Halt - lame on the feet (Gen. 32:31; Ps. 38:17). To "halt between
two opinions" (1 Kings 18:21) is supposed by some to be an expression used
in "allusion to birds, which hop from spray to spray, forwards and backwards."
The LXX. render the expression "How long go ye lame on both knees?" The
Hebrew verb rendered "halt" is used of the irregular dance ("leaped upon")
around the altar (ver. 26). It indicates a lame, uncertain gait, going now
in one direction, now in another, in the frenzy of wild leaping.
Ham - warm, hot, and hence the south; also
an Egyptian word meaning "black", the youngest son of Noah (Gen. 5:32; comp.
9:22,24). The curse pronounced by Noah against Ham, properly against Canaan
his fourth son, was accomplished when the Jews subsequently exterminated
One of the most important facts recorded in Gen. 10 is the foundation
of the earliest monarchy in Babylonia by Nimrod the grandson of Ham (6,
8, 10). The primitive Babylonian empire was thus Hamitic, and of a cognate
race with the primitive inhabitants of Arabia and of Ethiopia. (See ACCAD.)
The race of Ham were the most energetic of all the descendants of Noah
in the early times of the post-diluvian world.
Haman - (of Persian origin), magnificent,
the name of the vizier (i.e., the prime minister) of the Persian king
Ahasuerus (Esther 3:1, etc.). He is called an "Agagite," which seems to
denote that he was descended from the royal family of the Amalekites,
the bitterest enemies of the Jews, as Agag was one of the titles of the
Amalekite kings. He or his parents were brought to Persia as captives
taken in war. He was hanged on the gallows which he had erected for Mordecai
the Jew (Esther 7:10). (See ESTHER.)
Hamath - fortress, the capital of one of
the kingdoms of Upper Syria of the same name, on the Orontes, in the valley
of Lebanon, at the northern boundary of Palestine (Num. 13:21; 34:8), at
the foot of Hermon (Josh. 13:5) towards Damascus (Zech. 9:2; Jer. 49:23).
It is called "Hamath the great" in Amos 6:2, and "Hamath-zobah" in 2 Chr.
Hamath, now Hamah, had an Aramaean population, but Hittite monuments
discovered there show that it must have been at one time occupied by the
Hittites. It was among the conquests of the Pharaoh Thothmes III. Its
king, Tou or Toi, made alliance with David (2 Sam. 8:10), and in B.C.
740 Azariah formed a league with it against Assyria. It was, however,
conquered by the Assyrians, and its nineteen districts placed under Assyrian
governors. In B.C. 720 it revolted under a certain Yahu-bihdi, whose name,
compounded with that of the God of Israel (Yahu), perhaps shows that he
was of Jewish origin. But the revolt was suppressed, and the people of
Hamath were transported to Samaria (2 Kings 17:24, 30), where they continued
to worship their god Ashima. Hamah is beautifully situated on the Orontes,
32 miles north of Emesa, and 36 south of the ruins of Assamea.
The kingdom of Hamath comprehended the great plain lying on both banks
of the Orontes from the fountain near Riblah to Assamea on the north,
and from Lebanon on the west to the desert on the east. The "entrance
of Hamath" (Num. 34:8), which was the north boundary of Palestine, led
from the west between the north end of Lebanon and the Nusairiyeh mountains.
Hamath-zobah - fortress of Zobah, (2 Chr.
8:3) is supposed by some to be a different place from the foregoing; but
this is quite uncertain.
Hammath - warm springs, one of the "fenced
cities" of Naphtali (Josh. 19:35). It is identified with the warm baths
(the heat of the water ranging from 136 degrees to 144 degrees) still found
on the shore a little to the south of Tiberias under the name of Hummam
Tabariyeh ("Bath of Tiberias").
Hammedatha - father of Haman, designated
usually "the Agagite" (Esther 3:1, 10; 8:5).
Hammelech - the king's, the father of Jerahmeel,
mentioned in Jer. 36:26. Some take this word as a common noun, "the king",
and understand that Jerahmeel was Jehoiakim's son. Probably, however, it
is to be taken as a proper name.
Hammer - (1.) Heb. pattish, used by gold-beaters
(Isa. 41:7) and by quarry-men (Jer. 23:29). Metaphorically of Babylon (Jer.
50:23) or Nebuchadnezzar.
(2.) Heb. makabah, a stone-cutter's mallet (1 Kings 6:7), or of any
workman (Judg. 4:21; Isa. 44:12).
(3.) Heb. halmuth, a poetical word for a workman's hammer, found only
in Judg. 5:26, where it denotes the mallet with which the pins of the
tent of the nomad are driven into the ground.
(4.) Heb. mappets, rendered "battle-axe" in Jer. 51:20. This was properly
a "mace," which is thus described by Rawlinson: "The Assyrian mace was
a short, thin weapon, and must either have been made of a very tough wood
or (and this is more probable) of metal. It had an ornamented head, which
was sometimes very beautifully modelled, and generally a strap or string
at the lower end by which it could be grasped with greater firmness."
Hammoleketh - the queen, the daughter of
Machir and sister of Gilead (1 Chr. 7:17, 18). Abiezer was one of her three
Hammon - warm springs. (1.) A town in the
tribe of Asher, near Zidon (Josh. 19:28), identified with 'Ain Hamul.
(2.) A Levitical city of Naphtali (1 Chr. 6:76).
Hammoth-dor - warm springs, a Levitical
city of Naphtali (Josh. 21:32); probably Hammath in 19:35.
Hamon - See BAAL-HAMON.
Hamonah - multitude, a name figuratively
assigned to the place in which the slaughter and burial of the forces of
Gog were to take place (Ezek. 39:16).
Hamon-gog - multitude of Gog, the name of
the valley in which the slaughtered forces of Gog are to be buried (Ezek.
39:11,15), "the valley of the passengers on the east of the sea."
Hamor - he-ass, a Hivite from whom Jacob
purchased the plot of ground in which Joseph was afterwards buried (Gen.
33:19). He is called "Emmor" in Acts 7:16. His son Shechem founded the city
of that name which Simeon and Levi destroyed because of his crime in the
matter of Dinah, Jacob's daughter (Gen. 34:20). Hamor and Shechem were also
slain (ver. 26).
Hamul - spared, one of the sons of Pharez,
son of Judah (1 Chr. 2:5). His descendants are called Hamulites (Num. 26:21).
Hamutal - kinsman of the dew, the daughter
of Jeremiah of Libnah, wife of king Josiah, and mother of king Jehoahaz
(2 Kings 23:31), also of king Zedekiah (2 Kings 24:18).
Hanameel - whom God has graciously given,
the cousin of Jeremiah, to whom he sold the field he possessed in Anathoth,
before the siege of Jerusalem (Jer. 32:6-12).
Hanan - merciful. (1.) A Benjamite (1 Chr.
8:23). (2.) One of David's heroes (1 Chr. 11:43). (3.) Jer. 35:4. (4.) A
descendant of Saul (1 Chr. 8:38). (5.) One of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:46).
(6.) One of the Levites who assisted Ezra (Neh. 8:7). (7.) One of the chiefs
who subscribed the covenant (Neh. 10:22).
Hananeel - God has graciously given, a tower
in the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:1; 12:39). It is mentioned also in Jer.
31:38; Zech. 14:10.
Hanani - God has gratified me, or is gracious.
(1.) One of the sons of Heman (1 Chr. 25:4, 25). (2.) A prophet who was
sent to rebuke king Asa for entering into a league with Benhadad I., king
of Syria, against Judah (2 Chr. 16:1-10). He was probably the father of
the prophet Jehu (1 Kings 16:7). (3.) Probably a brother of Nehemiah (Neh.
1:2; 7:2), who reported to him the melancholy condition of Jerusalem. Nehemiah
afterwards appointed him to have charge of the city gates.
Hananiah - Jehovah has given. (1.) A chief
of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:24). (2.) One of the sons of Heman (1
Chr. 25:4,23). (3.) One of Uzziah's military officers (2 Chr. 26:11). (4.)
Grandfather of the captain who arrested Jeremiah (Jer. 37:13). (5.) Jer.
36:12. (6.) Neh. 10:23. (7.) Shadrach, one of the "three Hebrew children"
(Dan. 1; 6:7). (8.) Son of Zerubbabel (1 Chr. 3:19, 21). (9.) Ezra 10:28.
(10.) The "ruler of the palace; he was a faithful man, and feared God above
many" (Neh. 7:2). (11.) Neh. 3:8. (12.) Neh. 3:30 (13.) A priest, son of
Jeremiah (Neh. 12:12). (14.) A false prophet contemporary with Jeremiah
Hand - Called by Galen "the instrument of
instruments." It is the symbol of human action (Ps. 9:16; Job 9:30; Isa.
1:15; 1 Tim. 2:8). Washing the hands was a symbol of innocence (Ps. 26:6;
73:13; Matt. 27:24), also of sanctification (1 Cor. 6:11; Isa. 51:16; Ps.
24:3, 4). In Ps. 77:2 the correct rendering is, as in the Revised Version,
"My hand was stretched out," etc., instead of, as in the Authorized Version,
"My sore ran in the night," etc.
The right hand denoted the south, and the left the north (Job 23:9;
1 Sam. 23:19). To give the right hand was a pledge of fidelity (2 Kings
10:15; Ezra 10:19); also of submission to the victors (Ezek. 17:18; Jer.
50:15). The right hand was lifted up in taking an oath (Gen. 14:22, etc.).
The hand is frequently mentioned, particularly the right hand, as a symbol
of power and strength (Ps. 60:5; Isa. 28:2). To kiss the hand is an act
of homage (1 Kings 19:18; Job 31:27), and to pour water on one's hands
is to serve him (2 Kings 3:11). The hand of God is the symbol of his power:
its being upon one denotes favour (Ezra 7:6, 28; Isa. 1:25; Luke 1:66,
etc.) or punishment (Ex. 9:3; Judg. 2:15; Acts 13:11, etc.). A position
at the right hand was regarded as the chief place of honour and power
(Ps. 45:9; 80:17; 110:1; Matt. 26:64).
Handbreadth - a measure of four fingers,
equal to about four inches (Ex. 25:25; 37:12; Ps. 39:5, etc.).
Handkerchief - Only once in Authorized Version
(Acts 19:12). The Greek word (sudarion) so rendered means properly "a sweat-cloth."
It is rendered "napkin" in John 11:44; 20:7; Luke 19:20.
Handmaid - servant (Gen. 16:1; Ruth 3:9;
Luke 1:48). It is probable that Hagar was Sarah's personal attendant while
she was in the house of Pharaoh, and was among those maid-servants whom
Abram had brought from Egypt.
Handwriting - (Col. 2:14). The "blotting
out the handwriting" is the removal by the grace of the gospel of the condemnation
of the law which we had broken.
Hanes - a place in Egypt mentioned only
in Isa. 30:4 in connection with a reproof given to the Jews for trusting
in Egypt. It was considered the same as Tahpanhes, a fortified town on the
eastern frontier, but has been also identified as Ahnas-el-Medeeneh, 70
miles from Cairo.
Hanging - (as a punishment), a mark of infamy
inflicted on the dead bodies of criminals (Deut. 21:23) rather than our
modern mode of punishment. Criminals were first strangled and then hanged
(Nu. 25:4; Deut. 21:22). (See 2 Sam. 21:6 for the practice of the Gibeonites.)
Hanging (as a curtain). (1.) Heb. masak, (a) before the entrance to
the court of the tabernacle (Ex. 35:17); (b) before the door of the tabernacle
(26:36, 37); (c) before the entrance to the most holy place, called "the
veil of the covering" (35:12; 39:34), as the word properly means.
(2.) Heb. kelaim, tapestry covering the walls of the tabernacle (Ex.
27:9; 35:17; Num. 3:26) to the half of the height of the wall (Ex. 27:18;
comp. 26:16). These hangings were fastened to pillars.
(3.) Heb. bottim (2 Kings 23:7), "hangings for the grove" (R.V., "for
the Asherah"); marg., instead of "hangings," has "tents" or "houses."
Such curtained structures for idolatrous worship are also alluded to in
Hannah - favour, grace, one of the wives
of Elkanah the Levite, and the mother of Samuel (1 Sam. 1; 2). Her home
was at Ramathaim-zophim, whence she was wont every year to go to Shiloh,
where the tabernacle had been pitched by Joshua, to attend the offering
of sacrifices there according to the law (Ex. 23:15; 34:18; Deut. 16:16),
probably at the feast of the Passover (comp. Ex. 13:10). On occasion of
one of these "yearly" visits, being grieved by reason of Peninnah's conduct
toward her, she went forth alone, and kneeling before the Lord at the sanctuary
she prayed inaudibly. Eli the high priest, who sat at the entrance to the
holy place, observed her, and misunderstanding her character he harshly
condemned her conduct (1 Sam. 1:14-16). After hearing her explanation he
retracted his injurious charge and said to her, "Go in peace: and the God
of Israel grant thee thy petition." Perhaps the story of the wife of Manoah
was not unknown to her. Thereafter Elkanah and his family retired to their
quiet home, and there, before another Passover, Hannah gave birth to a son,
whom, in grateful memory of the Lord's goodness, she called Samuel, i.e.,
"heard of God." After the child was weaned (probably in his third year)
she brought him to Shiloh into the house of the Lord, and said to Eli the
aged priest, "Oh my lord, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying
unto the Lord. For this child I prayed; and the Lord hath given me my petition
which I asked of him: therefore I also have granted him to the Lord; as
long as he liveth he is granted to the Lord" (1 Sam. 1:27, 28, R.V.). Her
gladness of heart then found vent in that remarkable prophetic song (2:1-10;
comp. Luke 1:46-55) which contains the first designation of the Messiah
under that name (1 Sam. 2:10, "Annointed" = "Messiah"). And so Samuel and
his parents parted. He was left at Shiloh to minister "before the Lord."
And each year, when they came up to Shiloh, Hannah brought to her absent
child "a little coat" (Heb. meil, a term used to denote the "robe" of the
ephod worn by the high priest, Ex. 28:31), a priestly robe, a long upper
tunic (1 Chr. 15:27), in which to minister in the tabernacle (1 Sam. 2:19;
15:27; Job 2:12). "And the child Samuel grew before the Lord." After Samuel,
Hannah had three sons and two daughters.
Hanniel - grace of God. (1.) A chief of
the tribe of Manasseh (Num. 34:23). (2.) A chief of the tribe of Asher (1
Hanun - graciously given. (1.) The son and
successor of Nahash, king of Moab. David's messengers, sent on an embassy
of condolence to him to Rabbah Ammon, his capital, were so grossly insulted
that he proclaimed war against Hanun. David's army, under the command of
Joab, forthwith crossed the Jordan, and gained a complete victory over the
Moabites and their allies (2 Sam. 10:1-14) at Medeba (q.v.).
(2.) Neh. 3:13. (3.) 3:30.
Hara - mountainous land, a province of Assyria
(1 Chr. 5:26), between the Tigris and the Euphrates, along the banks of
the Khabur, to which some of the Israelite captives were carried. It has
not been identified. Some think the word a variation of Haran.
Haradah - fright; fear, the twenty-fifth
station of the Israelites in their wanderings (Num. 33:24).
Haran - (1.) Heb. haran; i.e., "mountaineer."
The eldest son of Terah, brother of Abraham and Nahor, and father of Lot,
Milcah, and Iscah. He died before his father (Gen. 11:27), in Ur of the
(2.) Heb. haran, i.e., "parched;" or probably from the Accadian charana,
meaning "a road." A celebrated city of Western Asia, now Harran, where
Abram remained, after he left Ur of the Chaldees, till his father Terah
died (Gen. 11:31, 32), when he continued his journey into the land of
Canaan. It is called "Charran" in the LXX. and in Acts 7:2. It is called
the "city of Nahor" (Gen. 24:10), and Jacob resided here with Laban (30:43).
It stood on the river Belik, an affluent of the Euphrates, about 70 miles
above where it joins that river in Upper Mesopotamia or Padan-aram, and
about 600 miles northwest of Ur in a direct line. It was on the caravan
route between the east and west. It is afterwards mentioned among the
towns taken by the king of Assyria (2 Kings 19:12; Isa. 37:12). It was
known to the Greeks and Romans under the name Carrhae.
(3.) The son of Caleb of Judah (1 Chr. 2:46) by his concubine Ephah.
Harbona - (a Persian word meaning "ass-driver"),
one of the seven eunuchs or chamberlains of king Ahasuerus (Esther 1:10;
Hare - (Heb. 'arnebeth) was prohibited as
food according to the Mosaic law (Lev. 11:6; Deut. 14:7), "because he cheweth
the cud, but divideth not the hoof." The habit of this animal is to grind
its teeth and move its jaw as if it actually chewed the cud. But, like the
cony (q.v.), it is not a ruminant with four stomachs, but a rodent like
the squirrel, rat, etc. Moses speaks of it according to appearance. It is
interdicted because, though apparently chewing the cud, it did not divide
There are two species in Syria, (1) the Lepus Syriacus or Syrian hare,
which is like the English hare; and (2) the Lepus Sinaiticus, or hare
of the desert. No rabbits are found in Syria.
Hareth - thicket, a wood in the mountains
of Judah where David hid when pursued by Saul (1 Sam. 22:5). It was possibly
while he was here that the memorable incident narrated in 2 Sam. 23:14-17,
1 Chr. 11:16-19 occurred. This place has not been identified, but perhaps
it may be the modern Kharas, on the borders of the chain of mountains some
3 miles east of Keilah.
Harhaiah - zeal of Jehovah, (Neh. 3:8) "of
the goldsmiths," one whose son helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem.
Harhur - fever, one of the Nethinim (Ezra
Harim - flat-nosed. (1.) The head of the
second course of priests (1 Chr. 24:8). (2.) Ezra 2:32, 39; Neh. 7:35, 42.
(3.) Neh. 3:11. (4.) 12:3. (5.) 10:5
Hariph - autumnal rain. (1.) Neh. 7:24.
Harlot - (1.) Heb. zonah (Gen. 34:31; 38:15).
In verses 21, 22 the Hebrew word used in kedeshah, i.e., a woman
consecrated or devoted to prostitution in connection with the abominable
worship of Asherah or Astarte, the Syrian Venus. This word is also used
in Deut. 23:17; Hos. 4:14. Thus Tamar sat by the wayside as a consecrated
It has been attempted to show that Rahab, usually called a "harlot"
(Josh. 2:1; 6:17; Heb. 11:31; James 2:25), was only an innkeeper. This
interpretation, however, cannot be maintained.
Jephthah's mother is called a "strange woman" (Judg. 11:2). This, however,
merely denotes that she was of foreign extraction.
In the time of Solomon harlots appeared openly in the streets, and he
solemnly warns against association with them (Prov. 7:12; 9:14. See also
Jer. 3:2; Ezek. 16:24, 25, 31). The Revised Version, following the LXX.,
has "and the harlots washed," etc., instead of the rendering of the Authorized
Version, "now they washed," of 1 Kings 22:38.
To commit fornication is metaphorically used for to practice idolatry
(Jer. 3:1; Ezek. 16:15; Hos. throughout); hence Jerusalem is spoken of
as a harlot (Isa. 1:21).
(2.) Heb. nokriyah, the "strange woman" (1 Kings 11:1; Prov. 5:20; 7:5;
23:27). Those so designated were Canaanites and other Gentiles (Josh.
23:13). To the same class belonged the "foolish", i.e., the sinful, "woman."
In the New Testament the Greek pornai, plural, "harlots," occurs in
Matt. 21:31,32, where they are classed with publicans; Luke 15:30; 1 Cor.
6:15,16; Heb. 11:31; James 2:25. It is used symbolically in Rev. 17:1,
5, 15, 16; 19:2.
Harnepher - a chief of the tribe of Asher
(1 Chr. 7:36).
Harness - (1.) Heb. 'asar, "to bind;" hence
the act of fastening animals to a cart (1 Sam. 6:7, 10; Jer. 46:4, etc.).
(2.) An Old English word for "armour;" Heb. neshek (2 Chr. 9:24).
(3.) Heb. shiryan, a coat of mail (1 Kings 22:34; 2 Chr. 18:33; rendered
"breastplate" in Isa. 59:17).
(4.) The children of Israel passed out of Egypt "harnessed" (Ex. 13:18),
i.e., in an orderly manner, and as if to meet a foe. The word so rendered
is probably a derivative from Hebrew hamesh (i.e., "five"), and
may denote that they went up in five divisions, viz., the van, centre,
two wings, and rear-guard.
Harod - palpitation, a fountain near which
Gideon and his army encamped on the morning of the day when they encountered
and routed the Midianites (Judg. 7). It was south of the hill Moreh. The
present 'Ain Jalud ("Goliath's Fountain"), south of Jezreel and nearly opposite
Shunem, is probably the fountain here referred to (7:4, 5).
Harodite - an epithet applied to two of
David's heroes (2 Sam. 23:25). (Comp. 1 Chr. 11:27.)
Harosheth of the Gentiles - (Judg. 4:2)
or nations, a city near Hazor in Galilee of the Gentiles, or Upper Galilee,
in the north of Palestine. It was here that Jabin's great army was marshalled
before it went forth into the great battlefield of Esdraelon to encounter
the army of Israel, by which it was routed and put to flight (Judg. 4).
It was situated "at the entrance of the pass to Esdraelon from the plain
of Acre" at the base of Carmel. The name in the Hebrew is Harosheth ha
Gojim, i.e., "the smithy of the nations;" probably, as is supposed,
so called because here Jabin's iron war-chariots, armed with scythes, were
made. It is identified with el-Harithiyeh.
Harp - (Heb. kinnor), the national instrument
of the Hebrews. It was invented by Jubal (Gen. 4:21). Some think the word
kinnor denotes the whole class of stringed instruments. It was used
as an accompaniment to songs of cheerfulness as well as of praise to God
(Gen. 31:27; 1 Sam. 16:23; 2 Chr. 20:28; Ps. 33:2; 137:2).
In Solomon's time harps were made of almug-trees (1 Kings 10:11, 12).
In 1 Chr. 15:21 mention is made of "harps on the Sheminith;" Revised Version,
"harps set to the Sheminith;" better perhaps "harps of eight strings."
The soothing effect of the music of the harp is referred to 1 Sam. 16:16,
23; 18:10; 19:9. The church in heaven is represented as celebrating the
triumphs of the Redeemer "harping with their harps" (Rev. 14:2).
Harrow - (Heb. harits), a tribulum or sharp
threshing sledge; a frame armed on the under side with rollers or sharp
spikes (2 Sam. 12:31; 1 Chr. 20:3).
Heb. verb sadad, to harrow a field, break its clods (Job 39:10;
Isa. 28:4; Hos. 10: 11). Its form is unknown. It may have resembled the
instrument still in use in Egypt.
Harsha - worker or enchanter, one of the
Nethinim (Ezra 2:52; Neh. 7:54).
Hart - (Heb. 'ayal), a stag or male deer.
It is ranked among the clean animals (Deut. 12:15; 14:5; 15:22), and was
commonly killed for food (1 Kings 4:23). The hart is frequently alluded
to in the poetical and prophetical books (Isa. 35:6; Cant. 2:8, 9; Lam.
1:6; Ps. 42:1).
Harum - elevated, (1 Chr. 4:8), a descendant
Haruphite - a native of Hariph; an epithet
given to Shephatiah, one of those who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:5).
Haruz - eager, the father of Meshullemeth,
the wife of king Manasseh (2 Kings 21:19) and mother of king Amon.
Harvest - the season for gathering grain
or fruit. On the 16th day of Abib (or April) a handful of ripe ears of
corn was offered as a first-fruit before the Lord, and immediately after
this the harvest commenced (Lev. 23:9-14; 2 Sam. 21:9, 10; Ruth 2:23).
It began with the feast of Passover and ended with Pentecost, thus lasting
for seven weeks (Ex. 23:16). The harvest was a season of joy (Ps. 126:1-6;
Isa. 9:3). This word is used figuratively Matt. 9:37; 13:30; Luke 10:2;
John 4:35. (See AGRICULTURE.)
Hasadiah - favoured by Jehovah, one of the
sons of Pedaiah (1 Chr. 3:20), of the royal line of David.
Hasenuah - bristling or hated, a Benjamite
(1 Chr. 9:7).
Hashabiah - regarded by Jehovah. (1.) Merarite
Levite (1 Chr. 6:45; 9:14). (2.) A son of Jeduthun (25:3, 19). (3.) Son
of Kemuel (26:30). (4.) One of the chief Levites (2 Chr. 35:9). (5.) A Levite
(Neh. 11:22). (6.) One of the chief priests in the time of Ezra (Ezra 8:24).
(7.) A chief of the Levites (Neh. 12:24). (8.) Ezra 8:19. (9.) Neh. 3:17.
Hashabniah - (1.) Neh. 3:10. (2.) One of
the Levites whom Ezra appointed to interpret the law to the people (Neh.
Hashbadana - consideration in judging, stood
at Ezra's left hand when he read the law (Neh. 8:4).
Hashmonah - fatness, the thirtieth halting-place
of the Israelites during their wanderings in the wilderness, not far from
Mount Hor (Num. 33:29, 30).
Hashub - intelligent. (1.) A Levite of the
family of Merari (Neh. 11:15; 1 Chr. 9:14). (2.) Neh. 3:23. 3:11.
Hashubah - ibid., a descendant of David
(1 Chr. 3:20).
Hashum - opulent. (1.) Ezra 2:19; Neh. 7:22.
(2.) Stood on Ezra's left hand while he read the law (Neh. 8:4).
Hasrah - poverty, "keeper of the wardrobe,"
i.e., of the sacerdotal vestments (2 Chr. 34:22); called Harhas 2 Kings
22:14. He was husband of the prophetess Huldah.
Hasupha - uncovered, one of the Nethinim
(Ezra 2:43; Neh. 7:46).
Hat - Chald. karb'ela, (Dan. 3:21), properly
mantle or pallium. The Revised Version renders it "tunic."
Hatach - verity, one of the eunuchs or chamberlains
in the palace of Ahasuerus (Esther 4:5, 6, 9, 10).
Hathath - terror, son of Othniel (1 Chr.
Hatipha - captured, one of the Nethinim
Hatita - exploration, one of the temple
porters or janitors (Ezra 2:42). He returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.
Hatred - among the works of the flesh (Gal.
5:20). Altogether different is the meaning of the word in Deut. 21:15; Matt.
6:24; Luke 14:26; Rom. 9:13, where it denotes only a less degree of love.
Hattush - assembled. (1.) A priest who returned
with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:2). (2.) Ezra 8:2. (3.) Neh. 3:10. (4.) Neh. 10:4.
(5.) 1 Chr. 3:22.
Hauran - cave-land, mentioned only in Ezek.
47:16, 18. It was one of the ancient divisions of Bashan (q.v.), and lay
on the south-east of Gaulanitis or the Jaulan, and on the south of Lejah,
extending from the Arnon to the Hieromax. It was the most fertile region
in Syria, and to this day abounds in the ruins of towns, many of which have
stone doors and massive walls. It retains its ancient name. It was known
by the Greeks and Romans as "Auranitis."
Haven - a harbour (Ps. 107:30; Acts 27:
12). The most famous on the coast of Palestine was that of Tyre (Ezek. 27:3).
That of Crete, called "Fair Havens," is mentioned Acts 27:8.
Havilah - the sand region. (1.) A land mentioned
in Gen. 2:11 rich in gold and bdellium and onyx stone. The question as to
the locality of this region has given rise to a great diversity of opinion.
It may perhaps be identified with the sandy tract which skirts Babylonia
along the whole of its western border, stretching from the lower Euphrates
to the mountains of Edom.
(2.) A district in Arabia-Felix. It is uncertain whether the tribe gave
its name to this region or derived its name from it, and whether it was
originally a Cushite (Gen. 10:7) or a Joktanite tribe (10:29; comp. 25:18),
or whether there were both a Cushite and a Joktanite Havilah. It is the
opinion of Kalisch, however, that Havilah "in both instances designates
the same country, extending at least from the Persian to the Arabian Gulf,
and on account of its vast extent easily divided into two distinct parts."
This opinion may be well vindicated.
(3.) One of the sons of Cush (Gen. 10:7).
(4.) A son of Joktan (Gen. 10:29; 1 Chr. 1:23).
Havoth-jair - hamlets of the enlightener
a district in the east of Jordan. (1.) Jair, the son of Manasseh, took some
villages of Gilead and called them by this name (Num. 32:41).
(2.) Again, it is said that Jair "took all the tract of Argob," and
called it Bashanhavoth-jair (Deut. 3:14). (See also Josh. 13:30; 1 Kings
4:13; 1 Chr. 2:22, 23.)
Hawk - (Heb. netz, a word expressive
of strong and rapid flight, and hence appropriate to the hawk). It is
an unclean bird (Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15). It is common in Syria and surrounding
countries. The Hebrew word includes various species of Falconidae, with
special reference perhaps to the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), the hobby
(Hypotriorchis subbuteo), and the lesser kestrel (Tin, Cenchris). The
kestrel remains all the year in Palestine, but some ten or twelve other
species are all migrants from the south. Of those summer visitors to Palestine
special mention may be made of the Falco sacer and the Falco lanarius.
Hay - properly so called, was not in use
among the Hebrews; straw was used instead. They cut the grass green as it
was needed. The word rendered "hay" in Prov. 27:25 means the first shoots
of the grass. In Isa. 15:6 the Revised Version has correctly "grass," where
the Authorized Version has "hay."
Hazael - whom God beholds, an officer of
Ben-hadad II., king of Syria, who ultimately came to the throne, according
to the word of the Lord to Elijah (1 Kings 19:15), after he had put the
king to death (2 Kings 8:15). His interview with Elisha is mentioned in
2 Kings 8. The Assyrians soon after his accession to the throne came against
him and defeated him with very great loss; and three years afterwards again
invaded Syria, but on this occasion Hazael submitted to them. He then turned
his arms against Israel, and ravaged "all the land of Gilead," etc. (2 Kings
10:33), which he held in a degree of subjection to him (13:3-7, 22). He
aimed at the subjugation also of the kingdom of Judah, when Joash obtained
peace by giving him "all the gold that was found in the treasures of the
house of the Lord, and in the king's house" (2 Kings 12:18; 2 Chr. 24:24).
He reigned about forty-six years (B.C.886-840), and was succeeded on the
throne by his son Ben-hadad (2 Kings 13:22-25), who on several occasions
was defeated by Jehoash, the king of Israel, and compelled to restore all
the land of Israel his father had taken.
Hazar-addar - village of Addar, a place
in the southern boundary of Palestine (Num. 34:4), in the desert to the
west of Kadesh-barnea. It is called Adar in Josh. 15:3.
Hazar-enan - village of fountains, a place
on the north-east frontier of Palestine (Num. 34:9, 10). Some have identified
it with Ayan ed-Dara in the heart of the central chain of Anti-Libanus.
More probably, however, it has been identified with Kuryetein, about 60
miles east-north-east of Damascus. (Comp. Ezek. 47:17; 48:1.)
Hazar-gaddah - village of fortune, a city
on the south border of Judah (Josh. 15:27), midway between the Mediterranean
and the Dead Sea.
Hazar-hatticon - village of the midway,
a place near Hamath in the confines of Hauran (Ezek. 47:16), probably on
the north brow of Hermon.
Hazar-maveth - court of death, the third
son of Joktan, and a region in Arabia-Felix settled by him (Gen. 10:26;
1 Chr. 1:20). It is probably the modern province of Hadramaut, situated
on the Indian Ocean east of the modern Yemen.
Hazar-shual - village or enclosure of the
jackal, a city on the south border of Judah (Josh. 15:28; Neh. 11:27). It
has been identified with the ruins of Saweh, half-way between Beersheba
Hazar-susah - village of the horse, the
same as Sansannah, one of Solomon's "chariot cities" (Josh. 15:31; 2 Chr.
1:14), a depot in the south border of Judah.
Hazel - Heb. luz, (Gen. 30:37), a nutbearing
tree. The Hebrew word is rendered in the Vulgate by amygdalinus, "the almond-tree,"
which is probably correct. That tree flourishes in Syria.
Hazerim - villages, probably the name of
the temporary villages in which the nomad Avites resided (Deut. 2:23).
Hazeroth - fenced enclosures consisting
of "a low wall of stones in which thick bundles of thorny acacia are inserted,
the tangled branches and long needle-like spikes forming a perfectly impenetrable
hedge around the encampment" of tents and cattle which they sheltered. Such
like enclosures abound in the wilderness of Paran, which the Israelites
entered after leaving Sinai (Num. 11:35; 12:16; 33:17, 18). This third encampment
of the Israelites has been identified with the modern 'Ain el-Hudhera, some
40 miles north-east of Sinai. Here Miriam (q.v.), being displeased that
Moses had married a Cushite wife (Num. 12:1), induced Aaron to join with
her in rebelling against Moses. God vindicated the authority of his "servant
Moses," and Miriam was smitten with leprosy. Moses interceded for her, and
she was healed (Num. 12:4-16). From this encampment the Israelites marched
northward across the plateau of et-Tih, and at length reached KADESH.
Hazezon-tamar - pruning of the palm, the
original name of the place afterwards called ENGEDI (q.v.), Gen. 14:7; called
also HAZAZON-TAMAR (2 Chr. 20:2).
Hazo - vision, one of the sons of Nahor
Hazor - enclosed; fortified. (1.) A stronghold
of the Canaanites in the mountains north of Lake Merom (Josh. 11:1-5). Jabin
the king with his allied tribes here encountered Joshua in a great battle.
Joshua gained a signal victory, which virtually completed his conquest of
Canaan (11:10-13). This city was, however, afterwards rebuilt by the Canaanites,
and was ruled by a king with the same hereditary name of Jabin. His army,
under a noted leader of the name of Sisera, swept down upon the south, aiming
at the complete subjugation of the country. This powerful army was met by
the Israelites under Barak, who went forth by the advice of the prophetess
Deborah. The result was one of the most remarkable victories for Israel
recorded in the Old Testament (Josh. 19:36; Judg. 4:2; 1 Sam. 12:9). The
city of Hazor was taken and occupied by the Israelites. It was fortified
by Solomon to defend the entrance into the kingdom from Syria and Assyria.
When Tiglath-pileser, the Assyrian king, invaded the land, this was one
of the first cities he captured, carrying its inhabitants captive into Assyria
(2 Kings 15:29). It has been identified with Khurbet Harrah, 2 1/2 miles
south-east of Kedesh.
(2.) A city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:23). The name here should
probably be connected with the word following, Ithnan, HAZOR-ITHNAN instead
of "Hazor and Ithnan."
(3.) A district in Arabia (Jer. 49:28-33), supposed by some to be Jetor,
(4.) "Kerioth and Hezron" (Josh. 15: 25) should be "Kerioth-hezron"
(as in the R.V.), the two names being joined together as the name of one
place (e.g., like Kirjath-jearim), "the same is Hazor" (R.V.). This place
has been identified with el-Kuryetein, and has been supposed to be the
home of Judas Iscariot. (See KERIOTH.)
Hazor-hadattah - New Hazor, a city in the
south of Judah (Josh. 15:25). It is probably identified with the ruins of
el-Hazzarah, near Beit Jebrin.
Head-bands - (Heb. kishshurim), properly
girdles or belts for the waist (Isa. 3:20, R.V., "sashes;" Jer. 2:32, rendered
"attire", i.e., a girdle round the waist).
Head-dress - Not in common use among the
Hebrews. It is first mentioned in Ex. 28:40 (A.V., "bonnets;" R.V., "head-tires").
It was used especially for purposes of ornament (Job 29:14; Isa. 3:23; 62:3).
The Hebrew word here used, tsaniph, properly means a turban, folds
of linen wound round the head. The Hebrew word peer, used in Isa.
61:3, there rendered "beauty" (A.V.) and "garland" (R.V.), is a head-dress
or turban worn by females (Isa. 3: 20, "bonnets"), priests (Ex. 39:28),
a bridegroom (Isa. 61:10, "ornament;" R.V., "garland"). Ezek. 16:10 and
Jonah 2:5 are to be understood of the turban wrapped round the head. The
Hebrew shebisim (Isa. 3:18), in the Authorized Version rendered "cauls,"
and marg. "networks," denotes probably a kind of netted head-dress. The
"horn" (Heb. keren) mentioned in 1 Sam. 2:1 is the head-dress called by
the Druses of Mount Lebanon the tantura.
Heap - When Joshua took the city of Ai (Josh.
8), he burned it and "made it an heap [Heb. tel] for ever" (8:28). The ruins
of this city were for a long time sought for in vain. It has been at length,
however, identified with the mound which simply bears the name of "Tel."
"There are many Tels in modern Palestine, that land of Tels, each Tel with
some other name attached to it to mark the former site. But the site of
Ai has no other name 'unto this day.' It is simply et-Tel, 'the heap' par
Heart - According to the Bible, the heart
is the centre not only of spiritual activity, but of all the operations
of human life. "Heart" and "soul" are often used interchangeably (Deut.
6:5; 26:16; comp. Matt. 22:37; Mark 12:30, 33), but this is not generally
The heart is the "home of the personal life," and hence a man is designated,
according to his heart, wise (1 Kings 3:12, etc.), pure (Ps. 24:4; Matt.
5:8, etc.), upright and righteous (Gen. 20:5, 6; Ps. 11:2; 78:72), pious
and good (Luke 8:15), etc. In these and such passages the word "soul"
could not be substituted for "heart."
The heart is also the seat of the conscience (Rom. 2:15). It is naturally
wicked (Gen. 8:21), and hence it contaminates the whole life and character
(Matt. 12:34; 15:18; comp. Eccl. 8:11; Ps. 73:7). Hence the heart must
be changed, regenerated (Ezek. 36:26; 11:19; Ps. 51:10-14), before a man
can willingly obey God.
The process of salvation begins in the heart by the believing reception
of the testimony of God, while the rejection of that testimony hardens
the heart (Ps. 95:8; Prov. 28:14; 2 Chr. 36:13). "Hardness of heart evidences
itself by light views of sin; partial acknowledgment and confession of
it; pride and conceit; ingratitude; unconcern about the word and ordinances
of God; inattention to divine providences; stifling convictions of conscience;
shunning reproof; presumption, and general ignorance of divine things."