble - (1.) Hebrew atad, Judg.
9:14; rendered "thorn," Ps. 58:9. The LXX. and Vulgate render by rhamnus,
a thorny shrub common in Palestine, resembling the hawthorn.
(2.) Hebrew hoah, Isa. 34:13 (R.V. "thistles"); "thickets" in
1 Sam. 13:6; "thistles" in 2 Kings 14:9, 2 Chr. 25:18, Job 31:40; "thorns"
in 2 Chr. 33:11, Cant. 2:2, Hos. 9:6. The word may be regarded as denoting
the common thistle, of which there are many species which encumber the
corn-fields of Palestine. (See THORNS.)
Branch - a symbol of kings descended from
royal ancestors (Ezek. 17:3, 10; Dan. 11:7); of prosperity (Job 8:16); of
the Messiah, a branch out of the root of the stem of Jesse (Isa. 11:1),
the "beautiful branch" (4:2), a "righteous branch" (Jer. 23:5), "the Branch"
(Zech. 3:8; 6:12).
Disciples are branches of the true vine (John 15:5, 6). "The branch
of the terrible ones" (Isa. 25:5) is rightly translated in the Revised
Version "the song of the terrible ones," i.e., the song of victory shall
be brought low by the destruction of Babylon and the return of the Jews
The "abominable branch" is a tree on which a malefactor has been hanged
(Isa. 14:19). The "highest branch" in Ezek. 17:3 represents Jehoiakim
Brass - which is an alloy of copper and
zinc, was not known till the thirteenth century. What is designated by this
word in Scripture is properly copper (Deut. 8:9). It was used for fetters
(Judg. 16:21; 2 Kings 25:7), for pieces of armour (1 Sam. 17:5, 6), for
musical instruments (1 Chr. 15:19; 1 Cor. 13:1), and for money (Matt. 10:9).
It is a symbol of insensibility and obstinacy in sin (Isa. 48:4; Jer.
6:28; Ezek. 22:18), and of strength (Ps. 107:16; Micah 4:13).
The Macedonian empire is described as a kingdom of brass (Dan. 2:39).
The "mountains of brass" Zechariah (6:1) speaks of have been supposed
to represent the immutable decrees of God.
The serpent of brass was made by Moses at the command of God (Num. 21:4-9),
and elevated on a pole, so that it might be seen by all the people when
wounded by the bite of the serpents that were sent to them as a punishment
for their murmurings against God and against Moses. It was afterwards
carried by the Jews into Canaan, and preserved by them till the time of
Hezekiah, who caused it to be at length destroyed because it began to
be viewed by the people with superstitious reverence (2 Kings 18:4). (See
The brazen serpent is alluded to by our Lord in John 3:14, 15. (See
Bravery - (Isa. 3:18), an old English word
meaning comeliness or beauty.
Breach - an opening in a wall (1 Kings 11:27;
2 Kings 12:5); the fracture of a limb (Lev. 24:20), and hence the expression,
"Heal, etc." (Ps. 60:2). Judg. 5:17, a bay or harbour; R.V., "by his creeks."
Bread - among the Jews was generally made
of wheat (Ex. 29:2; Judg. 6:19), though also sometimes of other grains (Gen.
14:18; Judg. 7:13). Parched grain was sometimes used for food without any
other preparation (Ruth 2:14).
Bread was prepared by kneading in wooden bowls or "kneading troughs"
(Gen. 18:6; Ex. 12:34; Jer. 7:18). The dough was mixed with leaven and
made into thin cakes, round or oval, and then baked. The bread eaten at
the Passover was always unleavened (Ex. 12:15-20; Deut. 16:3). In the
towns there were public ovens, which were much made use of for baking
bread; there were also bakers by trade (Hos. 7:4; Jer. 37:21). Their ovens
were not unlike those of modern times. But sometimes the bread was baked
by being placed on the ground that had been heated by a fire, and by covering
it with the embers (1 Kings 19:6). This was probably the mode in which
Sarah prepared bread on the occasion referred to in Gen. 18:6.
In Lev. 2 there is an account of the different kinds of bread and cakes
used by the Jews. (See BAKE.)
The shew-bread (q.v.) consisted of twelve loaves of unleavened bread
prepared and presented hot on the golden table every Sabbath. They were
square or oblong, and represented the twelve tribes of Israel. The old
loaves were removed every Sabbath, and were to be eaten only by the priests
in the court of the sanctuary (Ex. 25:30; Lev. 24:8; 1 Sam. 21:1-6; Matt.
The word bread is used figuratively in such expressions as "bread of
sorrows" (Ps. 127:2), "bread of tears" (80:5), i.e., sorrow and tears
are like one's daily bread, they form so great a part in life. The bread
of "wickedness" (Prov. 4:17) and "of deceit" (20:17) denote in like manner
that wickedness and deceit are a part of the daily life.
Breastplate - (1.) That piece of ancient
armour that protected the breast. This word is used figuratively in Eph.
6:14 and Isa. 59:17. (See ARMOUR.)
(2.) An ornament covering the breast of the high priest, first mentioned
in Ex. 25:7. It was made of embroidered cloth, set with four rows of precious
stones, three in each row. On each stone was engraved the name of one
of the twelve tribes (Ex. 28:15-29; 39:8-21). It was in size about ten
inches square. The two upper corners were fastened to the ephod by blue
ribbons. It was not to be "loosed from the ephod" (Ex. 28:28). The lower
corners were fastened to the girdle of the priest. As it reminded the
priest of his representative character, it was called the memorial (28:29).
It was also called the breastplate of judgment (28:15). (See PRIEST.)
Breeches - (Ex. 28:42), rather linen drawers,
reaching from the waist to a little above the knee, worn by the priests
(Ezek. 44:17, 18).
Bribe - None to be taken; "for the gift
maketh open eyes blind, and perverteth the cause of the righteous" (Ex.
23:8, literally rendered).
Bricks - the making of, formed the chief
labour of the Israelites in Egypt (Ex. 1:13, 14). Those found among the
ruins of Babylon and Nineveh are about a foot square and four inches thick.
They were usually dried in the sun, though also sometimes in kilns (2
Sam. 12:31; Jer. 43:9; Nah. 3:14). (See NEBUCHADNEZZAR.)
The bricks used in the tower of Babel were burnt bricks, cemented in
the building by bitumen (Gen. 11:3).
Bride - frequently used in the ordinary
sense (Isa. 49:18; 61:10, etc.). The relation between Christ and his church
is set forth under the figure of that between a bridegroom and bride (John
3:29). The church is called "the bride" (Rev. 21:9; 22:17). Compare parable
of the Ten Virgins (Matt. 25:1-13).
Bridle - Three Hebrew words are thus rendered
in the Authorized Version. (1.) Heb. mahsom' signifies a muzzle or
halter or bridle, by which the rider governs his horse (Ps.39:1).
(2.) Me'theg, rendered also "bit" in Ps. 32:9, which is its proper
meaning. Found in 2 Kings 19:28, where the restraints of God's providence
are metaphorically styled his "bridle" and "hook." God's placing a "bridle
in the jaws of the people" (Isa. 30:28; 37:29) signifies his preventing
the Assyrians from carrying out their purpose against Jerusalem.
(3.) Another word, re'sen, was employed to represent a halter
or bridle-rein, as used Ps. 32:9; Isa. 30:28. In Job 30:11 the restraints
of law and humanity are called a bridle.
Brier - This word occurs frequently, and
is the translation of several different terms. (1.) Micah 7:4, it denotes
a species of thorn shrub used for hedges. In Prov. 15:19 the word is rendered
"thorn" (Heb. hedek, "stinging"), supposed by some to be what is
called the "apple of Sodom" (q.v.).
(2.) Ezek. 28:24, sallon', properly a "prickle," such as is found
on the shoots of the palm tree.
(3.) Isa. 55:13, probably simply a thorny bush. Some, following the
Vulgate Version, regard it as the "nettle."
(4.) Isa. 5:6; 7:23-25, etc., frequently used to denote thorny shrubs
in general. In 10:17; 27:4, it means troublesome men.
(5.) In Heb. 6:8 the Greek word (tribolos) so rendered means "three-pronged,"
and denotes the land caltrop, a low throny shrub resembling in its spikes
the military "crow-foot." Comp. Matt. 7:16, "thistle."
Brigandine - (Jer. 46:4; 51:3), an obsolete
English word denoting a scale coat of armour, or habergeon, worn by light-armed
"brigands." The Revised Version has "coat of mail."
Brimstone - an inflammable mineral substance
found in quantities on the shores of the Dead Sea. The cities of the plain
were destroyed by a rain of fire and brimstone (Gen. 19:24, 25). In Isa.
34:9 allusion is made to the destruction of these cities. This word figuratively
denotes destruction or punishment (Job 18:15; Isa. 30:33; 34:9; Ps. 11:6;
Ezek. 38:22). It is used to express the idea of excruciating torment in
Rev. 14:10; 19:20; 20:10.
Brook - a torrent. (1.) Applied to small
streams, as the Arnon, Jabbok, etc. Isaiah (15:7) speaks of the "book of
the willows," probably the Wady-el-Asha. (2.) It is also applied to winter
torrents (Job 6:15; Num. 34:5; Josh. 15:4, 47), and to the torrent-bed or
wady as well as to the torrent itself (Num. 13:23; 1 Kings 17:3). (3.) In
Isa. 19:7 the river Nile is meant, as rendered in the Revised Version.
Brother - (1.) In the natural and common
sense (Matt. 1:2; Luke 3:1, 19).
(2.) A near relation, a cousin (Gen. 13:8; 14:16; Matt. 12:46; John
7:3; Acts 1:14; Gal. 1:19).
(3.) Simply a fellow-countryman (Matt. 5:47; Acts 3:22; Heb. 7:5).
(4.) A disciple or follower (Matt. 25:40; Heb. 2:11, 12).
(5.) One of the same faith (Amos 1:9; Acts 9:30; 11:29; 1 Cor. 5:11);
whence the early disciples of our Lord were known to each other as brethren.
(6.) A colleague in office (Ezra 3:2; 1 Cor. 1:1; 2 Cor. 1:1).
(7.) A fellow-man (Gen. 9:5; 19:7; Matt. 5:22, 23, 24; 7:5; Heb. 2:17).
(8.) One beloved or closely united with another in affection (2 Sam.
1:26; Acts 6:3; 1 Thess. 5:1). Brethren of Jesus (Matt. 1:25; 12:46, 50:
Mark 3:31, 32; Gal. 1:19; 1 Cor. 9:5, etc.) were probably the younger
children of Joseph and Mary. Some have supposed that they may have been
the children of Joseph by a former marriage, and others that they were
the children of Mary, the Virgin's sister, and wife of Cleophas. The first
interpretation, however, is the most natural.
Bruit - a rumour or report (Jer. 10:22,
R.V. "rumour;" Nah. 3:19).
Bucket - a vessel to draw water with (Isa.
40:15); used figuratively, probably, of a numerous issue (Num. 24:7).
Buckler - (1.) A portable shield (2 Sam.
22:31; 1 Chr. 5:18).
(2.) A shield surrounding the person; the targe or round form; used
once figuratively (Ps. 91:4).
(3.) A large shield protecting the whole body (Ps. 35:2; Ezek. 23:24;
(4.) A lance or spear; improperly rendered "buckler" in the Authorized
Version (1 Chr. 12:8), but correctly in the Revised Version "spear."
The leather of shields required oiling (2 Sam. 1:21; Isa. 21:5), so
as to prevent its being injured by moisture. Copper (= "brass") shields
were also in use (1 Sam. 17:6; 1 Kings 14:27). Those spoken of in 1 Kings
10:16, etc.; 14:26, were probably of massive metal.
The shields David had taken from his enemies were suspended in the temple
as mementoes (2 Kings 11:10). (See ARMOUR, SHIELD.)
Building - among the Jews was suited to
the climate and conditions of the country. They probably adopted the kind
of architecture for their dwellings which they found already existing when
they entered Canaan (Deut. 6:10; Num. 13:19). Phoenician artists (2 Sam.
5:11; 1 Kings 5:6, 18) assisted at the erection of the royal palace and
the temple at Jerusalem. Foreigners also assisted at the restoration of
the temple after the Exile (Ezra 3:7).
In Gen. 11:3, 9, we have the first recorded instance of the erection
of buildings. The cities of the plain of Shinar were founded by the descendants
of Shem (10:11, 12, 22).
The Israelites were by occupation shepherds and dwellers in tents (Gen.
47:3); but from the time of their entering Canaan they became dwellers
in towns, and in houses built of the native limestone of Palestine. Much
building was carried on in Solomon's time. Besides the buildings he completed
at Jerusalem, he also built Baalath and Tadmor (1 Kings 9:15, 24). Many
of the kings of Israel and Judah were engaged in erecting various buildings.
Herod and his sons and successors restored the temple, and built fortifications
and other structures of great magnificence in Jerusalem (Luke 21:5).
The instruments used in building are mentioned as the plumb-line (Amos
7:7), the measuring-reed (Ezek. 40:3), and the saw (1 Kings 7:9).
Believers are "God's building" (1 Cor. 3:9); and heaven is called "a
building of God" (2 Cor. 5:1). Christ is the only foundation of his church
(1 Cor. 3:10-12), of which he also is the builder (Matt. 16:18).
Bul - rainy, the eighth ecclesiastical
month of the year (1 Kings 6:38), and the second month of the civil year;
later called Marchesvan (q.v.). (See MONTH.)
Bullock - (1.) The translation of a word
which is a generic name for horned cattle (Isa. 65:25). It is also rendered
"cow" (Ezek. 4:15), "ox" (Gen. 12:16).
(2.) The translation of a word always meaning an animal of the ox kind,
without distinction of age or sex (Hos. 12:11). It is rendered "cow" (Num.
18:17) and "ox" (Lev. 17:3).
(3.) Another word is rendered in the same way (Jer. 31:18). It is also
translated "calf" (Lev. 9:3; Micah 6:6). It is the same word used of the
"molten calf" (Ex. 32:4, 8) and "the golden calf" (1 Kings 12:28).
(4.) In Judg. 6:25; Isa. 34:7, the Hebrew word is different. It is the
customary word for bulls offered in sacrifice. In Hos. 14:2, the Authorized
Version has "calves," the Revised Version "bullocks."
Bulrush - (1.) In Isa. 58:5 the rendering
of a word which denotes "belonging to a marsh," from the nature of the soil
in which it grows (Isa. 18:2). It was sometimes platted into ropes (Job.
41:2; A.V., "hook," R.V., "rope," lit. "cord of rushes").
(2.) In Ex. 2:3, Isa. 18:2 (R.V., "papyrus") this word is the translation
of the Hebrew gome, which designates the plant as absorbing moisture.
In Isa. 35:7 and Job 8:11 it is rendered "rush." This was the Egyptian
papyrus (papyrus Nilotica). It was anciently very abundant in Egypt. The
Egyptians made garments and shoes and various utensils of it. It was used
for the construction of the ark of Moses (Ex. 2:3, 5). The root portions
of the stem were used for food. The inside bark was cut into strips, which
were sewed together and dried in the sun, forming the papyrus used for
writing. It is no longer found in Egypt, but grows luxuriantly in Palestine,
in the marshes of the Huleh, and in the swamps at the north end of the
Lake of Gennesaret. (See CANE.)
Bulwarks - mural towers, bastions, were
introduced by king Uzziah (2 Chr. 26:15; Zeph. 1:16; Ps. 48:13; Isa. 26:1).
There are five Hebrew words so rendered in the Authorized Version, but the
same word is also variously rendered.
Bunch - (1.) A bundle of twigs (Ex. 12:22).
(2.) Bunch or cake of raisins (2 Sam. 16:1). (3.) The "bunch of a camel"
Burden - (1.) A load of any kind (Ex. 23:5).
(2.) A severe task (Ex. 2:11). (3.) A difficult duty, requiring effort (Ex.
18:22). (4.) A prophecy of a calamitous or disastrous nature (Isa. 13:1;
17:1; Hab. 1:1, etc.).
Burial - The first burial we have an account
of is that of Sarah (Gen. 23). The first commercial transaction recorded
is that of the purchase of a burial-place, for which Abraham weighed to
Ephron "four hundred shekels of silver current money with the merchants."
Thus the patriarch became the owner of a part of the land of Canaan, the
only part he ever possessed. When he himself died, "his sons Isaac and Ishmael
buried him in the cave of Machpelah," beside Sarah his wife (Gen. 25:9).
Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried under Allon-bachuth, "the oak of
weeping" (Gen. 35:8), near to Bethel. Rachel died, and was buried near
Ephrath; "and Jacob set a pillar upon her grave" (16-20). Isaac was buried
at Hebron, where he had died (27, 29). Jacob, when charging his sons to
bury him in the cave of Machpelah, said, "There they buried Abraham and
Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there
I buried Leah" (49:31). In compliance with the oath which he made him
swear unto him (47:29-31), Joseph, assisted by his brethren, buried Jacob
in the cave of Machpelah (50:2, 13). At the Exodus, Moses "took the bones
of Joseph with him," and they were buried in the "parcel of ground" which
Jacob had bought of the sons of Hamor (Josh. 24:32), which became Joseph's
inheritance (Gen. 48:22; 1 Chr. 5:1; John 4:5). Two burials are mentioned
as having taken place in the wilderness. That of Miriam (Num. 20:1), and
that of Moses, "in the land of Moab" (Deut. 34:5, 6, 8). There is no account
of the actual burial of Aaron, which probably, however, took place on
the summit of Mount Hor (Num. 20:28, 29).
Joshua was buried "in the border of his inheritance in Timnath-serah"
(Josh. 24: 30).
In Job we find a reference to burying-places, which were probably the
Pyramids (3:14, 15). The Hebrew word for "waste places" here resembles
in sound the Egyptian word for "pyramids."
Samuel, like Moses, was honoured with a national burial (1 Sam. 25:1).
Joab (1 Kings 2:34) "was buried in his own house in the wilderness."
In connection with the burial of Saul and his three sons we meet for
the first time with the practice of burning the dead (1 Sam. 31:11-13).
The same practice is again referred to by Amos (6:10).
Absalom was buried "in the wood" where he was slain (2 Sam. 18:17, 18).
The raising of the heap of stones over his grave was intended to mark
abhorrence of the person buried (comp. Josh. 7:26 and 8:29). There was
no fixed royal burying-place for the Hebrew kings. We find several royal
burials taking place, however, "in the city of David" (1 Kings 2:10; 11:43;
15:8; 2 Kings 14:19, 20; 15:38; 1 Kings 14:31; 22:50; 2 Chr. 21:19, 20;
2 Chr. 24:25, etc.). Hezekiah was buried in the mount of the sepulchres
of the sons of David; "and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem
did him honour at his death" (2 Chr. 32:33).
Little is said regarding the burial of the kings of Israel. Some of
them were buried in Samaria, the capital of their kingdom (2 Kings 10:35;
Our Lord was buried in a new tomb, hewn out of the rock, which Joseph
of Arimathea had prepared for himself (Matt. 27:57-60; Mark 15:46; John
The grave of Lazarus was "a cave, and a stone lay on it" (John 11:38).
Graves were frequently either natural caverns or artificial excavations
formed in the sides of rocks (Gen. 23:9; Matt. 27:60); and coffins were
seldom used, unless when the body was brought from a distance.
Burnt offering - Hebrew olah; i.e.,
"ascending," the whole being consumed by fire, and regarded as ascending
to God while being consumed. Part of every offering was burnt in the sacred
fire, but this was wholly burnt, a "whole burnt offering." It was the most
frequent form of sacrifice, and apparently the only one mentioned in the
book of Genesis. Such were the sacrifices offered by Abel (Gen. 4:3, 4,
here called minhah; i.e., "a gift"), Noah (Gen. 8:20), Abraham (Gen.
22:2, 7, 8, 13), and by the Hebrews in Egypt (Ex. 10:25).
The law of Moses afterwards prescribed the occasions and the manner
in which burnt sacrifices were to be offered. There were "the continual
burnt offering" (Ex. 29:38-42; Lev. 6:9-13), "the burnt offering of every
sabbath," which was double the daily one (Num. 28:9, 10), "the burnt offering
of every month" (28:11-15), the offerings at the Passover (19-23), at
Pentecost (Lev. 23:16), the feast of Trumpets (23:23-25), and on the day
of Atonement (Lev. 16).
On other occasions special sacrifices were offered, as at the consecration
of Aaron (Ex. 29) and the dedication of the temple (1 Kings 8:5, 62-64).
Free-will burnt offerings were also permitted (Lev. 1:13), and were
offered at the accession of Solomon to the throne (1 Chr. 29:21), and
at the reformation brought about by Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29: 31-35).
These offerings signified the complete dedication of the offerers unto
God. This is referred to in Rom. 12:1. (See ALTAR, SACRIFICE.)
Bush - in which Jehovah appeared to Moses
in the wilderness (Ex. 3:2; Acts 7:30). It is difficult to say what particular
kind of plant or bush is here meant. Probably it was the mimosa or acacia.
The words "in the bush" in Mark 12:26; Luke 20:37, mean "in the passage
or paragraph on the bush;" i.e., in Ex. 3.
Butler - properly a servant in charge of
the wine (Gen. 40:1-13; 41:9). The Hebrew word, mashkeh, thus translated
is rendered also (plural) "cup-bearers" (1 Kings 10:5; 2 Chr. 9:4). Nehemiah
(1:11) was cup-bearer to king Artaxerxes. It was a position of great responsibility
and honour in royal households.
Butter - (Heb. hemah), curdled milk (Gen.
18:8; Judg. 5:25; 2 Sam. 17:29), or butter in the form of the skim of hot
milk or cream, called by the Arabs kaimak, a semi-fluid (Job 20:17; 29:6;
Deut. 32:14). The words of Prov. 30:33 have been rendered by some "the pressure
[not churning] of milk bringeth forth cheese."
Buz - contempt. (1.) The second son of Nahor
and Milcah, and brother of Huz (Gen. 22:21). Elihu was one of his descendants
(2.) One of the chiefs of the tribe of Gad (1 Chr. 5:14).
(3.) A district in Arabia Petrea (Jer. 25:23).
Buzi - the father of the prophet Ezekiel
By - in the expression "by myself" (A.V.,
1 Cor. 4:4), means, as rendered in the Revised Version, "against myself."
By and by - immediately (Matt. 13:21; R.V.,
"straightway;" Luke 21:9).
By-ways - only in Judg. 5:6 and Ps. 125:5;
literally "winding or twisted roads." The margin has "crooked ways."
By-word - Hebrew millah (Job 30:9),
a word or speech, and hence object of talk; Hebrew mashal (Ps. 44:14),
a proverb or parable. When it denotes a sharp word of derision, as in Deut.
28:37, 1 Kings 9:7, 2 Chr. 7:20, the Hebrew sheninah is used. In
Jer. 24:9 it is rendered "taunt."
Cab - hollow (R.V., "kab"), occurs only
in 2 Kings 6:25; a dry measure, the sixth part of a seah, and the eighteenth
part of an ephah, equal to about two English quarts.
Cabins - only in Jer. 37:16 (R.V., "cells"),
arched vaults or recesses off a passage or room; cells for the closer confinement
Cabul - how little! as nothing. (1.) A town
on the eastern border of Asher (Josh. 19:27), probably one of the towns
given by Solomon to Hiram; the modern Kabul, some 8 miles east of Accho,
on the very borders of Galilee.
(2.) A district in the north-west of Galilee, near to Tyre, containing
twenty cities given to Hiram by Solomon as a reward for various services
rendered to him in building the temple (1 Kings 9:13), and as payment
of the six score talents of gold he had borrowed from him. Hiram gave
the cities this name because he was not pleased with the gift, the name
signifying "good for nothing." Hiram seems afterwards to have restored
these cities to Solomon (2 Chr. 8:2).
Caesar - the title assumed by the Roman
emperors after Julius Caesar. In the New Testament this title is given to
various emperors as sovereigns of Judaea without their accompanying distinctive
proper names (John 19:15; Acts 17:7). The Jews paid tribute to Caesar (Matt.
22:17), and all Roman citizens had the right of appeal to him (Acts 25:11).
The Caesars referred to in the New Testament are Augustus (Luke 2:1), Tiberius
(3:1; 20:22), Claudius (Acts 11:28), and Nero (Acts 25:8; Phil. 4:22).
Caesara Philippi - a city on the northeast
of the marshy plain of el-Huleh, 120 miles north of Jerusalem, and 20
miles north of the Sea of Galilee, at the "upper source" of the Jordan,
and near the base of Mount Hermon. It is mentioned in Matt. 16:13 and
Mark 8:27 as the northern limit of our Lord's public ministry. According
to some its original name was Baal-Gad (Josh. 11:17), or Baal-Hermon (Judg.
3:3; 1 Chr. 5:23), when it was a Canaanite sanctuary of Baal. It was afterwards
called Panium or Paneas, from a deep cavern full of water near the town.
This name was given to the cavern by the Greeks of the Macedonian kingdom
of Antioch because of its likeness to the grottos of Greece, which were
always associated with the worship of their god Pan. Its modern name is
Banias. Here Herod built a temple, which he dedicated to Augustus Caesar.
This town was afterwards enlarged and embellished by Herod Philip, the
tetrarch of Trachonitis, of whose territory it formed a part, and was
called by him Caesarea Philippi, partly after his own name, and partly
after that of the emperor Tiberius Caesar. It is thus distinguished from
the Caesarea of Palestine. (See JORDAN.)
Caesarea - (Palestinae), a city on the shore
of the Mediterranean, on the great road from Tyre to Egypt, about 70 miles
northwest of Jerusalem, at the northern extremity of the plain of Sharon.
It was built by Herod the Great (B.C. 10), who named it after Caesar Augustus,
hence called Caesarea Sebaste (Gr. Sebastos = "Augustus"), on the site of
an old town called "Strato's Tower." It was the capital of the Roman province
of Judaea, the seat of the governors or procurators, and the headquarters
of the Roman troops. It was the great Gentile city of Palestine, with a
spacious artificial harbour. It was adorned with many buildings of great
splendour, after the manner of the Roman cities of the West. Here Cornelius
the centurion was converted through the instrumentality of Peter (Acts 10:1,
24), and thus for the first time the door of faith was opened to the Gentiles.
Philip the evangelist resided here with his four daughters (21:8). From
this place Saul sailed for his native Tarsus when forced to flee from Jerusalem
(9:30), and here he landed when returning from his second missionary journey
(18:22). He remained as a prisoner here for two years before his voyage
to Rome (Acts 24:27; 25:1, 4, 6, 13). Here on a "set day," when games were
celebrated in the theatre in honour of the emperor Claudius, Herod Agrippa
I. appeared among the people in great pomp, and in the midst of the idolatrous
homage paid to him was suddenly smitten by an angel, and carried out a dying
man. He was "eaten of worms" (12:19-23), thus perishing by the same loathsome
disease as his granfather, Herod the Great. It still retains its ancient
name Kaiseriyeh, but is now desolate. "The present inhabitants of the ruins
are snakes, scorpions, lizards, wild boars, and jackals." It is described
as the most desolate city of all Palestine.
Cage - (Heb. kelub', Jer. 5:27, marg. "coop;"
rendered "basket" in Amos 8:1), a basket of wicker-work in which birds were
placed after being caught. In Rev. 18:2 it is the rendering of the Greek
phulake, properly a prison or place of confinement.
Caiaphas - the Jewish high priest (A.D.
27-36) at the beginning of our Lord's public ministry, in the reign of
Tiberius (Luke 3:2), and also at the time of his condemnation and crucifixion
(Matt. 26:3,57; John 11:49; 18:13, 14). He held this office during the
whole of Pilate's administration. His wife was the daughter of Annas,
who had formerly been high priest, and was probably the vicar or deputy
(Heb. sagan) of Caiaphas. He was of the sect of the Sadducees (Acts 5:17),
and was a member of the council when he gave his opinion that Jesus should
be put to death "for the people, and that the whole nation perish not"
(John 11:50). In these words he unconsciously uttered a prophecy. "Like
Saul, he was a prophet in spite of himself." Caiaphas had no power to
inflict the punishment of death, and therefore Jesus was sent to Pilate,
the Roman governor, that he might duly pronounce the sentence against
him (Matt. 27:2; John 18:28). At a later period his hostility to the gospel
is still manifest (Acts 4:6). (See ANNAS.)
Cain - a possession; a spear. (1.) The
first-born son of Adam and Eve (Gen. 4). He became a tiller of the ground,
as his brother Abel followed the pursuits of pastoral life. He was "a
sullen, self-willed, haughty, vindictive man; wanting the religious element
in his character, and defiant even in his attitude towards God." It came
to pass "in process of time" (marg. "at the end of days"), i.e., probably
on the Sabbath, that the two brothers presented their offerings to the
Lord. Abel's offering was of the "firstlings of his flock and of the fat,"
while Cain's was "of the fruit of the ground." Abel's sacrifice was "more
excellent" (Heb. 11:4) than Cain's, and was accepted by God. On this account
Cain was "very wroth," and cherished feelings of murderous hatred against
his brother, and was at length guilty of the desperate outrage of putting
him to death (1 John 3:12). For this crime he was expelled from Eden,
and henceforth led the life of an exile, bearing upon him some mark which
God had set upon him in answer to his own cry for mercy, so that thereby
he might be protected from the wrath of his fellow-men; or it may be that
God only gave him some sign to assure him that he would not be slain (Gen.
4:15). Doomed to be a wanderer and a fugitive in the earth, he went forth
into the "land of Nod", i.e., the land of "exile", which is said to have
been in the "east of Eden," and there he built a city, the first we read
of, and called it after his son's name, Enoch. His descendants are enumerated
to the sixth generation. They gradually degenerated in their moral and
spiritual condition till they became wholly corrupt before God. This corruption
prevailed, and at length the Deluge was sent by God to prevent the final
triumph of evil. (See ABEL.)
(2.) A town of the Kenites, a branch of the Midianites (Josh. 15:57),
on the east edge of the mountain above Engedi; probably the "nest in a
rock" mentioned by Balaam (Num. 24:21). It is identified with the modern
Yekin, 3 miles south-east of Hebron.
Cainan - possession; smith. (1.) The fourth
antediluvian patriarch, the eldest son of Enos. He was 70 years old at the
birth of his eldest son Mahalaleel, after which he lived 840 years (Gen.
5:9-14), and was 910 years old when he died. He is also called Kenan (1
(2.) The son of Arphaxad (Luke 3:36). He is nowhere named in the Old
Testament. He is usually called the "second Cainan."
Cake - Cakes made of wheat or barley were
offered in the temple. They were salted, but unleavened (Ex. 29:2; Lev.
2:4). In idolatrous worship thin cakes or wafers were offered "to the queen
of heaven" (Jer. 7:18; 44:19).
Pancakes are described in 2 Sam. 13:8, 9. Cakes mingled with oil and
baked in the oven are mentioned in Lev. 2:4, and "wafers unleavened anointed
with oil," in Ex. 29:2; Lev. 8:26; 1 Chr. 23:29. "Cracknels," a kind of
crisp cakes, were among the things Jeroboam directed his wife to take
with her when she went to consult Ahijah the prophet at Shiloh (1 Kings
14:3). Such hard cakes were carried by the Gibeonites when they came to
Joshua (9:5, 12). They described their bread as "mouldy;" but the Hebrew
word nikuddim, here used, ought rather to be rendered "hard as
biscuit." It is rendered "cracknels" in 1 Kings 14:3. The ordinary bread,
when kept for a few days, became dry and excessively hard. The Gibeonites
pointed to this hardness of their bread as an evidence that they had come
a long journey.
We read also of honey-cakes (Ex. 16:31), "cakes of figs" (1 Sam. 25:18),
"cake" as denoting a whole piece of bread (1 Kings 17:12), and "a [round]
cake of barley bread" (Judg. 7:13). In Lev. 2 is a list of the different
kinds of bread and cakes which were fit for offerings.
Calah - one of the most ancient cities of
Assyria. "Out of that land he [i.e., Nimrod] went forth into Assyria, and
built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, and Calah, and Resen" (Gen. 10:11, R.V.). Its
site is now marked probably by the Nimrud ruins on the left bank of the
Tigris. These cover an area of about 1,000 acres, and are second only in
size and importance to the mass of ruins opposite Mosul. This city was at
one time the capital of the empire, and was the residence of Sardanapalus
and his successors down to the time of Sargon, who built a new capital,
the modern Khorsabad. It has been conjectured that these four cities mentioned
in Gen. 10:11 were afterwards all united into one and called Nineveh (q.v.).
Calamus - the Latin for cane, Hebrew
Kaneh, mentioned (Ex. 30:23) as one of the ingredients in the holy
anointing oil, one of the sweet scents (Cant. 4:14), and among the articles
sold in the markets of Tyre (Ezek. 27:19). The word designates an Oriental
plant called the "sweet flag," the Acorus calamus of Linnaeus. It is elsewhere
called "sweet cane" (Isa. 43:24; Jer. 6:20). It has an aromatic smell,
and when its knotted stalk is cut and dried and reduced to powder, it
forms an ingredient in the most precious perfumes. It was not a native
of Palestine, but was imported from Arabia Felix or from India. It was
probably that which is now known in India by the name of "lemon grass"
or "ginger grass," the Andropogon schoenanthus. (See CANE.)
Calcol - (1 Chr. 2:6), sustenance, the same
probably as Chalcol (1 Kings 4:31), one of the four sages whom Solomon excelled
in wisdom; for "he was wiser than all men."
Caleb - a dog. (1.) One of the three sons
of Hezron of the tribe of Judah. He is also called Chelubai (1 Chr. 2:9).
His descendants are enumerated (18-20, 42-49).
(2.) A "son of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah" (1 Chr. 2:50). Some would
read the whole passage thus: "These [i.e., the list in ver. 42-49] were
the sons of Caleb. The sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah, were Shobal,
etc." Thus Hur would be the name of the son and not the father of Caleb
(3.) The son of Jephunneh (Num. 13:6; 32:12; Josh. 14:6, 14). He was
one of those whom Moses sent to search the land in the second year after
the Exodus. He was one of the family chiefs of the tribe of Judah. He
and Joshua the son of Nun were the only two of the whole number who encouraged
the people to go up and possess the land, and they alone were spared when
a plague broke out in which the other ten spies perished (Num. 13; 14).
All the people that had been numbered, from twenty years old and upward,
perished in the wilderness except these two. The last notice we have of
Caleb is when (being then eighty-five years of age) he came to Joshua
at the camp at Gilgal, after the people had gained possession of the land,
and reminded him of the promise Moses had made to him, by virtue of which
he claimed a certain portion of the land of Kirjath-arba as his inheritance
(Josh. 14:6-15; 15:13-15; 21:10-12; 1 Sam. 25:2,3; 30:14). He is called
a "Kenezite" in Josh. 14:6,14. This may simply mean "son of Kenez" (Num.
32:12). Some, however, read "Jephunneh, the son of Kenez," who was a descendant
of Hezron, the son of Pharez, a grandson of Judah (1 Chr. 2:5). This Caleb
may possibly be identical with (2).
(4.) Caleb gave his name apparently to a part of the south country (1
Sam. 30:14) of Judah, the district between Hebron and Carmel, which had
been assigned to him. When he gave up the city of Hebron to the priests
as a city of refuge, he retained possession of the surrounding country
(Josh. 21:11,12; comp. 1 Sam. 25:3).
Calf - Calves were commonly made use of
in sacrifices, and are therefore frequently mentioned in Scripture. The
"fatted calf" was regarded as the choicest of animal food; it was frequently
also offered as a special sacrifice (1 Sam. 28:24; Amos 6:4; Luke 15:23).
The words used in Jer. 34:18, 19, "cut the calf in twain," allude to the
custom of dividing a sacrifice into two parts, between which the parties
ratifying a covenant passed (Gen. 15:9, 10, 17, 18). The sacrifice of the
lips, i.e., priase, is called "the calves of our lips" (Hos. 14:2, R.V.,
"as bullocks the offering of our lips." Comp. Heb. 13:15; Ps. 116:7; Jer.
The golden calf which Aaron made (Ex. 32:4) was probably a copy of the
god Moloch rather than of the god Apis, the sacred ox or calf of Egypt.
The Jews showed all through their history a tendency toward the Babylonian
and Canaanitish idolatry rather than toward that of Egypt.
Ages after this, Jeroboam, king of Israel, set up two idol calves, one
at Dan, and the other at Bethel, that he might thus prevent the ten tribes
from resorting to Jerusalem for worship (1 Kings 12:28). These calves
continued to be a snare to the people till the time of their captivity.
The calf at Dan was carried away in the reign of Pekah by Tiglath-pileser,
and that at Bethel ten years later, in the reign of Hoshea, by Shalmaneser
(2 Kings 15:29; 17:33). This sin of Jeroboam is almost always mentioned
along with his name (2 Kings 15:28 etc.).
Calkers - workmen skilled in stopping the
seams of the deck or sides of vessels. The inhabitants of Gebel were employed
in such work on Tyrian vessels (Ezek. 27:9, 27; marg., "strengtheners" or
"stoppers of chinks").
Call - (1.) To cry for help, hence to pray
(Gen. 4:26). Thus men are said to "call upon the name of the Lord" (Acts
2:21; 7:59; 9:14; Rom. 10:12; 1 Cor. 1:2).
(2.) God calls with respect to men when he designates them to some special
office (Ex. 31:2; Isa. 22:20; Acts 13:2), and when he invites them to
accept his offered grace (Matt. 9:13; 11:28; 22:4).
In the message of the gospel his call is addressed to all men, to Jews
and Gentiles alike (Matt. 28:19; Mark 16:15; Rom. 9:24, 25). But this
universal call is not inseparably connected with salvation, although it
leaves all to whom it comes inexcusable if they reject it (John 3:14-19;
An effectual call is something more than the outward message of the
Word of God to men. It is internal, and is the result of the enlightening
and sanctifying influence of the Holy Spirit (John 16:14; Acts 26: 18;
John 6:44), effectually drawing men to Christ, and disposing and enabling
them to receive the truth (John 6:45; Acts 16:14; Eph. 1:17).
Calling - a profession, or as we usually
say, a vocation (1 Cor. 7:20). The "hope of your calling" in Eph. 4:4 is
the hope resulting from your being called into the kingdom of God.
Calneh - fort, one of the four cities founded
by Nimrod (Gen. 10:10). It is the modern Niffer, a lofty mound of earth
and rubbish situated in the marshes on the left, i.e., the east, bank of
the Euphrates, but 30 miles distant from its present course, and about 60
miles south-south-east from Babylon. It is mentioned as one of the towns
with which Tyre carried on trade. It was finally taken and probably destroyed
by one of the Assyrian kings (Amos 6:2). It is called Calno (Isa. 10:9)
and Canneh (Ezek. 27:23).
Calvary - only in Luke 23:33, the Latin
name Calvaria, which was used as a translation of the Greek word Kranion,
by which the Hebrew word Gulgoleth was interpreted, "the place
of a skull." It probably took this name from its shape, being a hillock
or low, rounded, bare elevation somewhat in the form of a human skull.
It is nowhere in Scripture called a "hill." The crucifixion of our Lord
took place outside the city walls (Heb. 13:11-13) and near the public
thoroughfare. "This thing was not done in a corner." (See GOLGOTHA.)
Camel - from the Hebrew gamal, "to
repay" or "requite," as the camel does the care of its master. There are
two distinct species of camels, having, however, the common characteristics
of being "ruminants without horns, without muzzle, with nostrils forming
oblique slits, the upper lip divided and separately movable and extensile,
the soles of the feet horny, with two toes covered by claws, the limbs long,
the abdomen drawn up, while the neck, long and slender, is bent up and down,
the reverse of that of a horse, which is arched."
(1.) The Bactrian camel is distinguished by two humps. It is a native
of the high table-lands of Central Asia.
(2.) The Arabian camel or dromedary, from the Greek dromos, "a
runner" (Isa. 60:6; Jer. 2:23), has but one hump, and is a native of Western
Asia or Africa.
The camel was early used both for riding and as a beast of burden (Gen.
24:64; 37:25), and in war (1 Sam. 30:17; Isa. 21:7). Mention is made of
the camel among the cattle given by Pharaoh to Abraham (Gen. 12:16). Its
flesh was not to be eaten, as it was ranked among unclean animals (Lev.
11:4; Deut. 14:7). Abraham's servant rode on a camel when he went to fetch
a wife for Isaac (Gen. 24:10, 11). Jacob had camels as a portion of his
wealth (30:43), as Abraham also had (24:35). He sent a present of thirty
milch camels to his brother Esau (32:15). It appears to have been little
in use among the Jews after the conquest. It is, however, mentioned in
the history of David (1 Chr. 27:30), and after the Exile (Ezra 2:67; Neh.
7:69). Camels were much in use among other nations in the East. The queen
of Sheba came with a caravan of camels when she came to see the wisdom
of Solomon (1 Kings 10:2; 2 Chr. 9:1). Benhadad of Damascus also sent
a present to Elisha, "forty camels' burden" (2 Kings 8:9).
To show the difficulty in the way of a rich man's entering into the
kingdom, our Lord uses the proverbial expression that it was easier for
a camel to go through the eye of a needle (Matt. 19:24).
To strain at (rather, out) a gnat and swallow a camel was also a proverbial
expression (Matt. 23:24), used with reference to those who were careful
to avoid small faults, and yet did not hesitate to commit the greatest
sins. The Jews carefully filtered their wine before drinking it, for fear
of swallowing along with it some insect forbidden in the law as unclean,
and yet they omitted openly the "weightier matters" of the law.
The raiment worn by John the Baptist was made of camel's hair (Matt.
3:4; Mark 1:6), by which he was distinguished from those who resided in
royal palaces and wore soft raiment. This was also the case with Elijah
(2 Kings 1:8), who is called "a hairy man," from his wearing such raiment.
"This is one of the most admirable materials for clothing; it keeps out
the heat, cold, and rain." The "sackcloth" so often alluded to (2 Kings
1:8; Isa. 15:3; Zech. 13:4, etc.) was probably made of camel's hair.
Camon - full of stalks, a place (Judg. 10:5)
where Jair was buried. It has usually been supposed to have been a city
of Gilead, on the east of Jordan. It is probably, however, the modern Tell-el-Kaimun,
on the southern slopes of Carmel, the Jokneam of Carmel (Josh. 12:22; 1
Kings 4:12), since it is not at all unlikely that after he became judge,
Jair might find it more convenient to live on the west side of Jordan; and
that he was buried where he had lived.