Corinth - a Grecian city, on the isthmus which joins the Peloponnesus
to the mainland of Greece. It is about 48 miles west of Athens. The ancient
city was destroyed by the Romans (B.C. 146), and that mentioned in the New
Testament was quite a new city, having been rebuilt about a century afterwards
and peopled by a colony of freedmen from Rome. It became under the Romans
the seat of government for Southern Greece or Achaia (Acts 18:12-16). It
was noted for its wealth, and for the luxurious and immoral and vicious
habits of the people. It had a large mixed population of Romans, Greeks,
and Jews. When Paul first visited the city (A.D. 51 or 52), Gallio, the
brother of Seneca, was proconsul. Here Paul resided for eighteen months
(18:1-18). Here he first became aquainted with Aquila and Priscilla, and
soon after his departure Apollos came to it from Ephesus. After an interval
he visited it a second time, and remained for three months (20:3). During
this second visit his Epistle to the Romans was written (probably A.D. 55).
Although there were many Jewish converts at Corinth, yet the Gentile element
prevailed in the church there.
Some have argued from 2 Cor. 12:14; 13:1, that Paul visited Corinth
a third time (i.e., that on some unrecorded occasion he visited the city
between what are usually called the first and second visits). But the
passages referred to only indicate Paul's intention to visit Corinth (comp.
1 Cor. 16:5, where the Greek present tense denotes an intention), an intention
which was in some way frustrated. We can hardly suppose that such a visit
could have been made by the apostle without more distinct reference to
Corinthians, First Epistle to the - was
written from Ephesus (1 Cor. 16:8) about the time of the Passover in the
third year of the apostle's sojourn there (Acts 19:10; 20:31), and when
he had formed the purpose to visit Macedonia, and then return to Corinth
(probably A.D. 57).
The news which had reached him, however, from Corinth frustrated his
plan. He had heard of the abuses and contentions that had arisen among
them, first from Apollos (Acts 19:1), and then from a letter they had
written him on the subject, and also from some of the "household of Chloe,"
and from Stephanas and his two friends who had visited him (1 Cor. 1:11;
16:17). Paul thereupon wrote this letter, for the purpose of checking
the factious spirit and correcting the erroneous opinions that had sprung
up among them, and remedying the many abuses and disorderly practices
that prevailed. Titus and a brother whose name is not given were probably
the bearers of the letter (2 Cor. 2:13; 8:6, 16-18).
The epistle may be divided into four parts:
(1.) The apostle deals with the subject of the lamentable divisions
and party strifes that had arisen among them (1 Cor. 1-4).
(2.) He next treats of certain cases of immorality that had become notorious
among them. They had apparently set at nought the very first principles
of morality (5; 6).
(3.) In the third part he discusses various questions of doctrine and
of Christian ethics in reply to certain communications they had made to
him. He especially rectifies certain flagrant abuses regarding the celebration
of the Lord's supper (7-14).
(4.) The concluding part (15; 16) contains an elaborate defense of the
doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, which had been called in question
by some among them, followed by some general instructions, intimations,
This epistle "shows the powerful self-control of the apostle in spite
of his physical weakness, his distressed circumstances, his incessant
troubles, and his emotional nature. It was written, he tells us, in bitter
anguish, 'out of much affliction and pressure of heart...and with streaming
eyes' (2 Cor. 2:4); yet he restrained the expression of his feelings,
and wrote with a dignity and holy calm which he thought most calculated
to win back his erring children. It gives a vivid picture of the early
church...It entirely dissipates the dream that the apostolic church was
in an exceptional condition of holiness of life or purity of doctrine."
The apostle in this epistle unfolds and applies great principles fitted
to guide the church of all ages in dealing with the same and kindred evils
in whatever form they may appear.
This is one of the epistles the authenticity of which has never been
called in question by critics of any school, so many and so conclusive
are the evidences of its Pauline origin.
The subscription to this epistle states erroneously in the Authorized
Version that it was written at Philippi. This error arose from a mistranslation
of 1 Cor. 16:5, "For I do pass through Macedonia," which was interpreted
as meaning, "I am passing through Macedonia." In 16:8 he declares his
intention of remaining some time longer in Ephesus. After that, his purpose
is to "pass through Macedonia."
Corinthians, Second Epistle to the - Shortly
after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul left Ephesus, where
intense excitement had been aroused against him, the evidence of his great
success, and proceeded to Macedonia. Pursuing the usual route, he reached
Troas, the port of departure for Europe. Here he expected to meet with Titus,
whom he had sent from Ephesus to Corinth, with tidings of the effects produced
on the church there by the first epistle; but was disappointed (1 Cor. 16:9;
2 Cor. 1:8; 2:12, 13). He then left Troas and proceeded to Macedonia; and
at Philippi, where he tarried, he was soon joined by Titus (2 Cor. 7:6,
7), who brought him good news from Corinth, and also by Timothy. Under the
influence of the feelings awakened in his mind by the favourable report
which Titus brought back from Corinth, this second epistle was written.
It was probably written at Philippi, or, as some think, Thessalonica, early
in the year A.D. 58, and was sent to Corinth by Titus. This letter he addresses
not only to the church in Corinth, but also to the saints in all Achaia,
i.e., in Athens, Cenchrea, and other cities in Greece.
The contents of this epistle may be thus arranged:
(1.) Paul speaks of his spiritual labours and course of life, and expresses
his warm affection toward the Corinthians (2 Cor. 1-7).
(2.) He gives specific directions regarding the collection that was
to be made for their poor brethren in Judea (8; 9).
(3.) He defends his own apostolic claim (10-13), and justifies himself
from the charges and insinuations of the false teacher and his adherents.
This epistle, it has been well said, shows the individuallity of the
apostle more than any other. "Human weakness, spiritual strength, the
deepest tenderness of affection, wounded feeling, sternness, irony, rebuke,
impassioned self-vindication, humility, a just self-respect, zeal for
the welfare of the weak and suffering, as well as for the progress of
the church of Christ and for the spiritual advancement of its members,
are all displayed in turn in the course of his appeal."--Lias, Second
Of the effects produced on the Corinthian church by this epistle we
have no definite information. We know that Paul visited Corinth after
he had written it (Acts 20:2, 3), and that on that occasion he tarried
there for three months. In his letter to Rome, written at this time, he
sent salutations from some of the principal members of the church to the
Cormorant - (Lev. 11:17; Deut. 14:17), Heb.
shalak, "plunging," or "darting down," (the Phalacrocorax carbo), ranked
among the "unclean" birds; of the same family group as the pelican. It is
a "plunging" bird, and is common on the coasts and the island seas of Palestine.
Some think the Hebrew word should be rendered "gannet" (Sula bassana, "the
solan goose"); others that it is the "tern" or "sea swallow," which also
frequents the coasts of Palestine as well as the Sea of Galilee and the
Jordan valley during several months of the year. But there is no reason
to depart from the ordinary rendering.
In Isa. 34:11, Zeph. 2:14 (but in R.V., "pelican") the Hebrew word rendered
by this name is ka'ath. It is translated "pelican" (q.v.) in Ps.
102:6. The word literally means the "vomiter," and the pelican is so called
from its vomiting the shells and other things which it has voraciously
swallowed. (See PELICAN.)
Corn - The word so rendered (dagan) in Gen.
27:28, 37, Num. 18:27, Deut. 28:51, Lam. 2:12, is a general term representing
all the commodities we usually describe by the words corn, grain, seeds,
peas, beans. With this corresponds the use of the word in John 12:24.
In Gen. 41:35, 49, Prov. 11:26, Joel 2:24 ("wheat"), the word thus translated
(bar; i.e., "winnowed") means corn purified from chaff. With this corresponds
the use of the word in the New Testament (Matt. 3:12; Luke 3:17; Acts
7:12). In Ps. 65:13 it means "growing corn."
In Gen. 42:1, 2, 19, Josh. 9:14, Neh. 10:31 ("victuals"), the word (sheber;
i.e., "broken," i.e., grist) denotes generally victuals, provisions, and
corn as a principal article of food.
From the time of Solomon, corn began to be exported from Palestine (Ezek.
27:17; Amos 8:5). "Plenty of corn" was a part of Issac's blessing conferred
upon Jacob (Gen. 27:28; comp. Ps. 65:13).
Cornelius - a centurion whose history
is narrated in Acts 10. He was a "devout man," and like the centurion
of Capernaum, believed in the God of Israel. His residence at Caesrea
probably brought him into contact with Jews who communicated to him their
expectations regarding the Messiah; and thus he was prepared to welcome
the message Peter brought him. He became the first fruit of the Gentile
world to Christ. He and his family were baptized and admitted into the
Christian church (Acts 10:1, 44-48). (See CENTURION.)
Corner - The angle of a house (Job 1:19)
or a street (Prov. 7:8). "Corners" in Neh. 9:22 denotes the various districts
of the promised land allotted to the Israelites. In Num. 24:17, the "corners
of Moab" denotes the whole land of Moab. The "corner of a field" (Lev. 19:9;
23:22) is its extreme part, which was not to be reaped. The Jews were prohibited
from cutting the "corners," i.e., the extremities, of the hair and whiskers
running round the ears (Lev. 19:27; 21:5). The "four corners of the earth"
in Isa. 11:12 and Ezek. 7:2 denotes the whole land. The "corners of the
streets" mentioned in Matt. 6:5 means the angles where streets meet so as
to form a square or place of public resort.
The corner gate of Jerusalem (2 Kings 14:13; 2 Chr. 26:9) was on the
north-west side of the city.
Corner-stone (Job 38:6; Isa. 28:16), a block of great importance in
binding together the sides of a building. The "head of the corner" (Ps.
118:22, 23) denotes the coping, the "coign of vantage", i.e., the topstone
of a building. But the word "corner stone" is sometimes used to denote
some person of rank and importance (Isa. 28:16). It is applied to our
Lord, who was set in highest honour (Matt. 21:42). He is also styled "the
chief corner stone" (Eph. 2:20; 1 Pet. 2:6-8). When Zechariah (10:4),
speaking of Judah, says, "Out of him came forth the corner," he is probably
to be understood as ultimately referring to the Messiah as the "corner
stone." (See TEMPLE, SOLOMON'S.)
Cornet - Heb. shophar, "brightness," with
reference to the clearness of its sound (1 Chr. 15:28; 2 Chr. 15:14; Ps.
98:6; Hos. 5:8). It is usually rendered in the Authorized Version "trumpet."
It denotes the long and straight horn, about eighteen inches long. The words
of Joel, "Blow the trumpet," literally, "Sound the cornet," refer to the
festival which was the preparation for the day of Atonement. In Dan. 3:5,
7, 10, 15, the word (keren) so rendered is a curved horn. The word "cornet"
in 2 Sam. 6:5 (Heb. mena'an'im, occurring only here) was some kind of instrument
played by being shaken like the Egyptian sistrum, consisting of rings or
bells hung loosely on iron rods.
Cotes - pens or enclosures for flocks (2
Chr. 32:28, "cotes for flocks;" R.V., "flocks in folds").
Cottage - (1.) A booth in a vineyard (Isa.
1:8); a temporary shed covered with leaves or straw to shelter the watchman
that kept the garden. These were slight fabrics, and were removed when no
longer needed, or were left to be blown down in winter (Job 27:18).
(2.) A lodging-place (rendered "lodge" in Isa. 1:8); a slighter structure
than the "booth," as the cucumber patch is more temporary than a vineyard
(Isa. 24:20). It denotes a frail structure of boughs supported on a few
poles, which is still in use in the East, or a hammock suspended between
trees, in which the watchman was accustomed to sleep during summer.
(3.) In Zeph. 2:6 it is the rendering of the Hebrew keroth, which
some suppose to denote rather "pits" (R.V. marg., "caves") or "wells of
water," such as shepherds would sink.
Couch - (Gen. 49:4; 1 Chr. 5:1; Job
7:13; Ps. 6:6, etc.), a seat for repose or rest. (See BED.)
Coulter - (1 Sam. 13:20, 21), an agricultural
instrument, elsewhere called "ploughshare" (Isa. 2:4; Micah 4:3; Joel 3:10).
It was the facing-piece of a plough, analogous to the modern coulter.
Council - spoken of counsellors who sat
in public trials with the governor of a province (Acts 25:12).
The Jewish councils were the Sanhedrim, or supreme council of the nation,
which had subordinate to it smaller tribunals (the "judgment," perhaps,
in Matt. 5:21, 22) in the cities of Palestine (Matt. 10:17; Mark 13:9).
In the time of Christ the functions of the Sanhedrim were limited (John
16:2; 2 Cor. 11:24). In Ps. 68:27 the word "council" means simply a company
of persons. (R.V. marg., "company.")
In ecclesiastical history the word is used to denote an assembly of
pastors or bishops for the discussion and regulation of church affairs.
The first of these councils was that of the apostles and elders at Jerusalem,
of which we have a detailed account in Acts 15.
Counsellor - an adviser (Prov. 11:14; 15:22),
a king's state counsellor (2 Sam. 15:12). Used once of the Messiah (Isa.
9:6). In Mark 15:43, Luke 23:50, the word probably means a member of the
Courses - When David was not permitted to
build the temple, he proceeded, among the last acts of his life, with the
assistance of Zadok and Ahimelech, to organize the priestly and musical
services to be conducted in the house of God. (1.) He divided the priests
into twenty-four courses (1 Chr. 24:1-19), sixteen being of the house of
Eleazar and eight of that of Ithamar. Each course was under a head or chief,
and ministered for a week, the order being determined by lot. (2.) The rest
of the 38,000 Levites (23:4) were divided also into twenty-four courses,
each to render some allotted service in public worship: 4,000 in twenty-four
courses were set apart as singers and musicians under separate leaders (25);
4,000 as porters or keepers of the doors and gates of the sanctuary (26:1-19);
and 6,000 as officers and judges to see to the administration of the law
in all civil and ecclesiastical matters (20-32).
This arrangement was re-established by Hezekiah (2 Chr. 31:2); and afterwards
the four sacerdotal courses which are said to have returned from the Captivity
were re-divided into the original number of twenty-four by Ezra (6:18).
Court - the enclosure of the tabernacle
(Ex. 27:9-19; 40:8), of the temple (1 Kings 6:36), of a prison (Neh. 3:25),
of a private house (2 Sam. 17:18), and of a king's palace (2 Kings 20:4).
Covenant - a contract or agreement between
two parties. In the Old Testament the Hebrew word berith is always
thus translated. Berith is derived from a root which means "to cut,"
and hence a covenant is a "cutting," with reference to the cutting or dividing
of animals into two parts, and the contracting parties passing between them,
in making a covenant (Gen. 15; Jer. 34:18, 19).
The corresponding word in the New Testament Greek is diatheke,
which is, however, rendered "testament" generally in the Authorized Version.
It ought to be rendered, just as the word berith of the Old Testament,
This word is used (1) of a covenant or compact between man and man (Gen.
21:32), or between tribes or nations (1 Sam. 11:1; Josh. 9:6, 15). In
entering into a convenant, Jehovah was solemnly called on to witness the
transaction (Gen. 31:50), and hence it was called a "covenant of the Lord"
(1 Sam. 20:8). The marriage compact is called "the covenant of God" (Prov.
2:17), because the marriage was made in God's name. Wicked men are spoken
of as acting as if they had made a "covenant with death" not to destroy
them, or with hell not to devour them (Isa. 28:15, 18).
(2.) The word is used with reference to God's revelation of himself
in the way of promise or of favour to men. Thus God's promise to Noah
after the Flood is called a covenant (Gen. 9; Jer. 33:20, "my covenant").
We have an account of God's covernant with Abraham (Gen. 17, comp. Lev.
26:42), of the covenant of the priesthood (Num. 25:12, 13; Deut. 33:9;
Neh. 13:29), and of the covenant of Sinai (Ex. 34:27, 28; Lev. 26:15),
which was afterwards renewed at different times in the history of Israel
(Deut. 29; Josh. 1:24; 2 Chr. 15; 23; 29; 34; Ezra 10; Neh. 9). In conformity
with human custom, God's covenant is said to be confirmed with an oath
(Deut. 4:31; Ps. 89:3), and to be accompanied by a sign (Gen. 9; 17).
Hence the covenant is called God's "counsel," "oath," "promise" (Ps. 89:3,
4; 105:8-11; Heb. 6:13-20; Luke 1:68-75). God's covenant consists wholly
in the bestowal of blessing (Isa. 59:21; Jer. 31:33, 34).
The term covenant is also used to designate the regular succession of
day and night (Jer. 33:20), the Sabbath (Ex. 31:16), circumcision (Gen.
17:9, 10), and in general any ordinance of God (Jer. 34:13, 14).
A "covenant of salt" signifies an everlasting covenant, in the sealing
or ratifying of which salt, as an emblem of perpetuity, is used (Num.
18:19; Lev. 2:13; 2 Chr. 13:5).
COVENANT OF WORKS, the constitution under which Adam was placed at his
creation. In this covenant, (1.) The contracting parties were (a) God
the moral Governor, and (b) Adam, a free moral agent, and representative
of all his natural posterity (Rom. 5:12-19). (2.) The promise was "life"
(Matt. 19:16, 17; Gal. 3:12). (3.) The condition was perfect obedience
to the law, the test in this case being abstaining from eating the fruit
of the "tree of knowledge," etc. (4.) The penalty was death (Gen. 2:16,
This covenant is also called a covenant of nature, as made with man
in his natural or unfallen state; a covenant of life, because "life" was
the promise attached to obedience; and a legal covenant, because it demanded
perfect obedience to the law.
The "tree of life" was the outward sign and seal of that life which
was promised in the covenant, and hence it is usually called the seal
of that covenant.
This covenant is abrogated under the gospel, inasmuch as Christ has
fulfilled all its conditions in behalf of his people, and now offers salvation
on the condition of faith. It is still in force, however, as it rests
on the immutable justice of God, and is binding on all who have not fled
to Christ and accepted his righteousness.
CONVENANT OF GRACE, the eternal plan of redemption entered into by the
three persons of the Godhead, and carried out by them in its several parts.
In it the Father represented the Godhead in its indivisible sovereignty,
and the Son his people as their surety (John 17:4, 6, 9; Isa. 42:6; Ps.
The conditions of this covenant were, (1.) On the part of the Father
(a) all needful preparation to the Son for the accomplishment of his work
(Heb. 10:5; Isa. 42:1-7); (b) support in the work (Luke 22:43); and (c)
a glorious reward in the exaltation of Christ when his work was done (Phil.
2:6-11), his investiture with universal dominion (John 5:22; Ps. 110:1),
his having the administration of the covenant committed into his hands
(Matt. 28:18; John 1:12; 17:2; Acts 2:33), and in the final salvation
of all his people (Isa. 35:10; 53:10, 11; Jer. 31:33; Titus 1:2). (2.)
On the part of the Son the conditions were (a) his becoming incarnate
(Gal. 4:4, 5); and (b) as the second Adam his representing all his people,
assuming their place and undertaking all their obligations under the violated
covenant of works; (c) obeying the law (Ps. 40:8; Isa. 42:21; John 9:4,
5), and (d) suffering its penalty (Isa. 53; 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 3:13), in
Christ, the mediator of, fulfils all its conditions in behalf of his
people, and dispenses to them all its blessings. In Heb. 8:6; 9:15; 12:24,
this title is given to Christ. (See DISPENSATION.)
Covering of the eyes - occurs only in Gen.
20:16. In the Revised Version the rendering is "it (i.e., Abimelech's present
of 1,000 pieces of silver to Abraham) is for thee a covering of the eyes."
This has been regarded as an implied advice to Sarah to conform to the custom
of married women, and wear a complete veil, covering the eyes as well as
the rest of the face.
Covetousness - a strong desire after the
possession of worldly things (Col. 3:5; Eph. 5:5; Heb. 13:5; 1 Tim. 6:9,
10; Matt. 6:20). It assumes sometimes the more aggravated form of avarice,
which is the mark of cold-hearted worldliness.
Cow - A cow and her calf were not to be
killed on the same day (Lev. 22:28; Ex. 23:19; Deut. 22:6, 7). The reason
for this enactment is not given. A state of great poverty is described in
the words of Isa. 7:21-25, where, instead of possessing great resources,
a man shall depend for the subsistence of himself and his family on what
a single cow and two sheep could yield.
Crane - (Isa. 38:14; Jer. 8:7). In both
of these passages the Authorized Version has reversed the Hebrew order of
the words. "Crane or swallow" should be "swallow or crane," as in the Revised
Version. The rendering is there correct. The Hebrew for crane is 'agur,
the Grus cincerea, a bird well known in Palestine. It is migratory, and
is distinguished by its loud voice, its cry being hoarse and melancholy.
Creation - "In the beginning" God created,
i.e., called into being, all things out of nothing. This creative act on
the part of God was absolutely free, and for infinitely wise reasons. The
cause of all things exists only in the will of God. The work of creation
is attributed (1) to the Godhead (Gen. 1:1, 26); (2) to the Father (1 Cor.
8:6); (3) to the Son (John 1:3; Col. 1:16, 17); (4) to the Holy Spirit (Gen.
1:2; Job 26:13; Ps. 104:30). The fact that he is the Creator distinguishes
Jehovah as the true God (Isa. 37:16; 40:12, 13; 54:5; Ps. 96:5; Jer. 10:11,
12). The one great end in the work of creation is the manifestation of the
glory of the Creator (Col. 1:16; Rev. 4:11; Rom. 11:36). God's works, equally
with God's word, are a revelation from him; and between the teachings of
the one and those of the other, when rightly understood, there can be no
Traditions of the creation, disfigured by corruptions, are found among
the records of ancient Eastern nations. (See ACCAD.) A peculiar interest
belongs to the traditions of the Accadians, the primitive inhabitants
of the plains of Lower Mesopotamia. These within the last few years have
been brought to light in the tablets and cylinders which have been rescued
from the long-buried palaces and temples of Assyria. They bear a remarkable
resemblance to the record of Genesis.
Creature - denotes the whole creation in
Rom. 8:39; Col. 1:15; Rev. 5:13; the whole human race in Mark 16:15; Rom.
The living creatures in Ezek. 10:15, 17, are imaginary beings, symbols
of the Divine attributes and operations.
Crescens - increasing, probably one of the
seventy disciples of Christ. He was one of Paul's assistants (2 Tim. 4:10),
probably a Christian of Rome.
Crete - now called Candia, one of the largest
islands in the Meditterranean, about 140 miles long and 35 broad. It was
at one time a very prosperous and populous island, having a "hundred cities."
The character of the people is described in Paul's quotation from "one of
their own poets" (Epimenides) in his epistle to Titus: "The Cretans are
alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies" (Titus 1:12). Jews from Crete were
in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:11). The island was visited
by Paul on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27). Here Paul subsequently left Titus
(1:5) "to ordain elders." Some have supposed that it was the original home
of the Caphtorim (q.v.) or Philistines.
Crimson - See COLOUR.
Crisping-pin - (Isa. 3:22; R.V., "satchel"),
some kind of female ornament, probably like the modern reticule. The Hebrew
word harit properly signifies pouch or casket or purse. It is rendered
"bag" in 2 Kings 5:23.
Crispus - curled, the chief of the synagogue
at Corinth (Acts 18:8). He was converted and, with his family, baptized
by Paul (1 Cor. 1:14).
Cross - in the New Testament the instrument
of crucifixion, and hence used for the crucifixion of Christ itself (Eph.
2:16; Heb. 12:2; 1 Cor. 1:17, 18; Gal. 5:11; 6:12, 14; Phil. 3:18). The
word is also used to denote any severe affliction or trial (Matt. 10:38;
16:24; Mark 8:34; 10:21).
The forms in which the cross is represented are these:
1. The crux simplex (I), a "single piece without transom."
2. The crux decussata (X), or St. Andrew's cross.
3. The crux commissa (T), or St. Anthony's cross.
4. The crux immissa (t), or Latin cross, which was the kind of cross
on which our Saviour died. Above our Lord's head, on the projecting beam,
was placed the "title." (See CRUCIFIXION.)
After the conversion, so-called, of Constantine the Great (B.C. 313),
the cross first came into use as an emblem of Christianity. He pretended
at a critical moment that he saw a flaming cross in the heavens bearing
the inscription, "In hoc signo vinces", i.e., By this sign thou shalt
conquer, and that on the following night Christ himself appeared and ordered
him to take for his standard the sign of this cross. In this form a new
standard, called the Labarum, was accordingly made, and borne by the Roman
armies. It remained the standard of the Roman army till the downfall of
the Western empire. It bore the embroidered monogram of Christ, i.e.,
the first two Greek letters of his name, X and P (chi and rho), with the
Alpha and Omega. (See A.)
Crown - (1.) Denotes the plate of gold in
the front of the high priest's mitre (Ex. 29:6; 39:30). The same Hebrew
word so rendered (ne'zer) denotes the diadem worn by Saul in battle (2 Sam.
1:10), and also that which was used at the coronation of Joash (2 Kings
(2.) The more general name in Hebrew for a crown is 'atarah,
meaning a "circlet." This is used of crowns and head ornaments of divers
kinds, including royal crowns. Such was the crown taken from the king
of Ammon by David (2 Sam. 12:30). The crown worn by the Assyrian kings
was a high mitre, sometimes adorned with flowers. There are sculptures
also representing the crowns worn by the early Egyptian and Persian kings.
Sometimes a diadem surrounded the royal head-dress of two or three fillets.
This probably signified that the wearer had dominion over two or three
countries. In Rev. 12:3; 13:1, we read of "many crowns," a token of extended
(3.) The ancient Persian crown (Esther 1:11; 2:17; 6:8) was called kether;
i.e., "a chaplet," a high cap or tiara. Crowns were worn sometimes to
represent honour and power (Ezek. 23:42). They were worn at marriages
(Cant. 3:11; Isa. 61:10, "ornaments;" R.V., "a garland"), and at feasts
and public festivals.
The crown was among the Romans and Greeks a symbol of victory and reward.
The crown or wreath worn by the victors in the Olympic games was made
of leaves of the wild olive; in the Pythian games, of laurel; in the Nemean
games, of parsley; and in the Isthmian games, of the pine. The Romans
bestowed the "civic crown" on him who saved the life of a citizen. It
was made of the leaves of the oak. In opposition to all these fading crowns
the apostles speak of the incorruptible crown, the crown of life (James
1:12; Rev. 2:10) "that fadeth not away" (1 Pet. 5:4, Gr. amarantinos;
comp. 1:4). Probably the word "amaranth" was applied to flowers we call
"everlasting," the "immortal amaranth."
Crown of thorns - our Lord was crowned
with a, in mockery by the Romans (Matt. 27:29). The object of Pilate's
guard in doing this was probably to insult, and not specially to inflict
pain. There is nothing to show that the shrub thus used was, as has been
supposed, the spina Christi, which could have been easily woven into a
wreath. It was probably the thorny nabk, which grew abundantly round about
Jerusalem, and whose flexible, pliant, and round branches could easily
be platted into the form of a crown. (See THORN.)
Crucifixion - a common mode of punishment
among heathen nations in early times. It is not certain whether it was known
among the ancient Jews; probably it was not. The modes of capital punishment
according to the Mosaic law were, by the sword (Ex. 21), strangling, fire
(Lev. 20), and stoning (Deut. 21).
This was regarded as the most horrible form of death, and to a Jew it
would acquire greater horror from the curse in Deut. 21:23.
This punishment began by subjecting the sufferer to scourging. In the
case of our Lord, however, his scourging was rather before the sentence
was passed upon him, and was inflicted by Pilate for the purpose, probably,
of exciting pity and procuring his escape from further punishment (Luke
23:22; John 19:1).
The condemned one carried his own cross to the place of execution, which
was outside the city, in some conspicuous place set apart for the purpose.
Before the nailing to the cross took place, a medicated cup of vinegar
mixed with gall and myrrh (the sopor) was given, for the purpose of deadening
the pangs of the sufferer. Our Lord refused this cup, that his senses
might be clear (Matt. 27:34). The spongeful of vinegar, sour wine, posca,
the common drink of the Roman soldiers, which was put on a hyssop stalk
and offered to our Lord in contemptuous pity (Matt. 27:48; Luke 23:36),
he tasted to allay the agonies of his thirst (John 19:29). The accounts
given of the crucifixion of our Lord are in entire agreement with the
customs and practices of the Roman in such cases. He was crucified between
two "malefactors" (Isa. 53:12; Luke 23:32), and was watched by a party
of four soldiers (John 19:23; Matt. 27:36, 54), with their centurion.
The "breaking of the legs" of the malefactors was intended to hasten death,
and put them out of misery (John 19:31); but the unusual rapidity of our
Lord's death (19:33) was due to his previous sufferings and his great
mental anguish. The omission of the breaking of his legs was the fulfilment
of a type (Ex. 12:46). He literally died of a broken heart, a ruptured
heart, and hence the flowing of blood and water from the wound made by
the soldier's spear (John 19:34). Our Lord uttered seven memorable words
from the cross, namely, (1) Luke 23:34; (2) 23:43; (3) John 19:26; (4)
Matt. 27:46, Mark 15:34; (5) John 19:28; (6) 19:30; (7) Luke 23:46.
Cruse - a utensil; a flask or cup for holding
water (1 Sam. 26:11, 12, 16; 1 Kings 19:6) or oil (1 Kings 17:12, 14, 16).
In 1 Kings 14:3 the word there so rendered means properly a bottle, as in
Jer. 19:1, 10, or pitcher. In 2 Kings 2:20, a platter or flat metal saucer
is intended. The Hebrew word here used is translated "dish" in 21:13; "pans,"
in 2 Chr. 35:13; and "bosom," in Prov. 19:24; 26:15 (R.V., "dish").
Crystal - (Ezek. 1:22, with the epithet
"terrible," as dazzling the spectators with its brightness). The word occurs
in Rev. 4:6; 21:11; 22:1. It is a stone of the flint order, the most refined
kind of quartz. The Greek word here used means also literally "ice." The
ancients regarded the crystal as only pure water congealed into extreme
hardness by great length of time.
Cubit - Heb. 'ammah; i.e., "mother of the
arm," the fore-arm, is a word derived from the Latin cubitus, the lower
arm. It is difficult to determine the exact length of this measure, from
the uncertainty whether it included the entire length from the elbow to
the tip of the longest finger, or only from the elbow to the root of the
hand at the wrist. The probability is that the longer was the original cubit.
The common computation as to the length of the cubit makes it 20.24 inches
for the ordinary cubit, and 21.888 inches for the sacred one. This is the
same as the Egyptian measurements.
A rod or staff the measure of a cubit is called in Judg. 3:16 gomed,
which literally means a "cut," something "cut off." The LXX. and Vulgate
render it "span."
Cuckoo - (Heb. shahaph), from a root meaning
"to be lean; slender." This bird is mentioned only in Lev. 11:16 and Deut.
14:15 (R.V., "seamew"). Some have interpreted the Hebrew word by "petrel"
or "shearwater" (Puffinus cinereus), which is found on the coast of Syria;
others think it denotes the "sea-gull" or "seamew." The common cuckoo (Cuculus
canorus) feeds on reptiles and large insects. It is found in Asia and Africa
as well as in Europe. It only passes the winter in Palestine. The Arabs
suppose it to utter the cry Yakub_, and hence they call it _tir el-Yakub;
i.e., "Jacob's bird."
Cucumbers - (Heb. plur. kishshuim; i.e.,
"hard," "difficult" of digestion, only in Num. 11:5). This vegetable is
extensively cultivated in the East at the present day, as it appears to
have been in earlier times among the Hebrews. It belongs to the gourd family
of plants. In the East its cooling pulp and juice are most refreshing. "We
need not altogether wonder that the Israelites, wearily marching through
the arid solitudes of the Sinaitic peninsula, thought more of the cucumbers
and watermelons of which they had had no lack in Egypt, rather than of the
cruel bondage which was the price of these luxuries." Groser's Scripture
Isaiah speaks of a "lodge" (1:8; Heb. sukkah), i.e., a shed or edifice
more solid than a booth, for the protection throughout the season from
spring to autumn of the watchers in a "garden of cucumbers."
Cummin - (Heb. kammon; i.e., a "condiment"),
the fruit or seed of an umbelliferous plant, the Cuminum sativum, still
extensively cultivated in the East. Its fruit is mentioned in Isa. 28:25,
27. In the New Testament it is mentioned in Matt. 23:23, where our Lord
pronounces a "woe" on the scribes and Pharisees, who were zealous in paying
tithes of "mint and anise and cummin," while they omitted the weightier
matters of the law." "It is used as a spice, both bruised, to mix with bread,
and also boiled, in the various messes and stews which compose an Oriental
banquet." Tristram, Natural History.
Cup - a wine-cup (Gen. 40:11, 21), various
forms of which are found on Assyrian and Egyptian monuments. All Solomon's
drinking vessels were of gold (1 Kings 10: 21). The cups mentioned in the
New Testament were made after Roman and Greek models, and were sometimes
of gold (Rev. 17:4).
The art of divining by means of a cup was practiced in Egypt (Gen. 44:2-17),
and in the East generally.
The "cup of salvation" (Ps. 116:13) is the cup of thanksgiving for the
great salvation. The "cup of consolation" (Jer. 16:7) refers to the custom
of friends sending viands and wine to console relatives in mourning (Prov.
31:6). In 1 Cor. 10:16, the "cup of blessing" is contrasted with the "cup
of devils" (1 Cor. 10:21). The sacramental cup is the "cup of blessing,"
because of blessing pronounced over it (Matt. 26:27; Luke 22:17). The
"portion of the cup" (Ps. 11:6; 16:5) denotes one's condition of life,
prosperous or adverse. A "cup" is also a type of sensual allurement (Jer.
51:7; Prov. 23:31; Rev. 17:4). We read also of the "cup of astonishment,"
the "cup of trembling," and the "cup of God's wrath" (Ps. 75:8; Isa. 51:17;
Jer. 25:15; Lam. 4:21; Ezek. 23:32; Rev. 16:19; comp. Matt. 26:39, 42;
John 18:11). The cup is also the symbol of death (Matt. 16:28; Mark 9:1;
Cup-bearer - an officer of high rank with
Egyptian, Persian, Assyrian, and Jewish monarchs. The cup-bearer of the
king of Egypt is mentioned in connection with Joseph's history (Gen. 40:1-21;
41:9). Rabshakeh (q.v.) was cup-bearer in the Assyrian court (2 Kings 18:17).
Nehemiah filled this office to the king of Persia (Neh. 1:11). We read also
of Solomon's cup-bearers (1 Kings 10:5; 2 Chr. 9:4).
Curious arts - (Acts 19:19), magical arts;
jugglery practised by the Ephesian conjurers. Ephesus was noted for its
wizard and the "Ephesian spells;" i.e., charms or scraps of parchment written
over with certain formula, which were worn as a safeguard against all manner
of evils. The more important and powerful of these charms were written out
in books which circulated among the exorcists, and were sold at a great
Curse - denounced by God against the serpent
(Gen. 3:14), and against Cain (4:11). These divine maledictions carried
their effect with them. Prophetical curses were sometimes pronounced by
holy men (Gen. 9:25; 49:7; Deut. 27:15; Josh. 6:26). Such curses are not
the consequence of passion or revenge, they are predictions.
No one on pain of death shall curse father or mother (Ex. 21:17), nor
the prince of his people (22:28), nor the deaf (Lev. 19:14). Cursing God
or blaspheming was punishable by death (Lev. 24:10-16). The words "curse
God and die" (R.V., "renounce God and die"), used by Job's wife (Job 2:9),
have been variously interpreted. Perhaps they simply mean that as nothing
but death was expected, God would by this cursing at once interpose and
destroy Job, and so put an end to his sufferings.
Curtain - (1.) Ten curtains, each twenty-eight
cubits long and four wide, made of fine linen, also eleven made of goat's
hair, covered the tabernacle (Ex. 26:1-13; 36:8-17).
(2.) The sacred curtain, separating the holy of holies from the sanctuary,
is designated by a different Hebrew word (peroketh). It is described as
a "veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen of cunning
work" (Ex. 26:31; Lev. 16:2; Num. 18:7).
(3.) "Stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain" (Isa. 40:22), is an expression
used with reference to the veil or awning which Orientals spread for a
screen over their courts in summer. According to the prophet, the heavens
are spread over our heads as such an awning. Similar expressions are found
in Ps. 104:2l; comp. Isa. 44:24; Job 9:8.
Cush - black. (1.) A son, probably the eldest,
of Ham, and the father of Nimrod (Gen. 10:8; 1 Chr. 1:10). From him the
land of Cush seems to have derived its name. The question of the precise
locality of the land of Cush has given rise to not a little controversy.
The second river of Paradise surrounded the whole land of Cush (Gen. 2:13,
R.V.). The term Cush is in the Old Testament generally applied to the countries
south of the Israelites. It was the southern limit of Egypt (Ezek. 29:10,
A.V. "Ethiopia," Heb. Cush), with which it is generally associated (Ps.
68:31; Isa. 18:1; Jer. 46:9, etc.). It stands also associated with Elam
(Isa. 11:11), with Persia (Ezek. 38:5), and with the Sabeans (Isa. 45:14).
From these facts it has been inferred that Cush included Arabia and the
country on the west coast of the Red Sea. Rawlinson takes it to be the country
still known as Khuzi-stan, on the east side of the Lower Tigris. But there
are intimations which warrant the conclusion that there was also a Cush
in Africa, the Ethiopia (so called by the Greeks) of Africa. Ezekiel speaks
(29:10; comp. 30:4-6) of it as lying south of Egypt. It was the country
now known to us as Nubia and Abyssinia (Isa. 18:1; Zeph. 3:10, Heb. Cush).
In ancient Egyptian inscriptions Ethiopia is termed Kesh. The Cushites
appear to have spread along extensive tracts, stretching from the Upper
Nile to the Euphrates and Tigris. At an early period there was a stream
of migration of Cushites "from Ethiopia, properly so called, through Arabia,
Babylonia, and Persia, to Western India." The Hamite races, soon after their
arrival in Africa, began to spread north, east, and west. Three branches
of the Cushite or Ethiopian stock, moving from Western Asia, settled in
the regions contiguous to the Persian Gulf. One branch, called the Cossaeans,
settled in the mountainous district on the east of the Tigris, known afterwards
as Susiana; another occupied the lower regions of the Euphrates and the
Tigris; while a third colonized the southern shores and islands of the gulf,
whence they afterwards emigrated to the Mediterranean and settled on the
coast of Palestine as the Phoenicians. Nimrod was a great Cushite chief.
He conquered the Accadians, a Tauranian race, already settled in Mesopotamia,
and founded his kingdom, the Cushites mingling with the Accads, and so forming
the Chaldean nation.
(2.) A Benjamite of this name is mentioned in the title of Ps. 7. "Cush
was probably a follower of Saul, the head of his tribe, and had sought
the friendship of David for the purpose of 'rewarding evil to him that
was at peace with him.'"
Cushan - probably a poetic or prolonged
name of the land of Cush, the Arabian Cush (Hab. 3:7). Some have, however,
supposed this to be the same as Chushan-rishathaim (Judg. 3:8, 10), i.e.,
taking the latter part of the name as a title or local appellation, Chushan
"of the two iniquities" (= oppressing Israel, and provoking them to idolatry),
a Mesopotamian king, identified by Rawlinson with Asshur-ris-ilim (the father
of Tiglathpileser I.); but incorrectly, for the empire of Assyria was not
yet founded. He held Israel in bondage for eight years.
Cushite - (1.) The messenger sent by Joab
to David to announce his victory over Absalom (2 Sam. 18:32).
(2.) The father of Shelemiah (Jer. 36:14).
(3.) Son of Gedaliah, and father of the prophet Zephaniah (1:1).
(4.) Moses married a Cushite woman (Num. 12:1). From this circumstance
some have supposed that Zipporah was meant, and hence that Midian was
Custom - a tax imposed by the Romans. The
tax-gatherers were termed publicans (q.v.), who had their stations at the
gates of cities, and in the public highways, and at the place set apart
for that purpose, called the "receipt of custom" (Matt.9: 9; Mark 2:14),
where they collected the money that was to be paid on certain goods (Matt.17:25).
These publicans were tempted to exact more from the people than was lawful,
and were, in consequence of their extortions, objects of great hatred. The
Pharisees would have no intercourse with them (Matt.5:46, 47; 9:10, 11).
A tax or tribute (q.v.) of half a shekel was annually paid by every
adult Jew for the temple. It had to be paid in Jewish coin (Matt. 22:17-19;
Mark 12:14, 15). Money-changers (q.v.) were necessary, to enable the Jews
who came up to Jerusalem at the feasts to exchange their foreign coin
for Jewish money; but as it was forbidden by the law to carry on such
a traffic for emolument (Deut. 23:19, 20), our Lord drove them from the
temple (Matt. 21:12: Mark 11:15).
Cuthah - one of the Babylonian cities or
districts from which Shalmaneser transplanted certain colonists to Samaria
(2 Kings 17:24). Some have conjectured that the "Cutheans" were identical
with the "Cossaeans" who inhabited the hill-country to the north of the
river Choaspes. Cuthah is now identified with Tell Ibrahim, 15 miles north-east
Cutting - the flesh in various ways was
an idolatrous practice, a part of idol-worship (Deut. 14:1; 1 Kings 18:28).
The Israelites were commanded not to imitate this practice (Lev. 19:28;
21:5; Deut. 14:1). The tearing of the flesh from grief and anguish of spirit
in mourning for the dead was regarded as a mark of affection (Jer. 16:6;
Allusions are made in Revelation (13:16; 17:5; 19:20) to the practice
of printing marks on the body, to indicate allegiance to a deity. We find
also references to it, through in a different direction, by Paul (Gal.
6; 7) and by Ezekiel (9:4). (See HAIR.)
Cymbals - (Heb. tzeltzelim, from a root
meaning to "tinkle"), musical instruments, consisting of two convex pieces
of brass one held in each hand, which were clashed together to produce a
loud clanging sound; castanets; "loud cymbals." "Highsounding cymbals" consisted
of two larger plates, one held also in each hand (2 Sam. 6:5; Ps. 150:5;
1 Chr. 13:8; 15:16, 19, 28; 1 Cor. 13:1).
Cypress - (Heb. tirzah, "hardness"), mentioned
only in Isa. 44:14 (R.V., "holm tree"). The oldest Latin version translates
this word by ilex, i.e., the evergreen oak, which may possibly have been
the tree intended; but there is great probability that our Authorized Version
is correct in rendering it "cypress." This tree grows abundantly on the
mountains of Hermon. Its wood is hard and fragrant, and very durable. Its
foliage is dark and gloomy. It is an evergreen (Cupressus sempervirens).
"Throughout the East it is used as a funereal tree; and its dark, tall,
waving plumes render it peculiarly appropriate among the tombs."
Cyprus - one of the largest islands
of the Mediterranean, about 148 miles long and 40 broad. It is distant
about 60 miles from the Syrian coast. It was the "Chittim" of the Old
Testament (Num. 24:24). The Greek colonists gave it the name of Kypros,
from the cyprus, i.e., the henna (see CAMPHIRE), which grew on this island.
It was originally inhabited by Phoenicians. In B.C. 477 it fell under
the dominion of the Greeks; and became a Roman province B.C. 58. In ancient
times it was a centre of great commercial activity. Corn and wine and
oil were produced here in the greatest perfection. It was rich also in
timber and in mineral wealth.
It is first mentioned in the New Testament (Acts 4:36) as the native
place of Barnabas. It was the scene of Paul's first missionary labours
(13:4-13), when he and Barnabas and John Mark were sent forth by the church
of Antioch. It was afterwards visited by Barnabas and Mark alone (15:39).
Mnason, an "old disciple," probaly one of the converts of the day of Pentecost
belonging to this island, is mentioned (21:16). It is also mentioned in
connection with the voyages of Paul (Acts 21:3; 27:4). After being under
the Turks for three hundred years, it was given up to the British Government
Cyrene - a city (now Tripoli) in Upper Libya,
North Africa, founded by a colony of Greeks (B.C. 630). It contained latterly
a large number of Jews, who were introduced into the city by Ptolemy, the
son of Lagus, because he thought they would contribute to the security of
the place. They increased in number and influence; and we are thus prepared
for the frequent references to them in connection with the early history
of Christianity. Simon, who bore our Lord's cross, was a native of this
place (Matt. 27:32; Mark 15:21). Jews from Cyrene were in Jerusalem at Pentecost
(Acts 2:10); and Cyrenian Jews had a synagogue at Jerusalem (6:9). Converts
belonging to Cyrene contributed to the formation of the first Gentile church
at Antioch (11:20). Among "the prophets and teachers" who "ministered to
the Lord at Antioch" was Lucius of Cyrene (13:1).
Cyrenius - the Grecized form of Quirinus.
His full name was Publius Sulpicius Quirinus. Recent historical investigation
has proved that Quirinus was governor of Cilicia, which was annexed to
Syria at the time of our Lord's birth. Cilicia, which he ruled, being
a province of Syria, he is called the governor, which he was de jure,
of Syria. Some ten years afterwards he was appointed governor of Syria
for the second time. During his tenure of office, at the time of our Lord's
birth (Luke 2:2), a "taxing" (R.V., "enrolment;" i.e., a registration)
of the people was "first made;" i.e., was made for the first time under
his government. (See TAXING.)
Cyrus - (Heb. Ko'resh), the celebrated "King
of Persia" (Elam) who was conqueror of Babylon, and issued the decree of
liberation to the Jews (Ezra 1:1, 2). He was the son of Cambyses, the prince
of Persia, and was born about B.C. 599. In the year B.C. 559 he became king
of Persia, the kingdom of Media being added to it partly by conquest. Cyrus
was a great military leader, bent on universal conquest. Babylon fell before
his army (B.C. 538) on the night of Belshazzar's feast (Dan. 5:30), and
then the ancient dominion of Assyria was also added to his empire (cf.,
"Go up, O Elam", Isa.21:2).
Hitherto the great kings of the earth had only oppressed the Jews. Cyrus
was to them as a "shepherd" (Isa. 44:28; 45:1). God employed him in doing
service to his ancient people. He may posibly have gained, through contact
with the Jews, some knowledge of their religion.
The "first year of Cyrus" (Ezra 1:1) is not the year of his elevation
to power over the Medes, nor over the Persians, nor the year of the fall
of Babylon, but the year succeeding the two years during which "Darius
the Mede" was viceroy in Babylon after its fall. At this time only (B.C.
536) Cyrus became actual king over Palestine, which became a part of his
Babylonian empire. The edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of Jerusalem
marked a great epoch in the history of the Jewish people (2 Chr. 36:22,
23; Ezra 1:1-4; 4:3; 5:13-17; 6:3-5).
This decree was discovered "at Achmetha [R.V. marg., "Ecbatana"], in
the palace that is in the province of the Medes" (Ezra 6:2). A chronicle
drawn up just after the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus, gives the history
of the reign of Nabonidus (Nabunahid), the last king of Babylon, and of
the fall of the Babylonian empire. In B.C. 538 there was a revolt in Southern
Babylonia, while the army of Cyrus entered the country from the north.
In June the Babylonian army was completely defeated at Opis, and immediately
afterwards Sippara opened its gates to the conqueror. Gobryas (Ugbaru),
the governor of Kurdistan, was then sent to Babylon, which surrendered
"without fighting," and the daily services in the temples continued without
a break. In October, Cyrus himself arrived, and proclaimed a general amnesty,
which was communicated by Gobryas to "all the province of Babylon," of
which he had been made governor. Meanwhile, Nabonidus, who had concealed
himself, was captured, but treated honourably; and when his wife died,
Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, conducted the funeral. Cyrus now assumed the
title of "king of Babylon," claimed to be the descendant of the ancient
kings, and made rich offerings to the temples. At the same time he allowed
the foreign populations who had been deported to Babylonia to return to
their old homes, carrying with them the images of their gods. Among these
populations were the Jews, who, as they had no images, took with them
the sacred vessels of the temple.
Daberath - pasture, a Levitical town of
Issachar (Josh. 19:12; 21:28), near the border of Zebulum. It is the modern
small village of Deburich, at the base of Mount Tabor. Tradition has incorrectly
made it the scene of the miracle of the cure of the lunatic child (Matt.
Daemon - the Greek form, rendered "devil"
in the Authorized Version of the New Testament. Daemons are spoken of as
spiritual beings (Matt. 8:16; 10:1; 12:43-45) at enmity with God, and as
having a certain power over man (James 2:19; Rev. 16:14). They recognize
our Lord as the Son of God (Matt. 8:20; Luke 4:41). They belong to the number
of those angels that "kept not their first estate," "unclean spirits," "fallen
angels," the angels of the devil (Matt. 25:41; Rev. 12:7-9). They are the
"principalities and powers" against which we must "wrestle" (Eph. 6:12).
Daemoniac - one "possessed with a devil."
In the days of our Lord and his apostles, evil spirits, "daemons," were
mysteriously permitted by God to exercise an influence both over the souls
and bodies of men, inflicting dumbness (Matt. 9:32), blindness (12:22),
epilepsy (Mark 9:17-27), insanity (Matt. 8:28; Mark 5:1-5). Daemoniacs are
frequently distinguished from those who are afflicted with ordinary bodily
maladies (Mark 1:32; 16:17, 18; Luke 6:17, 18). The daemons speak in their
own persons (Matt. 8:29; Mark 1:23, 24; 5:7). This influence is clearly
distinguished from the ordinary power of corruption and of temptation over
men. In the daemoniac his personality seems to be destroyed, and his actions,
words, and even thoughts to be overborne by the evil spirit (Mark, l.c.;
Dagon - little fish; diminutive from
dag = a fish, the fish-god; the national god of the Philistines (Judg.
16:23). This idol had the body of a fish with the head and hands of a
man. It was an Assyrio-Babylonian deity, the worship of which was introduced
among the Philistines through Chaldea. The most famous of the temples
of Dagon were at Gaza (Judg. 16:23-30) and Ashdod (1 Sam. 5:1-7). (See
Dagon's house - (1 Sam. 5:2), or Beth-dagon,
as elsewhere rendered (Josh.15: 41; 19:27), was the sanctuary or temple
The Beth-dagon of Josh. 15:41 was one of the cities of the tribe of
Judah, in the lowland or plain which stretches westward. It has not been
The Beth-dagon of Josh. 19:27 was one of the border cities of Asher.
That of 1 Chr. 10:10 was in the western half-tribe of Manasseh, where
the Philistines, after their victory at Gilboa, placed Saul's head in
the temple of their god. (Comp. 1 Sam. 31:8-13).
Daily sacrifice - (Dan. 8:12; 11:31;
12:11), a burnt offering of two lambs of a year old, which were daily
sacrificed in the name of the whole Israelitish people upon the great
altar, the first at dawn of day, and the second at evening (Dan. 9:21),
or more correctly, "between the two evenings." (See SACRIFICE.)
Dale, the king's - the name of a valley,
the alternative for "the valley of Shaveh" (q.v.), near the Dead Sea, where
the king of Sodom met Abraham (Gen. 14:17). Some have identified it with
the southern part of the valley of Jehoshaphat, where Absalom reared his
family monument (2 Sam. 18:18).
Dalmanutha - a place on the west of the
Sea of Galilee, mentioned only in Mark 8:10. In the parallel passage it
is said that Christ came "into the borders of Magdala" (Matt. 15:39). It
is plain, then, that Dalmanutha was near Magdala, which was probably the
Greek name of one of the many Migdols (i.e., watch-towers) on the western
side of the lake of Gennesaret. It has been identified in the ruins of a
village about a mile from Magdala, in the little open valley of 'Ain-el-Barideh,
"the cold fountain," called el-Mejdel, possibly the "Migdal-el" of Josh.
Dalmatia - a mountainous country on the
eastern shore of the Adriatic, a part of the Roman province of Illyricum.
It still bears its ancient name. During Paul's second imprisonment at Rome,
Titus left him to visit Dalmatia (2 Tim. 4:10) for some unknown purpose.
Paul had himself formerly preached in that region (Rom. 15:19).
The present Emperor of Austria bears, among his other titles, that of
"King of Dalmatia."
Damaris - a heifer, an Athenian woman converted
to Christianity under the preaching of Paul (Acts 17:34). Some have supposed
that she may have been the wife of Dionysius the Areopagite.
Damascus - activity, the most ancient of
Oriental cities; the capital of Syria (Isa. 7:8; 17:3); situated about 133
miles to the north of Jerusalem. Its modern name is Esh-Sham; i.e., "the
The situation of this city is said to be the most beautiful of all Western
Asia. It is mentioned among the conquests of the Egyptian king Thothmes
III. (B.C. 1500), and in the Amarna tablets (B.C. 1400).
It is first mentioned in Scripture in connection with Abraham's victory
over the confederate kings under Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:15). It was the
native place of Abraham's steward (15:2). It is not again noticed till
the time of David, when "the Syrians of Damascus came to succour Hadadezer"
(q.v.), 2 Sam. 8:5; 1 Chr. 18:5. In the reign of Solomon, Rezon became
leader of a band who revolted from Hadadezer (1 Kings 11:23), and betaking
themselves to Damascus, settled there and made their leader king. There
was a long war, with varying success, between the Israelites and Syrians,
who at a later period became allies of Israel against Judah (2 Kings 15:37).
The Syrians were at length subdued by the Assyrians, the city of Damascus
was taken and destroyed, and the inhabitants carried captive into Assyria
(2 Kings 16:7-9; comp. Isa. 7:8). In this, prophecy was fulfilled (Isa.
17:1; Amos 1:4; Jer. 49:24). The kingdom of Syria remained a province
of Assyria till the capture of Nineveh by the Medes (B.C. 625), when it
fell under the conquerors. After passing through various vicissitudes,
Syria was invaded by the Romans (B.C. 64), and Damascus became the seat
of the government of the province. In A.D. 37 Aretas, the king of Arabia,
became master of Damascus, having driven back Herod Antipas.
This city is memorable as the scene of Saul's conversion (Acts 9:1-25).
The street called "Straight," in which Judas lived, in whose house Saul
was found by Ananias, is known by the name Sultany, or "Queen's Street."
It is the principal street of the city. Paul visited Damascus again on
his return from Arabia (Gal. 1:16, 17). Christianity was planted here
as a centre (Acts 9:20), from which it spread to the surrounding regions.
In A.D. 634 Damascus was conquered by the growing Mohammedan power.
In A.D. 1516 it fell under the dominion of the Turks, its present rulers.
It is now the largest city in Asiatic Turkey. Christianity has again found
a firm footing within its walls.
Damnation - in Rom. 13:2, means "condemnation,"
which comes on those who withstand God's ordinance of magistracy. This sentence
of condemnation comes not from the magistrate, but from God, whose authority
is thus resisted.
In 1 Cor. 11:29 (R.V., "judgment") this word means condemnation, in
the sense of exposure to severe temporal judgements from God, as the following
In Rom. 14:23 the word "damned" means "condemned" by one's own conscience,
as well as by the Word of God. The apostle shows here that many things
which are lawful are not expedient; and that in using our Christian liberty
the question should not simply be, Is this course I follow lawful? but
also, Can I follow it without doing injury to the spiritual interests
of a brother in Christ? He that "doubteth", i.e., is not clear in his
conscience as to "meats", will violate his conscience "if he eat," and
in eating is condemned; and thus one ought not so to use his liberty as
to lead one who is "weak" to bring upon himself this condemnation.
Dan - a judge. (1.) The fifth son of Jacob.
His mother was Bilhah, Rachel's maid (Gen. 30:6, "God hath judged me", Heb.
dananni). The blessing pronounced on him by his father was, "Dan shall judge
his people" (49:16), probably in allusion to the judgeship of Samson, who
was of the tribe of Dan.
The tribe of Dan had their place in the march through the wilderness
on the north side of the tabernacle (Num. 2:25, 31; 10:25). It was the
last of the tribes to receive a portion in the Land of Promise. Its position
and extent are described in Josh. 19:40-48.
The territory of Dan extended from the west of that of Ephraim and Benjamin
to the sea. It was a small territory, but was very fertile. It included
in it, among others, the cities of Lydda, Ekron, and Joppa, which formed
its northern boundary. But this district was too limited. "Squeezed into
the narrow strip between the mountains and the sea, its energies were
great beyond its numbers." Being pressed by the Amorites and the Philistines,
whom they were unable to conquer, they longed for a wider space. They
accordingly sent out five spies from two of their towns, who went north
to the sources of the Jordan, and brought back a favourable report regarding
that region. "Arise," they said, "be not slothful to go, and to possess
the land," for it is "a place where there is no want of any thing that
is in the earth" (Judg. 18:10). On receiving this report, 600 Danites
girded on their weapons of war, and taking with them their wives and their
children, marched to the foot of Hermon, and fought against Leshem, and
took it from the Sidonians, and dwelt therein, and changed the name of
the conquered town to Dan (Josh. 19:47). This new city of Dan became to
them a new home, and was wont to be spoken of as the northern limit of
Palestine, the length of which came to be denoted by the expression "from
Dan to Beersheba", i.e., about 144 miles.
"But like Lot under a similar temptation, they seem to have succumbed
to the evil influences around them, and to have sunk down into a condition
of semi-heathenism from which they never emerged. The mounds of ruins
which mark the site of the city show that it covered a considerable extent
of ground. But there remains no record of any noble deed wrought by the
degenerate tribe. Their name disappears from the roll-book of the natural
and the spiritual Israel.", Manning's Those Holy Fields.
This old border city was originally called Laish. Its modern name is
Tell el-Kady, "Hill of the Judge." It stands about four miles below Caesarea
Philippi, in the midst of a region of surpassing richness and beauty.
(2.) This name occurs in Ezek 27:19, Authorize Version; but the words
there, "Dan also," should be simply, as in the Revised Version, "Vedan,"
an Arabian city, from which various kinds of merchandise were brought
to Tyre. Some suppose it to have been the city of Aden in Arabia. (See
Dance - found in Judg. 21:21, 23; Ps. 30:11;
149:3; 150:4; Jer. 31:4, 13, etc., as the translation of hul, which
points to the whirling motion of Oriental sacred dances. It is the rendering
of a word (rakad') which means to skip or leap for joy, in Eccl. 3:4; Job
21:11; Isa. 13:21, etc.
In the New Testament it is in like manner the translation of different
Greek words, circular motion (Luke 15:25); leaping up and down in concert
(Matt. 11:17), and by a single person (Matt. 14:6).
It is spoken of as symbolical of rejoicing (Eccl. 3:4. Comp. Ps. 30:11;
Matt. 11: 17). The Hebrews had their sacred dances expressive of joy and
thanksgiving, when the performers were usually females (Ex. 15:20; 1 Sam.
The ancient dance was very different from that common among Western
nations. It was usually the part of the women only (Ex. 15:20; Judg. 11:34;
comp. 5:1). Hence the peculiarity of David's conduct in dancing before
the ark of the Lord (2 Sam. 6:14). The women took part in it with their
timbrels. Michal should, in accordance with the example of Miriam and
others, have herself led the female choir, instead of keeping aloof on
the occasion and "looking through the window." David led the choir "uncovered",
i.e., wearing only the ephod or linen tunic. He thought only of the honour
of God, and forgot himself.
From being reserved for occasions of religious worship and festivity,
it came gradually to be practised in common life on occasions of rejoicing
(Jer. 31:4). The sexes among the Jews always danced separately. The daughter
of Herodias danced alone (Matt. 14:6).
Daniel - God is my judge, or judge of God.
(1.) David's second son, "born unto him in Hebron, of Abigail the Carmelitess"
(1 Chr. 3:1). He is called also Chileab (2 Sam. 3:3).
(2.) One of the four great prophets, although he is not once spoken
of in the Old Testament as a prophet. His life and prophecies are recorded
in the Book of Daniel. He was descended from one of the noble families
of Judah (Dan. 1:3), and was probably born in Jerusalem about B.C. 623,
during the reign of Josiah. At the first deportation of the Jews by Nebuchadnezzar
(the kingdom of Israel had come to an end nearly a century before), or
immediately after his victory over the Egyptians at the second battle
of Carchemish, in the fourth year of the reign of Jehoiakim (B.C. 606),
Daniel and other three noble youths were carried off to Babylon, along
with part of the vessels of the temple. There he was obliged to enter
into the service of the king of Babylon, and in accordance with the custom
of the age received the Chaldean name of Belteshazzar, i.e., "prince of
Bel," or "Bel protect the king!" His residence in Babylon was very probably
in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar, now identified with a mass of shapeless
mounds called the Kasr, on the right bank of the river.
His training in the schools of the wise men in Babylon (Dan. 1:4) was
to fit him for service to the empire. He was distinguished during this
period for his piety and his stict observance of the Mosaic law (1:8-16),
and gained the confidence and esteem of those who were over him. His habit
of attention gained during his education in Jerusalem enabled him soon
to master the wisdom and learning of the Chaldeans, and even to excel
At the close of his three years of discipline and training in the royal
schools, Daniel was distinguished for his proficiency in the "wisdom"
of his day, and was brought out into public life. He soon became known
for his skill in the interpretation of dreams (1:17; 2:14), and rose to
the rank of governor of the province of Babylon, and became "chief of
the governors" (Chald. Rab-signin) over all the wise men of Babylon. He
made known and also interpreted Nebuchadnezzar's dream; and many years
afterwards, when he was now an old man, amid the alarm and consternation
of the terrible night of Belshazzar's impious feast, he was called in
at the instance of the queen-mother (perhaps Nitocris, the daughter of
Nebuchadnezzar) to interpret the mysterious handwriting on the wall. He
was rewarded with a purple robe and elevation to the rank of "third ruler."
The place of "second ruler" was held by Belshazzar as associated with
his father, Nabonidus, on the throne (5:16). Daniel interpreted the handwriting,
and "in that night was Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans slain."
After the taking of Babylon, Cyrus, who was now master of all Asia from
India to the Dardanelles, placed Darius (q.v.), a Median prince, on the
throne, during the two years of whose reign Daniel held the office of
first of the "three presidents" of the empire, and was thus practically
at the head of affairs, no doubt interesting himself in the prospects
of the captive Jews (Dan. 9), whom he had at last the happiness of seeing
restored to their own land, although he did not return with them, but
remained still in Babylon. His fidelity to God exposed him to persecution,
and he was cast into a den of lions, but was miraculously delivered; after
which Darius issued a decree enjoining reverence for "the God of Daniel"
(6:26). He "prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus
the Persian," whom he probably greatly influenced in the matter of the
decree which put an end to the Captivity (B.C. 536).
He had a series of prophetic visions vouch-safed to him which opened
up the prospect of a glorious future for the people of God, and must have
imparted peace and gladness to his spirit in his old age as he waited
on at his post till the "end of the days." The time and circumstances
of his death are not recorded. He probably died at Susa, about eighty-five
years of age.
Ezekiel, with whom he was contemporary, mentions him as a pattern of
righteousness (14:14, 20) and wisdom (28:3). (See NEBUCHADNEZZAR.)
Daniel, Book of - is ranked by the Jews
in that division of their Bible called the Hagiographa (Heb. Khethubim).
(See BIBLE.) It consists of two distinct parts. The first part, consisting
of the first six chapters, is chiefly historical; and the second part,
consisting of the remaining six chapters, is chiefly prophetical.
The historical part of the book treats of the period of the Captivity.
Daniel is "the historian of the Captivity, the writer who alone furnishes
any series of events for that dark and dismal period during which the
harp of Israel hung on the trees that grew by the Euphrates. His narrative
may be said in general to intervene between Kings and Chronicles on the
one hand and Ezra on the other, or (more strictly) to fill out the sketch
which the author of the Chronicles gives in a single verse in his last
chapter: 'And them that had escaped from the sword carried he [i.e., Nebuchadnezzar]
away to Babylon; where they were servants to him and his sons until the
reign of the kingdom of Persia'" (2 Chr. 36:20).
The prophetical part consists of three visions and one lengthened prophetical
The genuineness of this book has been much disputed, but the arguments
in its favour fully establish its claims. (1.) We have the testimony of
Christ (Matt. 24:15; 25:31; 26:64) and his apostles (1 Cor. 6:2; 2 Thess.
2:3) for its authority; and (2) the important testimony of Ezekiel (14:14,
20; 28:3). (3.) The character and records of the book are also entirely
in harmony with the times and circumstances in which the author lived.
(4.) The linguistic character of the book is, moreover, just such as might
be expected. Certain portions (Dan. 2:4; 7) are written in the Chaldee
language; and the portions written in Hebrew are in a style and form having
a close affinity with the later books of the Old Testament, especially
with that of Ezra. The writer is familiar both with the Hebrew and the
Chaldee, passing from the one to the other just as his subject required.
This is in strict accordance with the position of the author and of the
people for whom his book was written. That Daniel is the writer of this
book is also testified to in the book itself (7:1, 28; 8:2; 9:2; 10:1,
2; 12:4, 5). (See BELSHAZZAR.)
Dan-jaan - woodland Dan, a place probably
somewhere in the direction of Dan, near the sources of the Jordan (2 Sam.
24:6). The LXX. and the Vulgate read "Dan-ja'ar", i.e., "Dan in the forest."
Dannah - murmuring, a city (Josh. 15:49)
in the mountains of Judah about 8 miles south-west of Hebron.
Darda - pearl of wisdom, one of the four
who were noted for their wisdom, but whom Solomon excelled (1 Kings 4:31).
Daric - in the Revised Version of 1 Chr.
29:7; Ezra 2:69; 8:27; Neh. 7:70-72, where the Authorized Version has "dram."
It is the rendering of the Hebrew darkemon and the Greek dareikos. It was
a gold coin, bearing the figure of a Persian King with his crown and armed
with bow and arrow. It was current among the Jews after their return from
Babylon, i.e., while under the Persian domination. It weighed about 128
grains troy, and was of the value of about one guinea or rather more of
our money. It is the first coin mentioned in Scripture, and is the oldest
that history makes known to us.
Darius - the holder or supporter, the name
of several Persian kings. (1.) Darius the Mede (Dan. 11:1), "the son of
Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes" (9:1). On the death of Belshazzar the
Chaldean he "received the kingdom" of Babylon as viceroy from Cyrus. During
his brief reign (B.C. 538-536) Daniel was promoted to the highest dignity
(Dan. 6:1, 2); but on account of the malice of his enemies he was cast into
the den of lions. After his miraculous escape, a decree was issued by Darius
enjoining "reverence for the God of Daniel" (6:26). This king was probably
the "Astyages" of the Greek historians. Nothing can, however, be with certainty
affirmed regarding him. Some are of opinion that the name "Darius" is simply
a name of office, equivalent to "governor," and that the "Gobryas" of the
inscriptions was the person intended by the name.
(2.) Darius, king of Persia, was the son of Hystaspes, of the royal
family of the Achaemenidae. He did not immediately succeed Cyrus on the
throne. There were two intermediate kings, viz., Cambyses (the Ahasuerus
of Ezra), the son of Cyrus, who reigned from B.C. 529-522, and was succeeded
by a usurper named Smerdis, who occupied the throne only ten months, and
was succeeded by this Darius (B.C. 521-486). Smerdis was a Margian, and
therefore had no sympathy with Cyrus and Cambyses in the manner in which
they had treated the Jews. He issued a decree prohibiting the restoration
of the temple and of Jerusalem (Ezra 4:17-22). But soon after his death
and the accession of Darius, the Jews resumed their work, thinking that
the edict of Smerdis would be now null and void, as Darius was in known
harmony with the religious policy of Cyrus. The enemies of the Jews lost
no time in bringing the matter under the notice of Darius, who caused
search to be made for the decree of Cyrus (q.v.). It was not found at
Babylon, but at Achmetha (Ezra 6:2); and Darius forthwith issued a new
decree, giving the Jews full liberty to prosecute their work, at the same
time requiring the Syrian satrap and his subordinates to give them all
needed help. It was with the army of this king that the Greeks fought
the famous battle of Marathon (B.C. 490). During his reign the Jews enjoyed
much peace and prosperity. He was succeeded by Ahasuerus, known to the
Greeks as Xerxes, who reigned for twenty-one years.
(3.) Darius the Persian (Neh. 12:22) was probably the Darius II. (Ochus
or Nothus) of profane history, the son of Artaxerxes Longimanus, who was
the son and successor of Ahasuerus (Xerxes). There are some, however,
who think that the king here meant was Darius III. (Codomannus), the antagonist
of Alexander the Great (B.C. 336-331).
Darkness - The plague (the ninth) of darkness
in Egypt (Ex. 10:21) is described as darkness "which may be felt." It covered
"all the land of Egypt," so that "they saw not one another." It did not
extend to the land of Goshen (ver. 23).
When Jesus hung upon the cross (Matt. 27:45; Luke 23:44), from the "sixth
hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour."
On Mount Sinai, Moses (Ex. 20:21) "drew near unto the thick darkness
where God was." This was the "thick cloud upon the mount" in which Jehovah
was when he spake unto Moses there. The Lord dwelt in the cloud upon the
mercy-seat (1 Kings 8:12), the cloud of glory. When the psalmist (Ps.
97:2) describes the inscrutable nature of God's workings among the sons
of men, he says, "Clouds and darkness are round about him." God dwells
in thick darkness.
Darkness (Isa. 13:9, 10; Matt. 24:29) also is a symbol of the judgments
that attend on the coming of the Lord. It is a symbol of misery and adversity
(Job 18:6; Ps. 107:10; Isa. 8:22; Ezek. 30:18). The "day of darkness"
in Joel 2:2, caused by clouds of locusts, is a symbol of the obscurity
which overhangs all divine proceedings. "Works of darkness" are impure
actions (Eph. 5:11). "Outer darkness" refers to the darkness of the streets
in the East, which are never lighted up by any public or private lamps
after nightfall, in contrast with the blaze of cheerful light in the house.
It is also a symbol of ignorance (Isa. 9:2; 60:2; Matt. 6:23) and of death
(Job 10:21; 17:13).
Darling - Ps. 22:20; 35:17) means an "only
Dart - an instrument of war; a light spear.
"Fiery darts" (Eph. 6:16) are so called in allusion to the habit of discharging
darts from the bow while they are on fire or armed with some combustible
material. Arrows are compared to lightning (Deut. 32:23, 42; Ps. 7:13; 120:4).
Date - the fruit of a species of palm (q.v.),
the Phoenix dactilifera. This was a common tree in Palestine (Joel 1:12;
Neh. 8:15). Palm branches were carried by the Jews on festive occasions,
and especially at the feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:40; Neh. 8:15).
Dathan - welled; belonging to a fountain,
a son of Eliab, a Reubenite, who joined Korah (q.v.) in his conspiracy,
and with his accomplices was swallowed up by an earthquake (Num. 16:1; 26:9;
Deut. 11:6; Ps. 106:17).
Daughter - This word, besides its natural
and proper sense, is used to designate, (1.) A niece or any female descendant
(Gen. 20:12; 24:48; 28:6). (2.) Women as natives of a place, or as professing
the religion of a place; as, "the daughters of Zion" (Isa. 3:16), "daughters
of the Philistines" (2 Sam. 1:20). (3.) Small towns and villages lying around
a city are its "daughters," as related to the metropolis or mother city.
Tyre is in this sense called the daughter of Sidon (Isa. 23:12). (4.) The
people of Jerusalem are spoken of as "the daughters of Zion" (Isa. 37:22).
(5.) The daughters of a tree are its boughs (Gen. 49:22). (6.) The "daughters
of music" (Eccl. 12:4) are singing women.
David - beloved, the eighth and youngest
son of Jesse, a citizen of Bethlehem. His father seems to have been a man
in humble life. His mother's name is not recorded. Some think she was the
Nahash of 2 Sam. 17:25. As to his personal appearance, we only know that
he was red-haired, with beautiful eyes and a fair face (1 Sam. 16:12; 17:42).
His early occupation was that of tending his father's sheep on the uplands
of Judah. From what we know of his after history, doubtless he frequently
beguiled his time, when thus engaged, with his shepherd's flute, while
he drank in the many lessons taught him by the varied scenes spread around
him. His first recorded exploits were his encounters with the wild beasts
of the field. He mentions that with his own unaided hand he slew a lion
and also a bear, when they came out against his flock, beating them to
death in open conflict with his club (1 Sam. 17:34, 35).
While David, in the freshness of ruddy youth, was thus engaged with
his flocks, Samuel paid an unexpected visit to Bethlehem, having been
guided thither by divine direction (1 Sam. 16:1-13). There he offered
up sacrifice, and called the elders of Israel and Jesse's family to the
sacrificial meal. Among all who appeared before him he failed to discover
the one he sought. David was sent for, and the prophet immediately recognized
him as the chosen of God, chosen to succeed Saul, who was now departing
from the ways of God, on the throne of the kingdom. He accordingly, in
anticipation, poured on his head the anointing oil. David went back again
to his shepherd life, but "the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from
that day forward," and "the Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul" (1
Sam. 16:13, 14).
Not long after this David was sent for to soothe with his harp the troubled
spirit of Saul, who suffered from a strange melancholy dejection. He played
before the king so skilfully that Saul was greatly cheered, and began
to entertain great affection for the young shepherd. After this he went
home to Bethlehem. But he soon again came into prominence. The armies
of the Philistines and of Israel were in battle array in the valley of
Elah, some 16 miles south-west of Bethlehem; and David was sent by his
father with provisions for his three brothers, who were then fighting
on the side of the king. On his arrival in the camp of Israel, David (now
about twenty years of age) was made aware of the state of matters when
the champion of the Philistines, Goliath of Gath, came forth to defy Israel.
David took his sling, and with a well-trained aim threw a stone "out of
the brook," which struck the giant's forehead, so that he fell senseless
to the ground. David then ran and slew him, and cut off his head with
his own sword (1 Sam. 17). The result was a great victory to the Israelites,
who pursued the Philistines to the gates of Gath and Ekron.
David's popularity consequent on this heroic exploit awakened Saul's
jealousy (1 Sam. 18:6-16), which he showed in various ways. He conceived
a bitter hatred toward him, and by various stratagems sought his death
(1 Sam. 18-30). The deep-laid plots of the enraged king, who could not
fail to observe that David "prospered exceedingly," all proved futile,
and only endeared the young hero the more to the people, and very specially
to Jonathan, Saul's son, between whom and David a life-long warm friendship
A fugitive. To escape from the vengeance of Saul, David fled to Ramah
(1 Sam. 19:12-18) to Samuel, who received him, and he dwelt among the
sons of the prophets, who were there under Samuel's training. It is supposed
by some that the sixth, seventh, and eleventh Psalms were composed by
him at this time. This place was only 3 miles from the residence of Saul,
who soon discovered whither the fugitive had gone, and tried ineffectually
to bring him back. Jonathan made a fruitless effort to bring his father
to a better state of mind toward David (1 Sam. 20), who, being made aware
of the fact, saw no hope of safety but in flight to a distance. We accordingly
find him first at Nob (21:1-9) and then at Gath, the chief city of the
Philistines. The king of the Philistines would not admit him into his
service, as he expected that he would, and David accordingly now betook
himself to the stronghold of Adullam (22:1-4; 1 Chr. 12:8-18). Here in
a short time 400 men gathered around him and acknowledged him as their
leader. It was at this time that David, amid the harassment and perils
of his position, cried, "Oh that one would give me drink of the water
of the well of Bethlehem;" when three of his heroes broke through the
lines of the Philistines and brought him the water for which he longed
(2 Sam. 23:13-17), but which he would not drink.
In his rage at the failure of all his efforts to seize David, Saul gave
orders for the massacre of the entire priestly family at Nob, "persons
who wore a linen ephod", to the number of eighty-five persons, who were
put to death by Doeg the Edomite. The sad tidings of the massacre were
brought to David by Abiathar, a son of Ahimelech, the only one who escaped.
Comp. Ps. 52.
Hearing that Keilah, a town on the western frontier, was harassed by
the Philistines, David with his men relieved it (1 Sam. 23:1-14); and
then, for fear of Saul, he fled to the strongholds in the "hill country"
of Judah. Comp. Ps. 31. While encamped there, in the forest in the district
of Ziph, he was visited by Jonathan, who spoke to him words of encouragement
(23:16-18). The two now parted never to meet again. Saul continued his
pursuit of David, who narrowly escaped from him at this time, and fled
to the crags and ravines of Engedi, on the western shore of the Dead Sea
(1 Sam. 23:29). Here Saul, who still pursued him with his army, narrowly
escaped, through the generous forbearance of David, and was greatly affected
by what David had done for him. He returned home from pursuing him, and
David betook himself to Maon, where, with his 600 men, he maintained himself
by contributions gathered from the district. Here occurred the incident
connected with Nabal and his wife Abigail (1 Sam. 25), whom David married
after Nabal's death.
Saul again went forth (1 Sam. 26) in pursuit of David, who had hid himself
"in the hill Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon," in the wilderness of
Ziph, and was a second time spared through his forbearance. He returned
home, professing shame and penitence for the way in which he had treated
David, and predicting his elevation to the throne.
Fighting against Israel. Harassed by the necessity of moving from place
to place through fear of Saul, David once more sought refuge among the
Philistines (1 Sam. 27). He was welcomed by the king, who assigned him
Ziklag as his residence. Here David lived among his followers for some
time as an independent chief engaged in frequent war with the Amalekites
and other tribes on the south of Judah.
Achish summoned David with his men to join his army against Saul; but
the lords of the Philistines were suspicious of David's loyalty, and therefore
he was sent back to Ziklag, which he found to his dismay may had been
pillaged and burnt during his brief absence. David pursued after the raiders,
the Amalekites, and completely routed them. On his return to Ziklag tidings
reached him of Saul's death (2 Sam. 1). An Amalekite brought Saul's crown
and bracelet and laid them at his feet. David and his men rent their clothes
and mourned for Saul, who had been defeated in battle near Mount Gilboa.
David composed a beautiful elegy, the most beautiful of all extant Hebrew
odes, a "lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan his son" (2 Sam. 1:18-27).
It bore the title of "The Bow," and was to be taught to the children,
that the memory of Saul and Jonathan might be preserved among them. "Behold,
it is written in the book of Jasher" (q.v.).
David king over Judah. David and his men now set out for Hebron under
divine direction (2 Sam. 2:1-4). There they were cordially welcomed, and
he was at once anointed as king. He was now about thirty years of age.
But his title to the throne was not undisputed. Abner took Ish-bosheth,
Saul's only remaining son, over the Jordan to Mahanaim, and there crowned
him as king. Then began a civil war in Israel. The first encounter between
the two opposing armies, led on the one side by Abner, and on the other
by Joab, took place at the pool of Gibeon. It resulted in the defeat of
Abner. Other encounters, however, between Israel and Judah followed (2
Sam. 3:1, 5), but still success was on the side of David. For the space
of seven and a half years David reigned in Hebron. Abner now sided with
David, and sought to promote his advancement; but was treacherously put
to death by Joab in revenge for his having slain his brother Asahel at
Gibeon (3:22-39). This was greatly to David's regret. He mourned for the
death of Abner. Shortly after this Ish-bosheth was also treacherously
put to death by two Canaanites of Beeroth; and there being now no rival,
David was anointed king over all Israel (4:1-12).
David king over all Israel (2 Sam. 5:1-5; 1 Chr. 11:1-3). The elders
of Israel now repaired to Hebron and offered allegiance to David in name
of all the people, among whom the greatest enthusiasm prevailed. He was
anointed king over all Israel, and sought out a new seat of government,
more suitable than Hebron, as the capital of his empire. At this time
there was a Jebusite fortress, "the stronghold", on the hill of Zion,
called also Jebus. This David took from the Jebusites, and made it Israel's
capital, and established here his residence, and afterwards built for
himself a palace by the aid of Tyrian tradesmen. The Philistines, who
had for some time observed a kind of truce, now made war against David;
but were defeated in battle at a place afterwards called, in remembrance
of the victory, Baal-perazim. Again they invaded the land, and were a
second time routed by him. He thus delivered Israel from their enemies.
David now resolved to bring up the ark of the covenant to his new capital
(2 Sam. 6). It was in the house of Abinadab at Kirjath-jearim, about 7
miles from Jerusalem, where it had been for many years, from the time
when the Philistines had sent it home (1 Sam. 6; 7). In consequence of
the death of Uzzah (for it was a divine ordinance that only the Levites
should handle the ark, Num. 4), who had put forth his hand to steady the
ark when the cart in which it was being conveyed shook by reason of the
roughness of the road, David stayed the procession, and conveyed the ark
into the house of Obed-edom, a Philistine from Gath. After three months
David brought the ark from the house of Obed-edom up to Jerusalem. Comp.
Ps. 24. Here it was placed in a new tent or tabernacle which David erected
for the purpose. About seventy years had passed since it had stood in
the tabernacle at Shiloh. The old tabernacle was now at Gibeah, at which
Zadok ministered. David now (1 Chr. 16) carefully set in order all the
ritual of divine worship at Jerusalem, along with Abiathar the high priest.
A new religious era began. The service of praise was for the first time
introduced into public worship. Zion became henceforth "God's holy hill."
David's wars. David now entered on a series of conquests which greatly
extended and strengthened his kingdom (2 Sam. 8). In a few years the whole
territory from the Euphrates to the river of Egypt, and from Gaza on the
west to Thapsacus on the east, was under his sway (2 Sam. 8:3-13; 10).
David's fall. He had now reached the height of his glory. He ruled over
a vast empire, and his capital was enriched with the spoils of many lands.
But in the midst of all this success he fell, and his character became
stained with the sin of adultery (2 Sam. 11:2-27). It has been noted as
characteristic of the Bible that while his military triumphs are recorded
in a few verses, the sad story of his fall is given in detail, a story
full of warning, and therefore recorded. This crime, in the attempt to
conceal it, led to anoter. He was guilty of murder. Uriah, whom he had
foully wronged, an officer of the Gibborim, the corps of heros (23:39),
was, by his order, "set in the front of the hottest battle" at the siege
of Rabbah, in order that he might be put to death. Nathan the prophet
(2 Sam. 7:1-17; 12:1-23) was sent by God to bring home his crimes to the
conscience of the guilty monarch. He became a true penitent. He bitterly
bewailed his sins before God. The thirty-second and fifty-first Psalms
reveal the deep struggles of his soul, and his spiritual recovery.
Bathsheba became his wife after Uriah's death. Her first-born son died,
according to the word of the prophet. She gave birth to a second son,
whom David called Solomon, and who ultimately succeeded him on the throne
(2 Sam. 12:24, 25).
Peace. After the successful termination of all his wars, David formed
the idea of building a temple for the ark of God. This he was not permitted
to carry into execution, because he had been a man of war. God, however,
sent Nathan to him with a gracious message (2 Sam. 7:1-16). On receiving
it he went into the sanctuary, the tent where the ark was, and sat before
the Lord, and poured out his heart in words of devout thanksgiving (18-29).
The building of the temple was reserved for his son Solomon, who would
be a man of peace (1 Chr. 22:9; 28:3).
A cloudy evening. Hitherto David's carrer had been one of great prosperity
and success. Now cloudy and dark days came. His eldest son Amnon, whose
mother was Ahinoam of Jezreel, was guilty of a great and shameful crime
(2 Sam. 13). This was the beginning of the disasters of his later years.
After two years Absalom terribly avenged the crime against Tamar, and
put Amnon to death. This brought sore trouble to David's heart. Absalom,
afraid of the consequences of his guilt, fled to Geshur beyond Jordan,
where he remained for three years, when he was brought back through the
intrigue of Joab (2 Sam. 14).
After this there fell upon the land the calamity of three years' famine
(2 Sam. 21:1-14). This was soon after followed by a pestilence, brought
upon the land as a punishment for David's sinful pride in numbering the
people (2 Sam. 24), in which no fewer than 70,000 perished in the space
of three days.
Rebellion of Absalom. The personal respect for David was sadly lowered
by the incident of Bathsheba. There was a strong popular sentiment against
the taking of the census, and the outburst of the plague in connection
with it deepened the feeling of jealously that had begun to manifest itself
among some of the tribes against David. Absalom, taking full advantage
of this state of things, gradually gained over the people, and at length
openly rebelled against his father, and usurped the throne. Ahithophel
was Absalom's chief counsellor. The revolt began in Hebron, the capital
of Judah. Absalom was there proclaimed king. David was now in imminent
danger, and he left Jerusalem (2 Sam. 15:13-20), and once more became
a fugitive. It was a momentous day in Israel. The incidents of it are
recorded with a fulness of detail greater than of any other day in Old
Testament history. David fled with his followers to Mahanarm, on the east
of Jordan. An unnatural civil war broke out. After a few weeks the rival
armies were mustered and organized. They met in hostile array at the wood
of Ephraim (2 Sam. 18:1-8). Absalom's army was defeated, and himself put
to death by the hand of Joab (9-18). The tidings of the death of his rebellious
son filled the heart of David with the most poignant grief. He "went up
to the chamber over the gate, and wept" (33), giving utterance to the
heart-broken cry, "Would God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my
son!" Peace was now restored, and David returned to Jerusalem and resumed
the direction of affairs. An unhappy dispute arose between the men of
Judah and the men of Israel (19:41-43). Sheba, a Benjamite, headed a revolt
of the men of Israel. He was pursued to Abelbeth-maachah, and was there
put to death, and so the revolt came to an end.
The end. After the suppression of the rebellion of Absalom and that
of Sheba, ten comparatively peaceful years of David's life passed away.
During those years he seems to have been principally engaged in accumulating
treasures of every kind for the great temple at Jerusalem, which it was
reserved to his successor to build (1 Chr. 22; 28; 29), a house which
was to be "exceeding magnifical, of fame and of glory throughout all countries"
(22:5). The exciting and laborious life he had spent, and the dangers
and trials through which he had passed, had left him an enfeebled man,
prematurely old. It became apparent that his life was now drawing to its
close. A new palace conspiracy broke out as to who should be his successor.
Joab favoured Adonijah. The chiefs of his party met at the "Fuller's spring,"
in the valley of Kidron, to proclaim him king; but Nathan hastened on
a decision on the part of David in favour of Solomon, and so the aim of
Adonijah's party failed. Solomon was brought to Jerusalem, and was anointed
king and seated on his father's throne (1 Kings 1:11-53). David's last
words are a grand utterance, revealing his unfailing faith in God, and
his joyful confidence in his gracious covenant promises (2 Sam. 23:1-7).
After a reign of forty years and six months (2 Sam. 5:5; 1 Chr. 3:4)
David died (B.C. 1015) at the age of seventy years, "and was buried in
the city of David." His tomb is still pointed out on Mount Zion.
Both in his prophetical and in his regal character David was a type
of the Messiah (1 Sam. 16:13). The book of Psalms commonly bears the title
of the "Psalms of David," from the circumstance that he was the largest
contributor (about eighty psalms) to the collection. (See PSALMS.)
"The greatness of David was felt when he was gone. He had lived in harmony
with both the priesthood and the prophets; a sure sign that the spirit
of his government had been throughly loyal to the higher aims of the theocracy.
The nation had not been oppressed by him, but had been left in the free
enjoyment of its ancient liberties. As far as his power went he had striven
to act justly to all (2 Sam. 8:15). His weak indulgence to his sons, and
his own great sin besides, had been bitterly atoned, and were forgotten
at his death in the remembrance of his long-tried worth. He had reigned
thirty-three years in Jerusalem and seven and a half at Hebron (2 Sam.
5:5). Israel at his accession had reached the lowest point of national
depression; its new-born unity rudely dissolved; its territory assailed
by the Philistines. But he had left it an imperial power, with dominions
like those of Egypt or Assyria. The sceptre of Solomon was already, before
his father's death, owned from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, and
from the Orontes to the Red Sea.", Geikie's Hours etc., iii.
David, City of - (1.) David took from the
Jebusites the fortress of Mount Zion. He "dwelt in the fort, and called
it the city of David" (1 Chr. 11:7). This was the name afterwards given
to the castle and royal palace on Mount Zion, as distinguished from Jerusalem
generally (1 Kings 3:1; 8:1), It was on the south-west side of Jerusalem,
opposite the temple mount, with which it was connected by a bridge over
the Tyropoeon valley.
(2) Bethlehem is called the "city of David" (Luke 2:4, 11), because
it was David's birth-place and early home (1 Sam. 17:12).
Day - The Jews reckoned the day from
sunset to sunset (Lev. 23:32). It was originally divided into three parts
(Ps. 55:17). "The heat of the day" (1 Sam. 11:11; Neh. 7:3) was at our
nine o'clock, and "the cool of the day" just before sunset (Gen. 3:8).
Before the Captivity the Jews divided the night into three watches, (1)
from sunset to midnight (Lam. 2:19); (2) from midnight till the cock-crowing
(Judg. 7:19); and (3) from the cock-crowing till sunrise (Ex. 14:24).
In the New Testament the division of the Greeks and Romans into four watches
was adopted (Mark 13:35). (See WATCHES.)
The division of the day by hours is first mentioned in Dan. 3:6, 15;
4:19; 5:5. This mode of reckoning was borrowed from the Chaldeans. The
reckoning of twelve hours was from sunrise to sunset, and accordingly
the hours were of variable length (John 11:9).
The word "day" sometimes signifies an indefinite time (Gen. 2:4; Isa.
22:5; Heb. 3:8, etc.). In Job 3:1 it denotes a birthday, and in Isa. 2:12,
Acts 17:31, and 2 Tim. 1:18, the great day of final judgment.
Day's journey - The usual length of a day's
journey in the East, on camel or horseback, in six or eight hours, is about
25 or 30 miles. The "three days' journey" mentioned in Ex. 3:18 is simply
a journey which would occupy three days in going and returning.
Daysman - an umpire or arbiter or judge
(Job 9:33). This word is formed from the Latin diem dicere, i.e., to fix
a day for hearing a cause. Such an one is empowered by mutual consent to
decide the cause, and to "lay his hand", i.e., to impose his authority,
on both, and enforce his sentence.
Dayspring - (Job 38:12; Luke 1:78), the
dawn of the morning; daybreak. (Comp. Isa. 60:1, 2; Mal. 4:2; Rev. 22:16.)
Daystar - which precedes and accompanies
the sun-rising. It is found only in 2 Pet. 1:19, where it denotes the manifestation
of Christ to the soul, imparting spiritual light and comfort. He is the
"bright and morning star" of Rev. 2:28; 22:16. (Comp. Num. 24:17.)
Deacon - Anglicized form of the Greek word
diaconos, meaning a "runner," "messenger," "servant." For a long period
a feeling of mutual jealousy had existed between the "Hebrews," or Jews
proper, who spoke the sacred language of palestine, and the "Hellenists,"
or Jews of the Grecian speech, who had adopted the Grecian language, and
read the Septuagint version of the Bible instead of the Hebrew. This jealousy
early appeared in the Christian community. It was alleged by the Hellenists
that their widows were overlooked in the daily distribution of alms. This
spirit must be checked. The apostles accordingly advised the disciples to
look out for seven men of good report, full of the Holy Ghost, and men of
practical wisdom, who should take entire charge of this distribution, leaving
them free to devote themselves entirely to the spiritual functions of their
office (Acts 6:1-6). This was accordingly done. Seven men were chosen, who
appear from their names to have been Hellenists. The name "deacon" is nowhere
applied to them in the New Testament; they are simply called "the seven"
(21:8). Their office was at first secular, but it afterwards became also
spiritual; for among other qualifications they must also be "apt to teach"
(1 Tim. 3: 8-12). Both Philip and Stephen, who were of "the seven," preached;
they did "the work of evangelists."
Deaconess - Rom. 16:1, 3, 12; Phil. 4:2,
3; 1 Tim. 3:11; 5:9, 10; Titus 2:3, 4). In these passages it is evident
that females were then engaged in various Christian ministrations. Pliny
makes mention of them also in his letter to Trajan (A.D. 110).
Dead Sea - the name given by Greek writers
of the second century to that inland sea called in Scripture the "salt
sea" (Gen. 14:3; Num. 34:12), the "sea of the plain" (Deut. 3:17), the
"east sea" (Ezek. 47:18; Joel 2:20), and simply "the sea" (Ezek. 47:8).
The Arabs call it Bahr Lut, i.e., the Sea of Lot. It lies about 16 miles
in a straight line to the east of Jerusalem. Its surface is 1,292 feet
below the surface of the Mediterranean Sea. It covers an area of about
300 square miles. Its depth varies from 1,310 to 11 feet. From various
phenomena that have been observed, its bottom appears to be still subsiding.
It is about 53 miles long, and of an average breadth of 10 miles. It has
no outlet, the great heat of that region causing such rapid evaporation
that its average depth, notwithstanding the rivers that run into it (see
JORDAN), is maintained with little variation. The Jordan alone discharges
into it no less than six million tons of water every twenty-four hours.
The waters of the Dead Sea contain 24.6 per cent. of mineral salts,
about seven times as much as in ordinary sea-water; thus they are unusually
buoyant. Chloride of magnesium is most abundant; next to that chloride
of sodium (common salt). But terraces of alluvial deposits in the deep
valley of the Jordan show that formerly one great lake extended from the
Waters of Merom to the foot of the watershed in the Arabah. The waters
were then about 1,400 feet above the present level of the Dead Sea, or
slightly above that of the Mediterranean, and at that time were much less
Nothing living can exist in this sea. "The fish carried down by the
Jordan at once die, nor can even mussels or corals live in it; but it
is a fable that no bird can fly over it, or that there are no living creatures
on its banks. Dr. Tristram found on the shores three kinds of kingfishers,
gulls, ducks, and grebes, which he says live on the fish which enter the
sea in shoals, and presently die. He collected one hundred and eighteen
species of birds, some new to science, on the shores, or swimming or flying
over the waters. The cane-brakes which fringe it at some parts are the
homes of about forty species of mammalia, several of them animals unknown
in England; and innumerable tropical or semi-tropical plants perfume the
atmosphere wherever fresh water can reach. The climate is perfect and
most delicious, and indeed there is perhaps no place in the world where
a sanatorium could be established with so much prospect of benefit as
at Ain Jidi (Engedi).", Geikie's Hours, etc.
Deal, Tenth - See OMER.
Dearth - a scarcity of provisions (1 Kings
17). There were frequent dearths in Palestine. In the days of Abram there
was a "famine in the land" (Gen. 12:10), so also in the days of Jacob (47:4,
13). We read also of dearths in the time of the judges (Ruth 1:1), and of
the kings (2 Sam. 21:1; 1 Kings 18:2; 2 Kings 4:38; 8:1).
In New Testament times there was an extensive famine in Palestine (Acts
11:28) in the fourth year of the reign of the emperor Claudius (A.D. 44
Death - may be simply defined as the termination
of life. It is represented under a variety of aspects in Scripture: (1.)
"The dust shall return to the earth as it was" (Eccl. 12:7).
(2.) "Thou takest away their breath, they die" (Ps. 104:29).
(3.) It is the dissolution of "our earthly house of this tabernacle"
(2 Cor. 5:1); the "putting off this tabernacle" (2 Pet. 1:13, 14).
(4.) Being "unclothed" (2 Cor. 5:3, 4).
(5.) "Falling on sleep" (Ps. 76:5; Jer. 51:39; Acts 13:36; 2 Pet. 3:9.
(6.) "I go whence I shall not return" (Job 10:21); "Make me to know
mine end" (Ps. 39:4); "to depart" (Phil. 1:23).
The grave is represented as "the gates of death" (Job 38:17; Ps. 9:13;
107:18). The gloomy silence of the grave is spoken of under the figure
of the "shadow of death" (Jer. 2:6).
Death is the effect of sin (Heb. 2:14), and not a "debt of nature."
It is but once (9:27), universal (Gen. 3:19), necessary (Luke 2:28-30).
Jesus has by his own death taken away its sting for all his followers
(1 Cor. 15:55-57).
There is a spiritual death in trespasses and sins, i.e., the death of
the soul under the power of sin (Rom. 8:6; Eph. 2:1, 3; Col. 2:13).
The "second death" (Rev. 2:11) is the everlasting perdition of the wicked
(Rev. 21:8), and "second" in respect to natural or temporal death.
THE DEATH OF CHRIST is the procuring cause incidentally of all the blessings
men enjoy on earth. But specially it is the procuring cause of the actual
salvation of all his people, together with all the means that lead thereto.
It does not make their salvation merely possible, but certain (Matt. 18:11;
Rom. 5:10; 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 1:4; 3:13; Eph. 1:7; 2:16; Rom. 8:32-35).
Debir - oracle town; sanctuary. (1.) One
of the eleven cities to the west of Hebron, in the highlands of Judah (Josh.
15:49; Judg. 1:11-15). It was originally one of the towns of the Anakim
(Josh. 15:15), and was also called Kirjath-sepher (q.v.) and Kirjath-sannah
(49). Caleb, who had conquered and taken possession of the town and district
of Hebron (Josh. 14:6-15), offered the hand of his daughter to any one who
would successfully lead a party against Debir. Othniel, his younger brother
(Judg. 1:13; 3:9), achieved the conquest, and gained Achsah as his wife.
She was not satisfied with the portion her father gave her, and as she was
proceeding toward her new home, she "lighted from off her ass" and said
to him, "Give me a blessing [i.e., a dowry]: for thou hast given me a south
land" (Josh. 15:19, A.V.); or, as in the Revised Version, "Thou hast set
me in the land of the south", i.e., in the Negeb, outside the rich valley
of Hebron, in the dry and barren land. "Give me also springs of water. And
he gave her the upper springs, and the nether springs."
Debir has been identified with the modern Edh-Dhaheriyeh, i.e., "the
well on the ridge", to the south of Hebron.
(2.) A place near the "valley of Achor" (Josh. 15:7), on the north boundary
of Judah, between Jerusalem and Jericho.
(3.) The king of Eglon, one of the five Canaanitish kings who were hanged
by Joshua (Josh. 10:3, 23) after the victory at Gibeon. These kings fled
and took refuge in a cave at Makkedah. Here they were kept confined till
Joshua returned from the pursuit of their discomfited armies, when he
caused them to be brought forth, and "Joshua smote them, and slew them,
and hanged them on five trees" (26).
Deborah - a bee. (1.) Rebekah's nurse. She
accompanied her mistress when she left her father's house in Padan-aram
to become the wife of Isaac (Gen. 24:59). Many years afterwards she died
at Bethel, and was buried under the "oak of weeping", Allon-bachuth (35:8).
(2.) A prophetess, "wife" (woman?) of Lapidoth. Jabin, the king of Hazor,
had for twenty years held Israel in degrading subjection. The spirit of
patriotism seemed crushed out of the nation. In this emergency Deborah
roused the people from their lethargy. Her fame spread far and wide. She
became a "mother in Israel" (Judg. 4:6, 14; 5:7), and "the children of
Israel came up to her for judgment" as she sat in her tent under the palm
tree "between Ramah and Bethel." Preparations were everywhere made by
her direction for the great effort to throw off the yoke of bondage. She
summoned Barak from Kadesh to take the command of 10,000 men of Zebulun
and Naphtali, and lead them to Mount Tabor on the plain of Esdraelon at
its north-east end. With his aid she organized this army. She gave the
signal for attack, and the Hebrew host rushed down impetuously upon the
army of Jabin, which was commanded by Sisera, and gained a great and decisive
victory. The Canaanitish army almost wholly perished. That was a great
and ever-memorable day in Israel. In Judg. 5 is given the grand triumphal
ode, the "song of Deborah," which she wrote in grateful commemoration
of that great deliverance. (See LAPIDOTH, JABIN.)
Debt - The Mosaic law encouraged the practice
of lending (Deut. 15:7; Ps. 37:26; Matt. 5:42); but it forbade the exaction
of interest except from foreigners. Usury was strongly condemned (Prov.
28:8; Ezek. 18:8, 13, 17; 22:12; Ps. 15:5). On the Sabbatical year all pecuniary
obligations were cancelled (Deut. 15:1-11). These regulations prevented
the accumulation of debt.
Debtor - Various regulations as to the relation
between debtor and creditor are laid down in the Scriptures.
(1.) The debtor was to deliver up as a pledge to the creditor what he
could most easily dispense with (Deut. 24:10, 11).
(2.) A mill, or millstone, or upper garment, when given as a pledge,
could not be kept over night (Ex. 22:26, 27).
(3.) A debt could not be exacted during the Sabbatic year (Deut. 15:1-15).
For other laws bearing on this relation see Lev. 25:14, 32, 39; Matt.
(4.) A surety was liable in the same way as the original debtor (Prov.
Decalogue - the name given by the Greek
fathers to the ten commandments; "the ten words," as the original is more
literally rendered (Ex. 20:3-17). These commandments were at first written
on two stone slabs (31:18), which were broken by Moses throwing them down
on the ground (32:19). They were written by God a second time (34:1). The
decalogue is alluded to in the New Testament five times (Matt. 5:17, 18,
19; Mark 10:19; Luke 18:20; Rom. 7:7, 8; 13:9; 1 Tim. 1:9, 10).
These commandments have been divided since the days of Origen the Greek
father, as they stand in the Confession of all the Reformed Churches except
the Lutheran. The division adopted by Luther, and which has ever since
been received in the Lutheran Church, makes the first two commandments
one, and the third the second, and so on to the last, which is divided
into two. "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house" being ranked as
ninth, and "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife," etc., the tenth.