Glass - was known to the Egyptians at a very early period of their
national history, at least B.C. 1500. Various articles both useful and ornamental
were made of it, as bottles, vases, etc. A glass bottle with the name of
Sargon on it was found among the ruins of the north-west palace of Nimroud.
The Hebrew word zekukith (Job 28:17), rendered in the Authorized
Version "crystal," is rightly rendered in the Revised Version "glass." This
is the only allusion to glass found in the Old Testament. It is referred
to in the New Testament in Rev. 4:6; 15:2; 21:18, 21. In Job 37:18, the
word rendered "looking-glass" is in the Revised Version properly rendered
"mirror," formed, i.e., of some metal. (Comp. Ex. 38:8: "looking-glasses"
are brazen mirrors, R.V.). A mirror is referred to also in James 1:23.
Glean - The corners of fields were not to
be reaped, and the sheaf accidentally left behind was not to be fetched
away, according to the law of Moses (Lev. 19:9; 23:22; Deut. 24:21). They
were to be left for the poor to glean. Similar laws were given regarding
vineyards and oliveyards. (Comp. Ruth 2:2.)
Glede - an Old English name for the
common kite, mentioned only in Deut. 14:13 (Heb. ra'ah), the Milvus ater
or black kite. The Hebrew word does not occur in the parallel passage
in Leviticus (11:14, da'ah, rendered "vulture;" in R.V., "kite"). It was
an unclean bird. The Hebrew name is from a root meaning "to see," "to
look," thus designating a bird with a keen sight. The bird intended is
probably the buzzard, of which there are three species found in Palestine.
Glorify - (1.) To make glorious, or cause
so to appear (John 12:28; 13:31, 32; 17:4,5).
(2.) Spoken of God to "shew forth his praise" (1 Cor. 6:20; 10:31).
Glory - (Heb. kabhod; Gr. doxa). (1.) Abundance,
wealth, treasure, and hence honour (Ps. 49:12); glory (Gen. 31:1; Matt.
4:8; Rev. 21:24, 26).
(2.) Honour, dignity (1 Kings 3:13; Heb. 2:7 1 Pet. 1:24); of God (Ps.
19:1; 29:1); of the mind or heart (Gen. 49:6; Ps. 7:5; Acts 2:46).
(3.) Splendour, brightness, majesty (Gen. 45:13; Isa. 4:5; Acts 22:11;
2 Cor. 3:7); of Jehovah (Isa. 59:19; 60:1; 2 Thess. 1:9).
(4.) The glorious moral attributes, the infinite perfections of God
(Isa. 40:5; Acts 7:2; Rom. 1:23; 9:23; Eph. 1:12). Jesus is the "brightness
of the Father's glory" (Heb. 1:3; John 1:14; 2:11).
(5.) The bliss of heaven (Rom. 2:7, 10; 5:2; 8:18; Heb. 2:10; 1 Pet.
(6.) The phrase "Give glory to God" (Josh. 7:19; Jer. 13:16) is a Hebrew
idiom meaning, "Confess your sins." The words of the Jews to the blind
man, "Give God the praise" (John 9:24), are an adjuration to confess.
They are equivalent to, "Confess that you are an impostor," "Give God
the glory by speaking the truth;" for they denied that a miracle had been
Glutton - (Deut. 21:20), Heb. zolel, from
a word meaning "to shake out," "to squander;" and hence one who is prodigal,
who wastes his means by indulgence. In Prov. 23:21, the word means debauchees
or wasters of their own body. In Prov. 28:7, the word (pl.) is rendered
Authorized Version "riotous men;" Revised Version, "gluttonous." Matt. 11:19,
Luke 7:34, Greek phagos, given to eating, gluttonous.
Gnash - Heb. harak, meaning "to grate the
teeth", (Job 16:9; Ps. 112:10; Lam. 2:16), denotes rage or sorrow. (See
also Acts 7:54; Mark 9:18.)
Gnat - only in Matt. 23:24, a small two-winged
stinging fly of the genus Culex, which includes mosquitoes. Our Lord alludes
here to the gnat in a proverbial expression probably in common use, "who
strain out the gnat;" the words in the Authorized Version, "strain at a
gnat," being a mere typographical error, which has been corrected in the
Revised Version. The custom of filtering wine for this purpose was common
among the Jews. It was founded on Lev. 11:23. It is supposed that the "lice,"
Ex. 8:16 (marg. R.V., "sand-flies"), were a species of gnat.
Goad - (Heb. malmad, only in Judg. 3: 31),
an instrument used by ploughmen for guiding their oxen. Shamgar slew six
hundred Philistines with an ox-goad. "The goad is a formidable weapon. It
is sometimes ten feet long, and has a sharp point. We could now see that
the feat of Shamgar was not so very wonderful as some have been accustomed
In 1 Sam. 13:21, a different Hebrew word is used, dorban, meaning
something pointed. The expression (Acts 9:5, omitted in the R.V.), "It
is hard for thee to kick against the pricks", i.e., against the goad,
was proverbial for unavailing resistance to superior power.
Goat - (1.) Heb. 'ez, the she-goat (Gen.
15:9; 30:35; 31:38). This Hebrew word is also used for the he-goat (Ex.
12:5; Lev. 4:23; Num. 28:15), and to denote a kid (Gen. 38:17, 20). Hence
it may be regarded as the generic name of the animal as domesticated. It
literally means "strength," and points to the superior strength of the goat
as compared with the sheep.
(2.) Heb. 'attud, only in plural; rendered "rams" (Gen. 31:10,12); he-goats
(Num. 7:17-88; Isa. 1:11); goats (Deut. 32:14; Ps. 50:13). They were used
in sacrifice (Ps. 66:15). This word is used metaphorically for princes
or chiefs in Isa. 14:9, and in Zech. 10:3 as leaders. (Comp. Jer. 50:8.)
(3.) Heb. gedi, properly a kid. Its flesh was a delicacy among the Hebrews
(Gen. 27:9, 14, 17; Judg. 6:19).
(4.) Heb. sa'ir, meaning the "shaggy," a hairy goat, a he-goat (2 Chr.
29:23); "a goat" (Lev. 4:24); "satyr" (Isa. 13:21); "devils" (Lev. 17:7).
It is the goat of the sin-offering (Lev. 9:3, 15; 10:16).
(5.) Heb. tsaphir, a he-goat of the goats (2 Chr. 29:21). In Dan. 8:5,
8 it is used as a symbol of the Macedonian empire.
(6.) Heb. tayish, a "striker" or "butter," rendered "he-goat" (Gen.
(7.) Heb. 'azazel (q.v.), the "scapegoat" (Lev. 16:8, 10,26).
(8.) There are two Hebrew words used to denote the undomesticated goat:,
Yael, only in plural mountain goats (1 Sam. 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps.104:18).
It is derived from a word meaning "to climb." It is the ibex, which abounded
in the mountainous parts of Moab. And 'akko, only in Deut. 14:5,
the wild goat.
Goats are mentioned in the New Testament in Matt. 25:32,33; Heb. 9:12,13,
19; 10:4. They represent oppressors and wicked men (Ezek. 34:17; 39:18;
Several varieties of the goat were familiar to the Hebrews. They had
an important place in their rural economy on account of the milk they
afforded and the excellency of the flesh of the kid. They formed an important
part of pastoral wealth (Gen. 31:10, 12;32:14; 1 Sam. 25:2).
Goath - a lowing, a place near Jerusalem,
mentioned only in Jer. 31:39.
Gob - a pit, a place mentioned in 2 Sam.
21:18, 19; called also Gezer, in 1 Chr. 20:4.
Goblet - a laver or trough for washing
garments. In Cant. 7:2, a bowl or drinking vessel, a bowl for mixing wine;
in Ex. 24:6, a sacrificial basin. (See CUP.)
God - (A.S. and Dutch God; Dan. Gud; Ger.
Gott), the name of the Divine Being. It is the rendering (1) of the Hebrew
'El, from a word meaning to be strong; (2) of 'Eloah_, plural
_'Elohim. The singular form, Eloah, is used only in poetry. The
plural form is more commonly used in all parts of the Bible, The Hebrew
word Jehovah (q.v.), the only other word generally employed to denote the
Supreme Being, is uniformly rendered in the Authorized Version by "LORD,"
printed in small capitals. The existence of God is taken for granted in
the Bible. There is nowhere any argument to prove it. He who disbelieves
this truth is spoken of as one devoid of understanding (Ps. 14:1).
The arguments generally adduced by theologians in proof of the being
of God are:
(1.) The a priori argument, which is the testimony afforded by reason.
(2.) The a posteriori argument, by which we proceed logically from the
facts of experience to causes. These arguments are,
(a) The cosmological, by which it is proved that there must be a First
Cause of all things, for every effect must have a cause.
(b) The teleological, or the argument from design. We see everywhere
the operations of an intelligent Cause in nature.
(c) The moral argument, called also the anthropological argument, based
on the moral consciousness and the history of mankind, which exhibits
a moral order and purpose which can only be explained on the supposition
of the existence of God. Conscience and human history testify that "verily
there is a God that judgeth in the earth."
The attributes of God are set forth in order by Moses in Ex. 34:6,7.
(see also Deut. 6:4; 10:17; Num. 16:22; Ex. 15:11; 33:19; Isa. 44:6; Hab.
3:6; Ps. 102:26; Job 34:12.) They are also systematically classified in
Rev. 5:12 and 7:12.
God's attributes are spoken of by some as absolute, i.e., such as belong
to his essence as Jehovah, Jah, etc.; and relative, i.e., such as are
ascribed to him with relation to his creatures. Others distinguish them
into communicable, i.e., those which can be imparted in degree to his
creatures: goodness, holiness, wisdom, etc.; and incommunicable, which
cannot be so imparted: independence, immutability, immensity, and eternity.
They are by some also divided into natural attributes, eternity, immensity,
etc.; and moral, holiness, goodness, etc.
Godhead - (Acts 17:29; Rom. 1:20; Col. 2:9),
the essential being or the nature of God.
Godliness - the whole of practical piety
(1 Tim. 4:8; 2 Pet. 1:6). "It supposes knowledge, veneration, affection,
dependence, submission, gratitude, and obedience." In 1 Tim. 3:16 it denotes
the substance of revealed religion.
Goel - in Hebrew the participle of the
verb gaal, "to redeem." It is rendered in the Authorized Version
"kinsman," Num. 5:8; Ruth 3:12; 4:1,6,8; "redeemer," Job 19:25; "avenger,"
Num. 35:12; Deut. 19:6, etc. The Jewish law gave the right of redeeming
and repurchasing, as well as of avenging blood, to the next relative,
who was accordingly called by this name. (See REDEEMER.)
Gog - (1.) A Reubenite (1 Chr. 5:4), the
father of Shimei.
(2.) The name of the leader of the hostile party described in Ezek.
38,39, as coming from the "north country" and assailing the people of
Israel to their own destruction. This prophecy has been regarded as fulfilled
in the conflicts of the Maccabees with Antiochus, the invasion and overthrow
of the Chaldeans, and the temporary successes and destined overthrow of
the Turks. But "all these interpretations are unsatisfactory and inadequate.
The vision respecting Gog and Magog in the Apocalypse (Rev. 20:8) is in
substance a reannouncement of this prophecy of Ezekiel. But while Ezekiel
contemplates the great conflict in a more general light as what was certainly
to be connected with the times of the Messiah, and should come then to
its last decisive issues, John, on the other hand, writing from the commencement
of the Messiah's times, describes there the last struggles and victories
of the cause of Christ. In both cases alike the vision describes the final
workings of the world's evil and its results in connection with the kingdom
of God, only the starting-point is placed further in advance in the one
case than in the other."
It has been supposed to be the name of a district in the wild north-east
steppes of Central Asia, north of the Hindu-Kush, now a part of Turkestan,
a region about 2,000 miles north-east of Nineveh.
Golan - exile, a city of Bashan (Deut. 4:43),
one of the three cities of refuge east of Jordan, about 12 miles north-east
of the Sea of Galilee (Josh. 20:8). There are no further notices of it in
Scripture. It became the head of the province of Gaulanitis, one of the
four provinces into which Bashan was divided after the Babylonish captivity,
and almost identical with the modern Jaulan, in Western Hauran, about 39
miles in length and 18 in breath.
Gold - (1.) Heb. zahab, so called from its
yellow colour (Ex. 25:11; 1 Chr. 28:18; 2 Chr. 3:5).
(2.) Heb. segor, from its compactness, or as being enclosed or treasured
up; thus precious or "fine gold" (1 Kings 6:20; 7:49).
(3.) Heb. paz, native or pure gold (Job 28:17; Ps. 19:10; 21:3, etc.).
(4.) Heb. betzer, "ore of gold or silver" as dug out of the mine (Job
36:19, where it means simply riches).
(5.) Heb. kethem, i.e., something concealed or separated (Job 28:16,19;
Ps. 45:9; Prov. 25:12). Rendered "golden wedge" in Isa. 13:12.
(6.) Heb. haruts, i.e., dug out; poetic for gold (Prov. 8:10; 16:16;
Gold was known from the earliest times (Gen. 2:11). It was principally
used for ornaments (Gen. 24:22). It was very abundant (1 Chr. 22:14; Nah.
2:9; Dan. 3:1). Many tons of it were used in connection with the temple
(2 Chr. 1:15). It was found in Arabia, Sheba, and Ophir (1 Kings 9:28;
10:1; Job 28:16), but not in Palestine.
In Dan. 2:38, the Babylonian Empire is spoken of as a "head of gold"
because of its great riches; and Babylon was called by Isaiah (14:4) the
"golden city" (R.V. marg., "exactress," adopting the reading marhebah,
instead of the usual word madhebah).
Golden calf - (Ex. 32:4,8; Deut. 9:16;
Neh. 9:18). This was a molten image of a calf which the idolatrous Israelites
formed at Sinai. This symbol was borrowed from the custom of the Egyptians.
It was destroyed at the command of Moses (Ex. 32:20). (See AARON; MOSES.)
Goldsmith - (Neh. 3:8,32; Isa. 40:19; 41:7;
46:6). The word so rendered means properly a founder or finer.
Golgotha - the common name of the spot where
Jesus was crucified. It is interpreted by the evangelists as meaning "the
place of a skull" (Matt. 27:33; Mark 15:22; John 19:17). This name represents
in Greek letters the Aramaic word Gulgaltha, which is the Hebrew Gulgoleth
(Num. 1:2; 1 Chr. 23:3, 24; 2 Kings 9:35), meaning "a skull." It is identical
with the word Calvary (q.v.). It was a little knoll rounded like a bare
skull. It is obvious from the evangelists that it was some well-known spot
outside the gate (comp. Heb. 13:12), and near the city (Luke 23:26), containing
a "garden" (John 19:41), and on a thoroughfare leading into the country.
Hence it is an untenable idea that it is embraced within the present "Church
of the Holy Sepulchre." The hillock above Jeremiah's Grotto, to the north
of the city, is in all probability the true site of Calvary. The skull-like
appearance of the rock in the southern precipice of the hillock is very
Goliath - great. (1.) A famous giant of
Gath, who for forty days openly defied the armies of Israel, but was at
length slain by David with a stone from a sling (1 Sam. 17:4). He was probably
descended from the Rephaim who found refuge among the Philistines after
they were dispersed by the Ammonites (Deut. 2:20, 21). His height was "six
cubits and a span," which, taking the cubit at 21 inches, is equal to 10
1/2 feet. David cut off his head (1 Sam. 17:51) and brought it to Jerusalem,
while he hung the armour which he took from him in his tent. His sword was
preserved at Nob as a religious trophy (21:9). David's victory over Goliath
was the turning point in his life. He came into public notice now as the
deliverer of Israel and the chief among Saul's men of war (18:5), and the
devoted friend of Jonathan.
(2.) In 2 Sam. 21:19 there is another giant of the same name mentioned
as slain by Elhanan. The staff of his apear "was like a weaver's beam."
The Authorized Version interpolates the words "the brother of" from 1
Chr. 20:5, where this giant is called Lahmi.
Gomer - complete; vanishing. (1.) The daughter
of Diblaim, who (probably in vision only) became the wife of Hosea (1:3).
(2.) The eldest son of Japheth, and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and
Togarmah (Gen. 10:2, 3), whose descendants formed the principal branch
of the population of South-eastern Europe. He is generally regarded as
the ancestor of the Celtae and the Cimmerii, who in early times settled
to the north of the Black Sea, and gave their name to the Crimea, the
ancient Chersonesus Taurica. Traces of their presence are found in the
names Cimmerian Bosphorus, Cimmerian Isthmus, etc. In the seventh century
B.C. they were driven out of their original seat by the Scythians, and
overran western Asia Minor, whence they were afterwards expelled. They
subsequently reappear in the times of the Romans as the Cimbri of the
north and west of Europe, whence they crossed to the British Isles, where
their descendants are still found in the Gaels and Cymry. Thus the whole
Celtic race may be regarded as descended from Gomer.
Gomorrah - submersion, one of the five
cities of the plain of Siddim (q.v.) which were destroyed by fire (Gen.
10:19; 13:10; 19:24, 28). These cities probably stood close together,
and were near the northern extremity of what is now the Dead Sea. This
city is always mentioned next after Sodom, both of which were types of
impiety and wickedness (Gen. 18:20; Rom. 9:29). Their destruction is mentioned
as an "ensample unto those that after should live ungodly" (2 Pet. 2:6;
Jude 1:4-7). Their wickedness became proverbial (Deut. 32:32; Isa. 1:9,
10; Jer. 23:14). But that wickedness may be exceeded (Matt. 10:15; Mark
6:11). (See DEAD SEA).
Goodly trees - boughs of, were to be carried
in festive procession on the first day of the feast of Tabernacles (Lev.
23:40). This was probably the olive tree (Neh. 8:15), although no special
tree is mentioned.
Goodness - in man is not a mere passive
quality, but the deliberate preference of right to wrong, the firm and persistent
resistance of all moral evil, and the choosing and following of all moral
Goodness of God - a perfection of his character
which he exercises towards his creatures according to their various circumstances
and relations (Ps. 145:8, 9; 103:8; 1 John 4:8). Viewed generally, it is
benevolence; as exercised with respect to the miseries of his creatures
it is mercy, pity, compassion, and in the case of impenitent sinners, long-suffering
patience; as exercised in communicating favour on the unworthy it is grace.
"Goodness and justice are the several aspects of one unchangeable, infinitely
wise, and sovereign moral perfection. God is not sometimes merciful and
sometimes just, but he is eternally infinitely just and merciful." God is
infinitely and unchangeably good (Zeph. 3:17), and his goodness is incomprehensible
by the finite mind (Rom. 11: 35, 36). "God's goodness appears in two things,
giving and forgiving."
Gopher - a tree from the wood of which Noah
was directed to build the ark (Gen. 6:14). It is mentioned only there. The
LXX. render this word by "squared beams," and the Vulgate by "planed wood."
Other versions have rendered it "pine" and "cedar;" but the weight of authority
is in favour of understanding by it the cypress tree, which grows abundantly
in Chaldea and Armenia.
Goshen - (1.) A district in Egypt where
Jacob and his family settled, and in which they remained till the Exodus
(Gen. 45:10; 46:28, 29, 31, etc.). It is called "the land of Goshen" (47:27),
and also simply "Goshen" (46:28), and "the land of Rameses" (47:11; Ex.
12:37), for the towns Pithom and Rameses lay within its borders; also Zoan
or Tanis (Ps. 78:12). It lay on the east of the Nile, and apparently not
far from the royal residence. It was "the best of the land" (Gen. 47:6,
11), but is now a desert. It is first mentioned in Joseph's message to his
father. It has been identified with the modern Wady Tumilat, lying between
the eastern part of the Delta and the west border of Palestine. It was a
pastoral district, where some of the king's cattle were kept (Gen. 47:6).
The inhabitants were not exclusively Israelites (Ex. 3:22; 11:2; 12:35,
(2.) A district in Palestine (Josh. 10:41; 11:16). It was a part of
the maritime plain of Judah, and lay between Gaza and Gibeon.
(3.) A town in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:51).
Gospel - a word of Anglo-Saxon origin, and
meaning "God's spell", i.e., word of God, or rather, according to others,
"good spell", i.e., good news. It is the rendering of the Greek evangelion,
i.e., "good message." It denotes (1) "the welcome intelligence of salvation
to man as preached by our Lord and his followers. (2.) It was afterwards
transitively applied to each of the four histories of our Lord's life, published
by those who are therefore called 'Evangelists', writers of the history
of the gospel (the evangelion). (3.) The term is often used to express collectively
the gospel doctrines; and 'preaching the gospel' is often used to include
not only the proclaiming of the good tidings, but the teaching men how to
avail themselves of the offer of salvation, the declaring of all the truths,
precepts, promises, and threatenings of Christianity." It is termed "the
gospel of the grace of God" (Acts 20:24), "the gospel of the kingdom" (Matt.
4:23), "the gospel of Christ" (Rom. 1:16), "the gospel of peace (Eph. 6:15),
"the glorious gospel," "the everlasting gospel," "the gospel of salvation"
Gospels - The central fact of Christian
preaching was the intelligence that the Saviour had come into the world
(Matt. 4:23; Rom. 10:15); and the first Christian preachers who called their
account of the person and mission of Christ by the term evangelion_ (=
good message) were called _evangelistai (= evangelists) (Eph. 4:11;
There are four historical accounts of the person and work of Christ:
"the first by Matthew, announcing the Redeemer as the promised King of
the kingdom of God; the second by Mark, declaring him 'a prophet, mighty
in deed and word'; the third by Luke, of whom it might be said that he
represents Christ in the special character of the Saviour of sinners (Luke
7:36; 15:18); the fourth by John, who represents Christ as the Son of
God, in whom deity and humanity become one. The ancient Church gave to
Matthew the symbol of the lion, to Mark that of a man, to Luke that of
the ox, and to John that of the eagle: these were the four faces of the
cherubim" (Ezek. 1:10).
Date. The Gospels were all composed during the latter part of the first
century, and there is distinct historical evidence to show that they were
used and accepted as authentic before the end of the second century.
Mutual relation. "If the extent of all the coincidences be represented
by 100, their proportionate distribution will be: Matthew, Mark, and Luke,
53; Matthew and Luke, 21; Matthew and Mark, 20; Mark and Luke, 6. Looking
only at the general result, it may be said that of the contents of the
synoptic Gospels [i.e., the first three Gospels] about two-fifths are
common to the three, and that the parts peculiar to one or other of them
are little more than one-third of the whole."
Origin. Did the evangelists copy from one another? The opinion is well
founded that the Gospels were published by the apostles orally before
they were committed to writing, and that each had an independent origin.
(See MATTHEW, GOSPEL OF.)
Gourd - (1.) Jonah's gourd (Jonah 4:6-10),
bearing the Hebrew name kikayon (found only here), was probably the
kiki of the Egyptians, the croton. This is the castor-oil plant, a species
of ricinus, the palma Christi, so called from the palmate division of its
leaves. Others with more probability regard it as the cucurbita the el-keroa
of the Arabs, a kind of pumpkin peculiar to the East. "It is grown in great
abundance on the alluvial banks of the Tigris and on the plain between the
river and the ruins of Nineveh." At the present day it is trained to run
over structures of mud and brush to form boots to protect the gardeners
from the heat of the noon-day sun. It grows with extraordinary rapidity,
and when cut or injured withers away also with great rapidity.
(2.) Wild gourds (2 Kings 4:38-40), Heb. pakkuoth, belong to the family
of the cucumber-like plants, some of which are poisonous. The species
here referred to is probably the colocynth (Cucumis colocynthus). The
LXX. render the word by "wild pumpkin." It abounds in the desert parts
of Syria, Egypt, and Arabia. There is, however, another species, called
the Cucumis prophetarum, from the idea that it afforded the gourd which
"the sons of the prophets" shred by mistake into their pottage.
Government of God - See PROVIDENCE.
Governments - (1 Cor. 12:28), the powers
which fit a man for a place of influence in the church; "the steersman's
art; the art of guiding aright the vessel of church or state."
Governor - (1.) Heb. nagid, a prominent,
conspicuous person, whatever his capacity: as, chief of the royal palace
(2 Chr. 28:7; comp. 1 Kings 4:6), chief of the temple (1 Chr. 9:11; Jer.
20:1), the leader of the Aaronites (1 Chr. 12:27), keeper of the sacred
treasury (26:24), captain of the army (13:1), the king (1 Sam. 9:16), the
Messiah (Dan. 9:25).
(2.) Heb. nasi, raised; exalted. Used to denote the chiefs of families
(Num. 3:24, 30, 32, 35); also of tribes (2:3; 7:2; 3:32). These dignities
appear to have been elective, not hereditary.
(3.) Heb. pakid, an officer or magistrate. It is used of the delegate
of the high priest (2 Chr. 24:11), the Levites (Neh. 11:22), a military
commander (2 Kings 25:19), Joseph's officers in Egypt (Gen. 41:34).
(4.) Heb. shallit, one who has power, who rules (Gen. 42:6; Ezra 4:20;
Eccl. 8:8; Dan. 2:15; 5:29).
(5.) Heb. aluph, literally one put over a thousand, i.e., a clan or
a subdivision of a tribe. Used of the "dukes" of Edom (Gen. 36), and of
the Jewish chiefs (Zech. 9:7).
(6.) Heb. moshel, one who rules, holds dominion. Used of many classes
of rulers (Gen. 3:16; 24:2; 45:8; Ps. 105:20); of the Messiah (Micah 5:2);
of God (1 Chr. 29:12; Ps. 103:19).
(7.) Heb. sar, a ruler or chief; a word of very general use. It is used
of the chief baker of Pharaoh (Gen. 40:16); of the chief butler (40:2,
etc. See also Gen. 47:6; Ex. 1:11; Dan. 1:7; Judg. 10:18; 1 Kings 22:26;
20:15; 2 Kings 1:9; 2 Sam. 24:2). It is used also of angels, guardian
angels (Dan. 10:13, 20, 21; 12:1; 10:13; 8:25).
(8.) Pehah, whence pasha, i.e., friend of the king; adjutant;
governor of a province (2 Kings 18:24; Isa. 36:9; Jer. 51: 57; Ezek. 23:6,
23; Dan. 3:2; Esther 3: 12), or a perfect (Neh. 3:7; 5:14; Ezra 5:3; Hag.
1:1). This is a foreign word, Assyrian, which was early adopted into the
Hebrew idiom (1 Kings 10:15).
(9.) The Chaldean word segan is applied to the governors of the
Babylonian satrapies (Dan. 3:2, 27; 6:7); the prefects over the Magi (2:48).
The corresponding Hebrew word segan is used of provincial rulers
(Jer. 51:23, 28, 57); also of chiefs and rulers of the people of Jerusalem
(Ezra 9:2; Neh. 2:16; 4:14, 19; 5:7, 17; 7:5; 12:40).
In the New Testament there are also different Greek words rendered thus.
(1.) Meaning an ethnarch (2 Cor. 11:32), which was an office distinct
from military command, with considerable latitude of application.
(2.) The procurator of Judea under the Romans (Matt. 27:2). (Comp. Luke
2:2, where the verb from which the Greek word so rendered is derived is
(3.) Steward (Gal. 4:2).
(4.) Governor of the feast (John 2:9), who appears here to have been
merely an intimate friend of the bridegroom, and to have presided at the
marriage banquet in his stead.
(5.) A director, i.e., helmsman; Lat. gubernator, (James 3:4).
Gozan - a region in Central Asia to which
the Israelites were carried away captive (2 Kings 17:6; 1 Chr. 5:26; 2 Kings
19:12; Isa. 37:12). It was situated in Mesopotamia, on the river Habor (2
Kings 17:6; 18:11), the Khabur, a tributary of the Euphrates. The "river
of Gozan" (1 Chr. 5:26) is probably the upper part of the river flowing
through the province of Gozan, now Kizzel-Ozan.
Grace - (1.) Of form or person (Prov. 1:9;
3:22; Ps. 45:2). (2.) Favour, kindness, friendship (Gen. 6:8; 18:3; 19:19;
2 Tim. 1:9). (3.) God's forgiving mercy (Rom. 11:6; Eph. 2:5). (4.) The
gospel as distinguished from the law (John 1:17; Rom. 6:14; 1 Pet. 5:12).
(5.) Gifts freely bestowed by God; as miracles, prophecy, tongues (Rom.
15:15; 1 Cor. 15:10; Eph. 3:8). (6.) Christian virtues (2 Cor. 8:7; 2 Pet.
3:18). (7.) The glory hereafter to be revealed (1 Pet. 1:13).
Grace, means of - an expression not used
in Scripture, but employed (1) to denote those institutions ordained by
God to be the ordinary channels of grace to the souls of men. These are
the Word, Sacraments, and Prayer.
(2.) But in popular language the expression is used in a wider sense
to denote those exercises in which we engage for the purpose of obtaining
spiritual blessing; as hearing the gospel, reading the Word, meditation,
self-examination, Christian conversation, etc.
Graft - the process of inoculating fruit-trees
(Rom. 11:17-24). It is peculiarly appropriate to olive-trees. The union
thus of branches to a stem is used to illustrate the union of true believers
to the true Church.
Grain - used, in Amos 9:9, of a small stone
or kernel; in Matt. 13:31, of an individual seed of mustard; in John 12:24,
1 Cor. 15:37, of wheat. The Hebrews sowed only wheat, barley, and spelt;
rye and oats are not mentioned in Scripture.
Grape - the fruit of the vine, which
was extensively cultivated in Palestine. Grapes are spoken of as "tender"
(Cant. 2:13, 15), "unripe" (Job 15:33), "sour" (Isa. 18:5), "wild" (Isa.
5:2,4). (See Rev. 14:18; Micah 7:1; Jer. 6:9; Ezek. 18:2, for figurative
use of the word.) (See VINE.)
Grass - (1.) Heb. hatsir, ripe grass fit
for mowing (1 Kings 18:5; Job 40:15; Ps. 104:14). As the herbage rapidly
fades under the scorching sun, it is used as an image of the brevity of
human life (Isa. 40:6, 7; Ps. 90:5). In Num. 11:5 this word is rendered
(2.) Heb. deshe', green grass (Gen. 1:11, 12; Isa. 66:14; Deut. 32:2).
"The sickly and forced blades of grass which spring up on the flat plastered
roofs of houses in the East are used as an emblem of speedy destruction,
because they are small and weak, and because, under the scorching rays
of the sun, they soon wither away" (2 Kings 19:26; Ps. 129:6; Isa. 37:27).
The dry stalks of grass were often used as fuel for the oven (Matt.
6:30; 13:30; Luke 12:28).
Grasshopper - belongs to the class of neuropterous
insects called Gryllidae. This insect is not unknown in Palestine.
In Judg. 6:5; 7:12; Job 39:30; Jer. 46:23, where the Authorized Version
has "grasshopper," the Revised Version more correctly renders the Hebrew
word ('arbeh) by "locust." This is the case also in Amos 7:1; Nah. 3:17,
where the Hebrew word gob is used; and in Lev. 11:22; Num. 13:33;
Eccl. 12:5; Isa. 40:22, where hagab is used. In all these instances
the proper rendering is probably "locust" (q.v.).
Grate - a network of brass for the bottom
of the great altar of sacrifice (Ex. 27:4; 35:16; 38:4, 5, 30).
Grave - Among the ancient Hebrews graves
were outside of cities in the open field (Luke 7:12; John 11:30). Kings
(1 Kings 2:10) and prophets (1 Sam. 25:1) were generally buried within cities.
Graves were generally grottoes or caves, natural or hewn out in rocks (Isa.
22:16; Matt. 27:60). There were family cemeteries (Gen. 47:29; 50:5; 2 Sam.
19:37). Public burial-places were assigned to the poor (Jer. 26:23; 2 Kings
23:6). Graves were usually closed with stones, which were whitewashed, to
warn strangers against contact with them (Matt. 23:27), which caused ceremonial
pollution (Num. 19:16).
There were no graves in Jerusalem except those of the kings, and according
to tradition that of the prophetess Huldah.
Graven image - Deut. 27:15; Ps. 97:7 (Heb.
pesel), refers to the household gods of idolaters. "Every nation and city
had its own gods...Yet every family had its separate household or tutelary
Graving - (1.) Heb. hatsabh. Job 19:24,
rendered "graven," but generally means hewn stone or wood, in quarry or
(2.) Heb. harush. Jer. 17:1, rendered "graven," and indicates generally
artistic work in metal, wood, and stone, effected by fine instruments.
(3.) Heb. haqaq. Ezek. 4:1, engraving a plan or map, rendered "pourtray;"
Job 19:23, "written."
(4.) Heb. pasal points rather to the sculptor's or the carver's art
(Isa. 30:22; 40:19; 41:7; 44:12-15).
(5.) Pathah refers to intaglio work, the cutting and engraving of precious
stones (Ex. 28:9-11, 21; Zech. 3:9; Cant. 1:10, 11).
(6.) Heret. In Ex. 32:4 rendered "graving tool;" and in Isa. 8:1, "a
Greaves - only in 1 Sam. 17:6, a piece of
defensive armour (q.v.) reaching from the foot to the knee; from French
greve, "the shin." They were the Roman cothurni.
Grecians - Hellenists, Greek-Jews; Jews
born in a foreign country, and thus did not speak Hebrew (Acts 6:1; 9:29),
nor join in the Hebrew services of the Jews in Palestine, but had synagogues
of their own in Jerusalem. Joel 3:6 =Greeks.
Greece - orginally consisted of the four
provinces of Macedonia, Epirus, Achaia, and Peleponnesus. In Acts 20:2 it
designates only the Roman province of Macedonia. Greece was conquered by
the Romans B.C. 146. After passing through various changes it was erected
into an independent monarchy in 1831.
Moses makes mention of Greece under the name of Javan (Gen. 10:2-5);
and this name does not again occur in the Old Testament till the time
of Joel (3:6). Then the Greeks and Hebrews first came into contact in
the Tyrian slave-market. Prophetic notice is taken of Greece in Dan. 8:21.
The cities of Greece were the special scenes of the labours of the apostle
Greek - Found only in the New Testament,
where a distinction is observed between "Greek" and "Grecian" (q.v.). The
former is (1) a Greek by race (Acts 16:1-3; 18:17; Rom. 1:14), or (2) a
Gentile as opposed to a Jew (Rom. 2:9, 10). The latter, meaning properly
"one who speaks Greek," is a foreign Jew opposed to a home Jew who dwelt
The word "Grecians" in Acts 11:20 should be "Greeks," denoting the heathen
Greeks of that city, as rendered in the Revised Version according to the
reading of the best manuscripts ("Hellenes").
Greyhound - (Prov. 30:31), the rendering
of the Hebrew zarzir mothnayim, meaning literally "girded as to the
lions." Some (Gesen.; R.V. marg.) render it "war-horse." The LXX. and Vulgate
versions render it "cock." It has been by some interpreters rendered also
"stag" and "warrior," as being girded about or panoplied, and "wrestler."
The greyhound, however, was evidently known in ancient times, as appears
from Egyptian monuments.
Grind - (Ex. 32:20; Deut. 9:21; Judg.
16:21), to crush small (Heb. tahan); to oppress the poor (Isa. 3:5). The
hand-mill was early used by the Hebrews (Num. 11:8). It consisted of two
stones, the upper (Deut. 24:6; 2 Sam. 11:21) being movable and slightly
concave, the lower being stationary. The grinders mentioned Eccl. 12:3
are the teeth. (See MILL.)
Grizzled - party-coloured, as goats (Gen.
31:10, 12), horses (Zech. 6:3, 6).
Grove - (1.) Heb. 'asherah, properly a wooden
image, or a pillar representing Ashtoreth, a sensual Canaanitish goddess,
probably usually set up in a grove (2 Kings 21:7; 23:4). In the Revised
Version the word "Asherah" (q.v.) is introduced as a proper noun, the name
of the wooden symbol of a goddess, with the plurals Asherim (Ex. 34:13)
and Asheroth (Judg. 3:13).
The LXX. have rendered asherah in 2 Chr. 15:16 by "Astarte."
The Vulgate has done this also in Judg. 3:7.
(2.) Heb. 'eshel (Gen. 21:33). In 1 Sam. 22:6 and 31:13 the Authorized
Version renders this word by "tree." In all these passages the Revised
Version renders by "tamarisk tree." It has been identified with the Tamariscus
orientalis, five species of which are found in Palestine.
(3.) The Heb. word 'elon, uniformly rendered in the Authorized Version
by "plain," properly signifies a grove or plantation. In the Revised Version
it is rendered, pl., "oaks" (Gen. 13:18; 14:13; 18:1; 12:6; Deut. 11:30;
Josh. 19:33). In the earliest times groves are mentioned in connection
with religious worship. The heathen consecrated groves to particular gods,
and for this reason they were forbidden to the Jews (Jer. 17:3; Ezek.
Guard - (1.) Heb. tabbah (properly a "cook,"
and in a secondary sense "executioner," because this office fell to the
lot of the cook in Eastern countries), the bodyguard of the kings of Egypt
(Gen. 37:36) and Babylon (2 Kings 25:8; Jer. 40:1; Dan. 2:14).
(2.) Heb. rats, properly a "courier," one whose office was to run before
the king's chariot (2 Sam. 15:1; 1 Kings 1:5). The couriers were also
military guards (1 Sam. 22:17; 2 Kings 10:25). They were probably the
same who under David were called Pelethites (1 Kings 14:27; 2 Sam. 15:1).
(3.) Heb. mishmereth, one who watches (Neh. 4:22), or a watch-station
(7:3; 12:9; Job 7:12).
In the New Testament (Mark 6:27) the Authorized Version renders the
Greek spekulator by "executioner," earlier English versions by
"hangman," the Revised Version by "soldier of his guard." The word properly
means a "pikeman" or "halberdier," of whom the bodyguard of kings and
princes was composed. In Matt. 27:65, 66; 28:11, the Authorized Version
renders the Greek kustodia by "watch," and the Revised Version
by "guard," the Roman guard, which consisted of four soldiers, who were
relieved every three hours (Acts 12:4). The "captain of the guard" mentioned
Acts 28:16 was the commander of the Praetorian troops, whose duty it was
to receive and take charge of all prisoners from the provinces.
Guest-chamber - the spare room on the upper
floor of an Eastern dwelling (Mark 14:14; Luke 22:11). In Luke 2:7 the word
is translated "inn" (q.v.).
Gur - a whelp, a place near Ibleam where
Jehu's servants overtook and mortally wounded king Ahaziah (2 Kings 9:27);
an ascent from the plain of Jezreel.
Gur-baal - sojourn of Baal, a place in Arabia
(2 Chr. 26:7) where there was probably a temple of Baal.
Gutter - Heb. tsinnor, (2 Sam. 5:8). This
Hebrew word occurs only elsewhere in Ps. 42:7 in the plural, where it is
rendered "waterspouts." It denotes some passage through which water passed;
In Gen. 30:38, 41 the Hebrew word rendered "gutters" is rahat,
and denotes vessels overflowing with water for cattle (Ex. 2:16); drinking-troughs.
Habakkuk - embrace, the eighth of the twelve
minor prophets. Of his personal history we have no reliable information.
He was probably a member of the Levitical choir. He was contemporary with
Jeremiah and Zephaniah.
Habakkuk, Prophecies of - were probably
written about B.C. 650-627, or, as some think, a few years later. This book
consists of three chapters, the contents of which are thus comprehensively
described: "When the prophet in spirit saw the formidable power of the Chaldeans
approaching and menacing his land, and saw the great evils they would cause
in Judea, he bore his complaints and doubts before Jehovah, the just and
the pure (1:2-17). And on this occasion the future punishment of the Chaldeans
was revealed to him (2). In the third chapter a presentiment of the destruction
of his country, in the inspired heart of the prophet, contends with his
hope that the enemy would be chastised." The third chapter is a sublime
song dedicated "to the chief musician," and therefore intended apparently
to be used in the worship of God. It is "unequalled in majesty and splendour
of language and imagery."
The passage in 2:4, "The just shall live by his faith," is quoted by
the apostle in Rom. 1:17. (Comp. Gal. 3:12; Heb. 10:37, 38.)
Habergeon - an Old English word for
breastplate. In Job 41:26 (Heb. shiryah) it is properly a "coat of mail;"
the Revised Version has "pointed shaft." In Ex. 28:32, 39:23, it denotes
a military garment strongly and thickly woven and covered with mail round
the neck and breast. Such linen corselets have been found in Egypt. The
word used in these verses is tahra, which is of Egyptian origin.
The Revised Version, however, renders it by "coat of mail." (See ARMOUR.)
Habitation - God is the habitation of his
people, who find rest and safety in him (Ps. 71:3; 91:9). Justice and judgment
are the habitation of God's throne (Ps. 89:14, Heb. mekhon, "foundation"),
because all his acts are founded on justice and judgment. (See Ps. 132:5,
13; Eph. 2:22, of Canaan, Jerusalem, and the temple as God's habitation.)
God inhabits eternity (Isa. 57:15), i.e., dwells not only among men, but
in eternity, where time is unknown; and "the praises of Israel" (Ps. 22:3),
i.e., he dwells among those praises and is continually surrounded by them.
Habor - the united stream, or, according
to others, with beautiful banks, the name of a river in Assyria, and also
of the district through which it flowed (1 Chr. 5:26). There is a river
called Khabur which rises in the central highlands of Kurdistan, and flows
south-west till it falls into the Tigris, about 70 miles above Mosul. This
was not, however, the Habor of Scripture.
There is another river of the same name (the Chaboras) which, after
a course of about 200 miles, flows into the Euphrates at Karkesia, the
ancient Circesium. This was, there can be little doubt, the ancient Habor.
Hachilah - the darksome hill, one of the
peaks of the long ridge of el-Kolah, running out of the Ziph plateau, "on
the south of Jeshimon" (i.e., of the "waste"), the district to which one
looks down from the plateau of Ziph (1 Sam. 23:19). After his reconciliation
with Saul at Engedi (24:1-8), David returned to Hachilah, where he had fixed
his quarters. The Ziphites treacherously informed Saul of this, and he immediately
(26:1-4) renewed his pursuit of David, and "pitched in the hill of Hachilah."
David and his nephew Abishai stole at night into the midst of Saul's camp,
when they were all asleep, and noiselessly removed the royal spear and the
cruse from the side of the king, and then, crossing the intervening valley
to the height on the other side, David cried to the people, and thus awoke
the sleepers. He then addressed Saul, who recognized his voice, and expostulated
with him. Saul professed to be penitent; but David could not put confidence
in him, and he now sought refuge at Ziklag. David and Saul never afterwards
met. (1 Sam. 26:13-25).
Hadad - Adod, brave(?), the name of a Syrian
god. (1.) An Edomite king who defeated the Midianites (Gen. 36:35; 1 Chr.
(2.) Another Edomite king (1 Chr. 1:50, 51), called also Hadar (Gen.
36:39; 1 Chr. 1:51).
(3.) One of "the king's seed in Edom." He fled into Egypt, where he
married the sister of Pharaoh's wife (1 Kings 11:14-22). He became one
of Solomon's adversaries.
Hadad, sharp, (a different name in Hebrew from the preceding), one of
the sons of Ishmael (1 Chr. 1:30). Called also Hadar (Gen. 25:15).
Hadadezer - Hadad is help; called also Hadarezer,
Adod is his help, the king of Zobah. Hanun, the king of the Ammonites, hired
among others the army of Hadadezer to assist him in his war against David.
Joab, who was sent against this confederate host, found them in double battle
array, the Ammonities toward their capital of Rabbah, and the Syrian mercenaries
near Medeba. In the battle which was fought the Syrians were scattered,
and the Ammonites in alarm fled into their capital. After this Hadadezer
went north "to recover his border" (2 Sam. 8:3, A.V.); but rather, as the
Revised Version renders, "to recover his dominion", i.e., to recruit his
forces. Then followed another battle with the Syrian army thus recruited,
which resulted in its being totally routed at Helam (2 Sam. 10:17). Shobach,
the leader of the Syrian army, died on the field of battle. The Syrians
of Damascus, who had come to help Hadadezer, were also routed, and Damascus
was made tributary to David. All the spoils taken in this war, "shields
of gold" and "very much brass," from which afterwards the "brasen sea, and
the pillars, and the vessels of brass" for the temple were made (1 Chr.
18:8), were brought to Jerusalem and dedicated to Jehovah. Thus the power
of the Ammonites and the Syrians was finally broken, and David's empire
extended to the Euphrates (2 Sam. 10:15-19; 1 Chr. 19:15-19).
Hadad-rimmon - (composed of the names of
two Syrian idols), the name of a place in the valley of Megiddo. It is alluded
to by the prophet Zechariah (12:11) in a proverbial expression derived from
the lamentation for Josiah, who was mortally wounded near this place (2
Chr. 35:22-25). It has been identified with the modern Rummaneh, a village
"at the foot of the Megiddo hills, in a notch or valley about an hour and
a half south of Tell Metzellim."
Hadar - Adod, brave(?). (1.) A son of Ishmael
(Gen. 25:15); in 1 Chr. 1:30 written Hadad.
(2.) One of the Edomitish kings (Gen. 36:39) about the time of Saul.
Called also Hadad (1 Chr. 1:50, 51).
It is probable that in these cases Hadar may be an error simply of transcription
Hadarezer - Adod is his help, the name given
to Hadadezer (2 Sam. 8:3-12) in 2 Sam. 10.
Hadashah - new, a city in the valley of
Judah (Josh. 15:37).
Hadassah - myrtle, the Jewish name of Esther
(q.v.), Esther 2:7.
Hadattah - new, one of the towns in the
extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:25).
Hades - that which is out of sight, a Greek
word used to denote the state or place of the dead. All the dead alike go
into this place. To be buried, to go down to the grave, to descend into
hades, are equivalent expressions. In the LXX. this word is the usual rendering
of the Hebrew sheol, the common receptacle of the departed (Gen. 42:38;
Ps. 139:8; Hos. 13:14; Isa. 14:9). This term is of comparatively rare occurrence
in the Greek New Testament. Our Lord speaks of Capernaum as being "brought
down to hell" (hades), i.e., simply to the lowest debasement, (Matt. 11:23).
It is contemplated as a kind of kingdom which could never overturn the foundation
of Christ's kingdom (16:18), i.e., Christ's church can never die.
In Luke 16:23 it is most distinctly associated with the doom and misery
of the lost.
In Acts 2:27-31 Peter quotes the LXX. version of Ps. 16:8-11, plainly
for the purpose of proving our Lord's resurrection from the dead. David
was left in the place of the dead, and his body saw corruption. Not so
with Christ. According to ancient prophecy (Ps. 30:3) he was recalled
Hadid - pointed, a place in the tribe of
Benjamin near Lydda, or Lod, and Ono (Ezra 2:33; Neh. 7:37). It is identified
with the modern el-Haditheh, 3 miles east of Lydda.
Hadlai - resting, an Ephraimite; the father
of Amasa, mentioned in 2 Chr. 28:12.
Hadoram - is exalted. (1.) The son of Tou,
king of Hamath, sent by his father to congratulate David on his victory
over Hadarezer, king of Syria (1 Chr. 18:10; called Joram 2 Sam. 8:10).
(2.) The fifth son of Joktan, the founder of an Arab tribe (Gen. 10:27;
1 Chr. 1:21).
(3.) One who was "over the tribute;" i.e., "over the levy." He was stoned
by the Israelites after they had revolted from Rehoboam (2 Chr. 10:18).
Called also Adoram (2 Sam. 20:24) and Adoniram (1 Kings 4:6).
Hadrach - the name of a country (Zech. 9:1)
which cannot be identified. Rawlinson would identify it with Edessa. He
mentions that in the Assyrian inscriptions it is recorded that "Shalmanezer
III. made two expeditions, the first against Damascus B.C. 773, and the
second against Hadrach B.C. 772; and again that Asshurdanin-il II. made
expeditions against Hadrach in B.C. 765 and 755."
Haemorrhoids - or Emerods, bleeding piles
known to the ancient Romans as mariscae, but more probably malignant boils
of an infectious and fatal character. With this loathsome and infectious
disease the men of Ashdod were smitten by the hand of the Lord. This calamity
they attributed to the presence of the ark in their midst, and therefore
they removed it to Gath (1 Sam. 5:6-8). But the same consequences followed
from its presence in Gath, and therefore they had it removed to Ekron, 11
miles distant. The Ekronites were afflicted with the same dreadful malady,
but more severely; and a panic seizing the people, they demanded that the
ark should be sent back to the land of Israel (9-12; 6:1-9).
Haft - a handle as of a dagger (Judg. 3:22).
Hagar - flight, or, according to others,
stranger, an Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid (Gen. 16:1; 21:9, 10), whom she
gave to Abraham (q.v.) as a secondary wife (16:2). When she was about to
become a mother she fled from the cruelty of her mistress, intending apparently
to return to her relatives in Egypt, through the desert of Shur, which lay
between. Wearied and worn she had reached the place she distinguished by
the name of Beer-lahai-roi ("the well of the visible God"), where the angel
of the Lord appeared to her. In obedience to the heavenly visitor she returned
to the tent of Abraham, where her son Ishmael was born, and where she remained
(16) till after the birth of Isaac, the space of fourteen years. Sarah after
this began to vent her dissatisfaction both on Hagar and her child. Ishmael's
conduct was insulting to Sarah, and she insisted that he and his mother
should be dismissed. This was accordingly done, although with reluctance
on the part of Abraham (Gen. 21:14). They wandered out into the wilderness,
where Ishmael, exhausted with his journey and faint from thirst, seemed
about to die. Hagar "lifted up her voice and wept," and the angel of the
Lord, as before, appeared unto her, and she was comforted and delivered
out of her distresses (Gen. 21:18, 19).
Ishmael afterwards established himself in the wilderness of Paran, where
he married an Egyptian (Gen. 21:20,21).
"Hagar" allegorically represents the Jewish church (Gal. 4:24), in bondage
to the ceremonial law; while "Sarah" represents the Christian church,
which is free.
Hagarene - or Hagarite. (1.) One of David's
mighty men (1 Chr. 11:38), the son of a foreigner.
(2.) Used of Jaziz (1 Chr. 27:31), who was over David's flocks. "A Hagarite
had charge of David's flocks, and an Ishmaelite of his herds, because
the animals were pastured in districts where these nomadic people were
accustomed to feed their cattle."
(3.) In the reign of Saul a great war was waged between the trans-Jordanic
tribes and the Hagarites (1 Chr. 5), who were overcome in battle. A great
booty was captured by the two tribes and a half, and they took possession
of the land of the Hagarites.
Subsequently the "Hagarenes," still residing in the land on the east
of Jordan, entered into a conspiracy against Israel (comp. Ps. 83:6).
They are distinguished from the Ishmaelites.
Haggai - festive, one of the twelve
so-called minor prophets. He was the first of the three (Zechariah, his
contemporary, and Malachi, who was about one hundred years later, being
the other two) whose ministry belonged to the period of Jewish history
which began after the return from captivity in Babylon. Scarcely anything
is known of his personal history. He may have been one of the captives
taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. He began his ministry about sixteen
years after the Return. The work of rebuilding the temple had been put
a stop to through the intrigues of the Samaritans. After having been suspended
for fifteen years, the work was resumed through the efforts of Haggai
and Zechariah (Ezra 6:14), who by their exhortations roused the people
from their lethargy, and induced them to take advantage of the favourable
opportunity that had arisen in a change in the policy of the Persian government.
(See DARIUS.) Haggai's prophecies have thus been characterized:, "There
is a ponderous and simple dignity in the emphatic reiteration addressed
alike to every class of the community, prince, priest, and people, 'Be
strong, be strong, be strong' (2:4). 'Cleave, stick fast, to the work
you have to do;' or again, 'Consider your ways, consider, consider, consider'
(1:5, 7;2:15, 18). It is the Hebrew phrase for the endeavour, characteristic
of the gifted seers of all times, to compel their hearers to turn the
inside of their hearts outwards to their own view, to take the mask from
off their consciences, to 'see life steadily, and to see it wholly.'",
Stanley's Jewish Church. (See SIGNET.)
Haggai, Book of - consists of two brief,
comprehensive chapters. The object of the prophet was generally to urge
the people to proceed with the rebuilding of the temple.
Chapter first comprehends the first address (2-11) and its effects (12-15).
Chapter second contains,
(1.) The second prophecy (1-9), which was delivered a month after the
(2.) The third prophecy (10-19), delivered two months and three days
after the second; and
(3.) The fourth prophecy (20-23), delivered on the same day as the third.
These discourses are referred to in Ezra 5:1; 6:14; Heb. 12:26. (Comp.
Hag. 2:7, 8, 22.)
Haggith - festive; the dancer, a wife of
David and the mother of Adonijah (2 Sam. 3:4; 1 Kings 1:5, 11; 2:13; 1 Chr.
3:2), who, like Absalom, was famed for his beauty.
Hagiographa - the holy writings, a term
which came early into use in the Christian church to denote the third
division of the Old Testament scriptures, called by the Jews Kethubim,
i.e., "Writings." It consisted of five books, viz., Job, Proverbs, and
Psalms, and the two books of Chronicles. The ancient Jews classified their
sacred books as the Law, the Prophets, and the Kethubim, or Writings.
In the New Testament (Luke 24:44) we find three corresponding divisions,
viz., the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms.
Hail! - a salutation expressive of a wish
for the welfare of the person addressed; the translation of the Greek Chaire,
"Rejoice" (Luke 1:8). Used in mockery in Matt. 27:29.
Hail - frozen rain-drops; one of the plagues
of Egypt (Ex. 9:23). It is mentioned by Haggai as a divine judgment (Hag.
2:17). A hail-storm destroyed the army of the Amorites when they fought
against Joshua (Josh. 10:11). Ezekiel represents the wall daubed with untempered
mortar as destroyed by great hail-stones (Ezek. 13:11). (See also 38:22;
Rev. 8:7; 11:19; 16:21.)
Hair - (1.) The Egyptians let the hair of
their head and beard grow only when they were in mourning, shaving it off
at other times. "So particular were they on this point that to have neglected
it was a subject of reproach and ridicule; and whenever they intended to
convey the idea of a man of low condition, or a slovenly person, the artists
represented him with a beard." Joseph shaved himself before going in to
Pharoah (Gen. 41:14). The women of Egypt wore their hair long and plaited.
Wigs were worn by priests and laymen to cover the shaven skull, and false
beards were common. The great masses of hair seen in the portraits and statues
of kings and priests are thus altogether artificial.
(2.) A precisely opposite practice, as regards men, prevailed among
the Assyrians. In Assyrian sculptures the hair always appears long, and
combed closely down upon the head. The beard also was allowed to grow
to its full length.
(3.) Among the Greeks the custom in this respect varied at different
times, as it did also among the Romans. In the time of the apostle, among
the Greeks the men wore short hair, while that of the women was long (1
Cor. 11:14, 15). Paul reproves the Corinthians for falling in with a style
of manners which so far confounded the distinction of the sexes and was
hurtful to good morals. (See, however, 1 Tim. 2:9, and 1 Pet. 3:3, as
(4.) Among the Hebrews the natural distinction between the sexes was
preserved by the women wearing long hair (Luke 7:38; John 11:2; 1 Cor.
11:6), while the men preserved theirs as a rule at a moderate length by
Baldness disqualified any one for the priest's office (Lev. 21).
Elijah is called a "hairy man" (2 Kings 1:8) from his flowing locks,
or more probably from the shaggy cloak of hair which he wore. His raiment
was of camel's hair.
Long hair is especially noticed in the description of Absalom's person
(2 Sam. 14:26); but the wearing of long hair was unusual, and was only
practised as an act of religious observance by Nazarites (Num. 6:5; Judg.
13:5) and others in token of special mercies (Acts 18:18).
In times of affliction the hair was cut off (Isa. 3:17, 24; 15:2; 22:12;
Jer. 7:29; Amos 8:10). Tearing the hair and letting it go dishevelled
were also tokens of grief (Ezra 9:3). "Cutting off the hair" is a figure
of the entire destruction of a people (Isa. 7:20). The Hebrews anointed
the hair profusely with fragrant ointments (Ruth 3:3; 2 Sam. 14:2; Ps.
23:5; 45:7, etc.), especially in seasons of rejoicing (Matt. 6:17; Luke
Hakkoz - the thorn, the head of one of the
courses of the priests (1 Chr. 24:10).
Halah - a district of Media to which captive
Israelites were transported by the Assyrian kings (2 Kings 17:6; 18:11;
1 Chr. 5:26). It lay along the banks of the upper Khabur, from its source
to its junction with the Jerujer. Probably the district called by Ptolemy
Halak - smooth; bald, a hill at the southern
extremity of Canaan (Josh. 11:17). It is referred to as if it were a landmark
in that direction, being prominent and conspicuous from a distance. It has
by some been identified with the modern Jebel el-Madura, on the south frontier
of Judah, between the south end of the Dead Sea and the Wady Gaian.
Halhul - full of hollows, a town in the
highlands of Judah (Josh. 15:58). It is now a small village of the same
name, and is situated about 5 miles north-east of Hebron on the way to Jerusalem.
There is an old Jewish tradition that Gad, David's seer (2 Sam. 24:11),
was buried here.
Hall - (Gr. aule, Luke 22:55; R.V., "court"),
the open court or quadrangle belonging to the high priest's house. In Matt.
26:69 and Mark 14:66 this word is incorrectly rendered "palace" in the Authorized
Version, but correctly "court" in the Revised Version. In John 10:1,16 it
means a "sheep-fold." In Matt. 27:27 and Mark 15:16 (A.V., "common hall;"
R.V., "palace") it refers to the proetorium or residence of the Roman governor
at Jerusalem. The "porch" in Matt. 26:71 is the entrance-hall or passage
leading into the central court, which is open to the sky.
Hallel - praise, the name given to the group
of Psalms 113-118, which are preeminently psalms of praise. It is called
"The Egyptian Hallel," because it was chanted in the temple whilst the Passover
lambs were being slain. It was chanted also on other festival occasions,
as at Pentecost, the feast of Tabernacles, and the feast of Dedication.
The Levites, standing before the altar, chanted it verse by verse, the people
responding by repeating the verses or by intoned hallelujahs. It was also
chanted in private families at the feast of Passover. This was probably
the hymn which our Saviour and his disciples sung at the conclusion of the
Passover supper kept by them in the upper room at Jerusalem (Matt. 26:30;
There is also another group called "The Great Hallel," comprehending
Psalms 118-136, which was recited on the first evening at the Passover
supper and on occasions of great joy.
Hallelujah - praise ye Jehovah, frequently
rendered "Praise ye the LORD," stands at the beginning of ten of the psalms
(106, 111-113, 135, 146-150), hence called "hallelujah psalms." From its
frequent occurrence it grew into a formula of praise. The Greek form of
the word (alleluia) is found in Rev. 19:1, 3, 4, 6.
Hallow - to render sacred, to consecrate
(Ex. 28:38; 29:1). This word is from the Saxon, and properly means "to make
holy." The name of God is "hallowed", i.e., is reverenced as holy (Matt.