Hodijah - majesty of Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levites who assisted
Ezra in expounding the law (Neh. 8:7; 9:5). (2.) Neh. 10:18, a Levite who
sealed the covenant.
Hoglah - partridge, one of the daughters
of Zelophehad the Gileadite, to whom portions were assigned by Moses (Num.
26:33; 27:1; 36:11).
Hoham - Jehovah impels, the king of Hebron
who joined the league against Gibeon. He and his allies were defeated (Josh.
10:3, 5, 16-27).
Hold - a fortress, the name given to David's
lurking-places (1 Sam. 22:4, 5; 24:22).
Holiness - in the highest sense belongs
to God (Isa. 6:3; Rev. 15:4), and to Christians as consecrated to God's
service, and in so far as they are conformed in all things to the will
of God (Rom. 6:19, 22; Eph. 1:4; Titus 1:8; 1 Pet. 1:15). Personal holiness
is a work of gradual development. It is carried on under many hindrances,
hence the frequent admonitions to watchfulness, prayer, and perseverance
(1 Cor. 1:30; 2 Cor. 7:1; Eph. 4:23, 24). (See SANCTIFICATION.)
Holy Ghost - the third Person of the adorable
His personality is proved (1) from the fact that the attributes of personality,
as intelligence and volition, are ascribed to him (John 14:17, 26; 15:26;
1 Cor. 2:10, 11; 12:11). He reproves, helps, glorifies, intercedes (John
16:7-13; Rom. 8:26). (2) He executes the offices peculiar only to a person.
The very nature of these offices involves personal distinction (Luke 12:12;
Acts 5:32; 15:28; 16:6; 28:25; 1 Cor. 2:13; Heb. 2:4; 3:7; 2 Pet. 1:21).
His divinity is established (1) from the fact that the names of God
are ascribed to him (Ex. 17:7; Ps. 95:7; comp. Heb. 3:7-11); and (2) that
divine attributes are also ascribed to him, omnipresence (Ps. 139:7; Eph.
2:17, 18; 1 Cor. 12:13); omniscience (1 Cor. 2:10, 11); omnipotence (Luke
1:35; Rom. 8:11); eternity (Heb. 9:4). (3) Creation is ascribed to him
(Gen. 1:2; Job 26:13; Ps. 104:30), and the working of miracles (Matt.
12:28; 1 Cor. 12:9-11). (4) Worship is required and ascribed to him (Isa.
6:3; Acts 28:25; Rom. 9:1; Rev. 1:4; Matt. 28:19).
Holy of holies - the second or interior
portion of the tabernacle. It was left in total darkness. No one was permitted
to enter it except the high priest, and that only once a year. It contained
the ark of the covenant only (Ex. 25:10-16). It was in the form of a perfect
cube of 20 cubits. (See TABERNACLE.)
Holy place - one of the two portions into
which the tabernacle was divided (Ex. 26:31; 37:17-25; Heb. 9:2). It was
20 cubits long and 10 in height and breadth. It was illuminated by the golden
candlestick, as it had no opening to admit the light. It contained the table
of showbread (Ex. 25:23-29) and the golden altar of incense (30:1-11). It
was divided from the holy of holies by a veil of the most costly materials
and the brightest colours.
The arrangement of the temple (q.v.) was the same in this respect. In
it the walls of hewn stone were wainscotted with cedar and overlaid with
gold, and adorned with beautiful carvings. It was entered from the porch
by folding doors overlaid with gold and richly embossed. Outside the holy
place stood the great tank or "sea" of molten brass, supported by twelve
oxen, three turned each way, capable of containing two thousand baths
of water. Besides this there were ten lavers and the brazen altar of burnt
Homer - heap, the largest of dry measures,
containing about 8 bushels or 1 quarter English = 10 ephahs (Lev. 27:16;
Num. 11:32) = a COR. (See OMER.)
"Half a homer," a grain measure mentioned only in Hos. 3:2.
Honey - (1.) Heb. ya'ar, occurs only 1 Sam.
14:25, 27, 29; Cant. 5:1, where it denotes the honey of bees. Properly the
word signifies a forest or copse, and refers to honey found in woods.
(2.) Nopheth, honey that drops (Ps. 19:10; Prov. 5:3; Cant. 4:11).
(3.) Debash denotes bee-honey (Judg. 14:8); but also frequently a vegetable
honey distilled from trees (Gen. 43:11; Ezek. 27:17). In these passages
it may probably mean "dibs," or syrup of grapes, i.e., the juice of ripe
grapes boiled down to one-third of its bulk.
(4.) Tsuph, the cells of the honey-comb full of honey (Prov. 16:24;
(5.) "Wild honey" (Matt. 3:4) may have been the vegetable honey distilled
from trees, but rather was honey stored by bees in rocks or in trees (Deut.
32:13; Ps. 81:16; 1 Sam. 14:25-29).
Canaan was a "land flowing with milk and honey" (Ex. 3:8). Milk and
honey were among the chief dainties in the earlier ages, as they are now
among the Bedawin; and butter and honey are also mentioned among articles
of food (Isa. 7:15). The ancients used honey instead of sugar (Ps. 119:103;
Prov. 24:13); but when taken in great quantities it caused nausea, a fact
referred to in Prov. 25:16, 17 to inculcate moderation in pleasures. Honey
and milk also are put for sweet discourse (Cant. 4:11).
Hood - (Heb. tsaniph) a tiara round the
head (Isa. 3:23; R.V., pl., "turbans"). Rendered "diadem," Job 29:14; high
priest's "mitre," Zech. 3:5; "royal diadem," Isa. 62:3.
Hoof - a cleft hoof as of neat cattle (Ex.
10:26; Ezek. 32:13); hence also of the horse, though not cloven (Isa. 5:28).
The "parting of the hoof" is one of the distinctions between clean and unclean
animals (Lev. 11:3; Deut. 14:7).
Hook - (1.) Heb. hah, a "ring" inserted
in the nostrils of animals to which a cord was fastened for the purpose
of restraining them (2 Kings 19:28; Isa. 37:28, 29; Ezek. 29:4; 38:4). "The
Orientals make use of this contrivance for curbing their work-beasts...When
a beast becomes unruly they have only to draw the cord on one side, which,
by stopping his breath, punishes him so effectually that after a few repetitions
he fails not to become quite tractable whenever he begins to feel it" (Michaelis).
So God's agents are never beyond his control.
(2.) Hakkah, a fish "hook" (Job 41:2, Heb. Text, 40:25; Isa. 19:8; Hab.
(3.) Vav, a "peg" on which the curtains of the tabernacle were hung
(4.) Tsinnah, a fish-hooks (Amos 4:2).
(5.) Mazleg, flesh-hooks (1 Sam. 2:13, 14), a kind of fork with three
teeth for turning the sacrifices on the fire, etc.
(6.) Mazmeroth, pruning-hooks (Isa. 2:4; Joel 3:10).
(7.) 'Agmon (Job 41:2, Heb. Text 40:26), incorrectly rendered in the
Authorized Version. Properly a rush-rope for binding animals, as in Revised
Hope - one of the three main elements of
Christian character (1 Cor. 13:13). It is joined to faith and love, and
is opposed to seeing or possessing (Rom. 8:24; 1 John 3:2). "Hope is an
essential and fundamental element of Christian life, so essential indeed,
that, like faith and love, it can itself designate the essence of Christianity
(1 Pet. 3:15; Heb. 10:23). In it the whole glory of the Christian vocation
is centred (Eph. 1:18; 4:4)." Unbelievers are without this hope (Eph. 2:12;
1 Thess. 4:13). Christ is the actual object of the believer's hope, because
it is in his second coming that the hope of glory will be fulfilled (1 Tim.
1:1; Col. 1:27; Titus 2:13). It is spoken of as "lively", i.e., a living,
hope, a hope not frail and perishable, but having a perennial life (1 Pet.
1:3). In Rom. 5:2 the "hope" spoken of is probably objective, i.e., "the
hope set before us," namely, eternal life (comp. 12:12). In 1 John 3:3 the
expression "hope in him" ought rather to be, as in the Revised Version,
"hope on him," i.e., a hope based on God.
Hophni - pugilist or client, one of
the two sons of Eli, the high priest (1 Sam. 1:3; 2:34), who, because
he was "very old," resigned to them the active duties of his office. By
their scandalous conduct they brought down a curse on their father's house
(2:22, 12-27, 27-36; 3:11-14). For their wickedness they were called "sons
of Belial," i.e., worthless men (2:12). They both perished in the disastrous
battle with the Philistines at Aphek (4:11). (See PHINEHAS.)
Hophra - i.e., PHARAOH-HOPHRA (called Apries
by the Greek historian Herodotus) king of Egypt (B.C. 591-572) in the time
of Zedekiah, king of Judah (Jer. 37:5 44:30; Ezek. 29:6, 7).
Hor - mountain. (1.) One of the mountains
of the chain of Seir or Edom, on the confines of Idumea (Num. 20:22-29;
33:37). It was one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness
(33:37), which they reached in the circuitous route they were obliged
to take because the Edomites refused them a passage through their territory.
It was during the encampment here that Aaron died (Num. 33:37-41). (See
AARON.) The Israelites passed this mountain several times in their wanderings.
It bears the modern name of Jebel Harun, and is the highest and most conspicious
of the whole range. It stands about midway between the Dead Sea and the
Elanitic gulf. It has two summits, in the hallow between which it is supposed
that Aaron died. Others, however, suppose that this mountain is the modern
Jebel Madurah, on the opposite, i.e., the western, side of the Arabah.
(2.) One of the marks of the northern boundary of Palestine (Num. 34:7,
8). Nowhere else mentioned. Perhaps it is one of the peaks of Lebanon.
Horeb - desert or mountain of the dried-up
ground, a general name for the whole mountain range of which Sinai was
one of the summits (Ex. 3:1; 17:6; 33:6; Ps. 106:19, etc.). The modern
name of the whole range is Jebel Musa. It is a huge mountain block, about
2 miles long by about 1 in breadth, with a very spacious plain at its
north-east end, called the Er Rahah, in which the Israelites encamped
for nearly a whole year. (See SINAI.)
Horem - consecrated, one of the fenced cities
of Naphtali (Josh. 19:38).
Horites - cave-men, a race of Troglodytes
who dwelt in the limestone caves which abounded in Edom. Their ancestor
was "Seir," who probably gave his name to the district where he lived. They
were a branch of the Hivites (Gen. 14:6; 36:20-30; 1 Chr. 1:38, 39). They
were dispossessed by the descendants of Esau, and as a people gradually
became extinct (Deut. 2:12-22).
Hormah - banning; i.e., placing under a
"ban," or devoting to utter destruction. After the manifestation of God's
anger against the Israelites, on account of their rebellion and their murmurings
when the spies returned to the camp at Kadesh, in the wilderness of Paran,
with an evil report of the land, they quickly repented of their conduct,
and presumed to go up "to the head of the mountain," seeking to enter the
Promised Land, but without the presence of the Lord, without the ark of
the convenant, and without Moses. The Amalekites and the Canaanites came
down and "smote and discomfited them even unto Hormah" (Num. 14:45). This
place, or perhaps the watch-tower commanding it, was originally called Zephath
(Judg. 1:17), the modern Sebaiteh. Afterwards (Num. 21:1-3) Arad, the king
of the Canaanites, at the close of the wanderings, when the Israelites were
a second time encamped at Kadesh, "fought against them, and took some of
them prisoners." But Israel vowed a vow unto the Lord utterly to destroy
the cities of the Canaanites; they "banned" them, and hence the place was
now called Hormah. But this "ban" was not fully executed till the time of
Joshua, who finally conquered the king of this district, so that the ancient
name Zephath became "Hormah" (Josh. 12:14; Judg. 1:17).
Horn - Trumpets were at first horns perforated
at the tip, used for various purposes (Josh. 6:4,5).
Flasks or vessels were made of horn (1 Sam. 16:1, 13; 1 Kings 1:39).
But the word is used also metaphorically to denote the projecting corners
of the altar of burnt offerings (Ex. 27:2) and of incense (30:2). The
horns of the altar of burnt offerings were to be smeared with the blood
of the slain bullock (29:12; Lev. 4:7-18). The criminal, when his crime
was accidental, found an asylum by laying hold of the horns of the altar
(1 Kings 1:50; 2:28).
The word also denotes the peak or summit of a hill (Isa. 5:1, where
the word "hill" is the rendering of the same Hebrew word).
This word is used metaphorically also for strength (Deut. 33:17) and
honour (Job 16:15; Lam. 2:3). Horns are emblems of power, dominion, glory,
and fierceness, as they are the chief means of attack and defence with
the animals endowed with them (Dan. 8:5, 9; 1 Sam. 2:1; 16:1, 13; 1 Kings
1:39; 22:11; Josh. 6:4, 5; Ps. 75:5, 10; 132:17; Luke 1:69, etc.). The
expression "horn of salvation," applied to Christ, means a salvation of
strength, or a strong Saviour (Luke 1:69). To have the horn "exalted"
denotes prosperity and triumph (Ps. 89:17, 24). To "lift up" the horn
is to act proudly (Zech. 1:21).
Horns are also the symbol of royal dignity and power (Jer. 48:25; Zech.
1:18; Dan. 8:24).
Hornet - Heb. tsir'ah, "stinging", (Ex.
23:28; Deut. 7:20; Josh. 24:12). The word is used in these passages as referring
to some means by which the Canaanites were to be driven out from before
the Israelites. Some have supposed that the word is used in a metaphorical
sense as the symbol of some panic which would seize the people as a "terror
of God" (Gen. 35:5), the consternation with which God would inspire the
Canaanites. In Palestine there are four species of hornets, differing from
our hornets, being larger in size, and they are very abundant. They "attack
human beings in a very furious manner." "The furious attack of a swarm of
hornets drives cattle and horses to madness, and has even caused the death
of the animals."
Horonaim - two caverns, a city of Moab to
the south of the Arnon, built, apparently, upon an eminence, and a place
of some importance (Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:3, 5, 34).
Horonite - the designation of Sanballat
(Neh. 2:10, 19), a native of Horonaim, or of one of the two Beth-horons,
the "upper" or the "nether," mentioned in Josh. 16:3,5.
Horse - always referred to in the Bible
in connection with warlike operations, except Isa. 28:28. The war-horse
is described Job 39:19-25. For a long period after their settlement in Canaan
the Israelites made no use of horses, according to the prohibition, Deut.
17:16. David was the first to form a force of cavalry (2 Sam. 8:4). But
Solomon, from his connection with Egypt, greatly multiplied their number
(1 Kings 4:26; 10:26, 29). After this, horses were freely used in Israel
(1 Kings 22:4; 2 Kings 3:7; 9:21, 33; 11:16). The furniture of the horse
consisted simply of a bridle (Isa. 30:28) and a curb (Ps. 32:9).
Horse-gate - a gate in the wall of Jerusalem,
at the west end of the bridge, leading from Zion to the temple (Neh. 3:28;
Horse-leech - occurs only in Prov. 30:15
(Heb. 'alukah); the generic name for any blood-sucking annelid. There are
various species in the marshes and pools of Palestine. That here referred
to, the Hoemopis, is remarkable for the coarseness of its bite, and is therefore
not used for medical purposes. They are spoken of in the East with feelings
of aversion and horror, because of their propensity to fasten on the tongue
and nostrils of horses when they come to drink out of the pools. The medicinal
leech (Hirudo medicinalis), besides other species of leeches, are common
in the waters of Syria.
Horseman - Heb. ba'al parash, "master
of a horse." The "horsemen" mentioned Ex. 14:9 were "mounted men", i.e.,
men who rode in chariots. The army of Pharaoh consisted of a chariot and
infantry force. We find that at a later period, however, the Egyptians
had cavalry (2 Chr. 12:3). (See HORSE.)
Hosah - refuge. (1.) A place on the border
of the tribe of Asher (Josh. 19:29), a little to the south of Zidon.
(2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 16:38).
Hosanna - Save now! or Save, we beseech,
(Matt. 21:9). This was a customary form of acclamation at the feast of Tabernacles.
(Comp. Ps. 118:25.)
Hose - (Dan. 3:21), a tunic or undergarment.
Hosea - salvation, the son of Beeri, and
author of the book of prophecies bearing his name. He belonged to the kingdom
of Israel. "His Israelitish origin is attested by the peculiar, rough, Aramaizing
diction, pointing to the northern part of Palestine; by the intimate acquaintance
he evinces with the localities of Ephraim (5:1; 6:8, 9; 12:12; 14:6, etc.);
by passages like 1:2, where the kingdom is styled 'the land', and 7:5, where
the Israelitish king is designated as 'our' king." The period of his ministry
(extending to some sixty years) is indicated in the superscription (Hos.
1:1, 2). He is the only prophet of Israel who has left any written prophecy.
Hosea, Prophecies of - This book stands
first in order among the "Minor Prophets." "The probable cause of the location
of Hosea may be the thoroughly national character of his oracles, their
length, their earnest tone, and vivid representations." This was the longest
of the prophetic books written before the Captivity. Hosea prophesied in
a dark and melancholy period of Israel's history, the period of Israel's
decline and fall. Their sins had brought upon them great national disasters.
"Their homicides and fornication, their perjury and theft, their idolatry
and impiety, are censured and satirized with a faithful severity." He was
a contemporary of Isaiah. The book may be divided into two parts, the first
containing chapters 1-3, and symbolically representing the idolatry of Israel
under imagery borrowed from the matrimonial relation. The figures of marriage
and adultery are common in the Old Testament writings to represent the spiritual
relations between Jehovah and the people of Israel. Here we see the apostasy
of Israel and their punishment, with their future repentance, forgiveness,
The second part, containing 4-14, is a summary of Hosea's discourses,
filled with denunciations, threatenings, exhortations, promises, and revelations
Quotations from Hosea are found in Matt. 2:15; 9:15; 12:7; Rom. 9:25,
26. There are, in addition, various allusions to it in other places (Luke
23:30; Rev. 6:16, comp. Hos. 10:8; Rom. 9:25, 26; 1 Pet. 2:10, comp. Hos.
As regards the style of this writer, it has been said that "each verse
forms a whole for itself, like one heavy toll in a funeral knell." "Inversions
(7:8; 9:11, 13; 12: 8), anacolutha (9:6; 12:8, etc.), ellipses (9:4; 13:9,
etc.), paranomasias, and plays upon words, are very characteristic of
Hosea (8:7; 9:15; 10:5; 11:5; 12:11)."
Hoshea - salvation. (1.) The original name
of the son of Nun, afterwards called Joshua (Num. 13:8, 16; Deut. 32:44).
(2.) 1 Chr. 27:20. The ruler of Ephraim in David's time.
(3.) The last king of Israel. He conspired against and slew his predecessor,
Pekah (Isa. 7:16), but did not ascend the throne till after an interregnum
of warfare of eight years (2 Kings 17:1, 2). Soon after this he submitted
to Shalmaneser, the Assyrian king, who a second time invaded the land
to punish Hoshea, because of his withholding tribute which he had promised
to pay. A second revolt brought back the Assyrian king Sargon, who besieged
Samaria, and carried the ten tribes away beyond the Euphrates, B.C. 720
(2 Kings 17:5, 6; 18:9-12). No more is heard of Hoshea. He disappeared
like "foam upon the water" (Hos. 10:7; 13:11).
Host - an entertainer (Rom. 16:23); a tavern-keeper,
the keeper of a caravansary (Luke 10:35).
In warfare, a troop or military force. This consisted at first only
of infantry. Solomon afterwards added cavalry (1 Kings 4:26; 10:26). Every
male Israelite from twenty to fifty years of age was bound by the law
to bear arms when necessary (Num. 1:3; 26:2; 2 Chr. 25:5).
Saul was the first to form a standing army (1 Sam. 13:2; 24:2). This
example was followed by David (1 Chr. 27:1), and Solomon (1 Kings 4:26),
and by the kings of Israel and Judah (2 Chr. 17:14; 26:11; 2 Kings 11:4,
Hostage - a person delivered into the hands
of another as a security for the performance of some promise, etc. (2 Kings
14:14; 2 Chr. 25:24).
Host of heaven - The sun, moon, and stars
are so designated (Gen. 2:1). When the Jews fell into idolatry they worshipped
these (Deut. 4:19; 2 Kings 17:16; 21:3,5; 23:5; Jer. 19:13; Zeph. 1:5; Acts
Hough - to hamstring, i.e., sever the "tendon
of Achilles" of the hinder legs of captured horses (Josh. 11:6; 2 Sam. 8:4;
1 Chr. 18:4), so as to render them useless.
Hour - First found in Dan. 3:6; 4:19, 33;5:5.
It is the rendering of the Chaldee shaah, meaning a "moment," a "look."
It is used in the New Testament frequently to denote some determinate season
(Matt. 8:13; Luke 12:39).
With the ancient Hebrews the divisions of the day were "morning, evening,
and noon-day" (Ps. 55:17, etc.). The Greeks, following the Babylonians,
divided the day into twelve hours. The Jews, during the Captivity, learned
also from the Babylonians this method of dividing time. When Judea became
subject to the Romans, the Jews adopted the Roman mode of reckoning time.
The night was divided into four watches (Luke 12:38; Matt. 14:25; 13:25).
Frequent allusion is also made to hours (Matt. 25:13; 26:40, etc.). (See
An hour was the twelfth part of the day, reckoning from sunrise to sunset,
and consequently it perpetually varied in length.
House - Till their sojourn in Egypt the
Hebrews dwelt in tents. They then for the first time inhabited cities (Gen.
47:3; Ex. 12:7; Heb. 11:9). From the earliest times the Assyrians and the
Canaanites were builders of cities. The Hebrews after the Conquest took
possession of the captured cities, and seem to have followed the methods
of building that had been pursued by the Canaanites. Reference is made to
the stone (1 Kings 7:9; Isa. 9:10) and marble (1 Chr. 29:2) used in building,
and to the internal wood-work of the houses (1 Kings 6:15; 7:2; 10:11, 12;
2 Chr. 3:5; Jer. 22:14). "Ceiled houses" were such as had beams inlaid in
the walls to which wainscotting was fastened (Ezra 6:4; Jer. 22:14; Hag.
1:4). "Ivory houses" had the upper parts of the walls adorned with figures
in stucco with gold and ivory (1 Kings 22:39; 2 Chr. 3:6; Ps. 45:8).
The roofs of the dwelling-houses were flat, and are often alluded to
in Scripture (2 Sam. 11:2; Isa. 22:1; Matt. 24:17). Sometimes tents or
booths were erected on them (2 Sam. 16:22). They were protected by parapets
or low walls (Deut. 22:8). On the house-tops grass sometimes grew (Prov.
19:13; 27:15; Ps. 129:6, 7). They were used, not only as places of recreation
in the evening, but also sometimes as sleeping-places at night (1 Sam.
9:25, 26; 2 Sam. 11:2; 16:22; Dan. 4:29; Job 27:18; Prov. 21:9), and as
places of devotion (Jer. 32:29; 19:13).
Hukkok - decreed, a town near Zebulun,
not far from Jordan, on the border of Naphtali (Josh. 19:34). (See HELKATH.)
Hul - circle, the second son of Aram (Gen.
10:23), and grandson of Shem.
Huldah - weasel, a prophetess; the wife
of Shallum. She was consulted regarding the "book of the law" discovered
by the high priest Hilkiah (2 Kings 22:14-20; 2 Chr. 34:22-28). She resided
in that part of Jerusalem called the Mishneh (A.V., "the college;" R.V.,
"the second quarter"), supposed by some to be the suburb between the inner
and the outer wall, the second or lower city, Akra. Miriam (Ex. 15:20) and
Deborah (Judg. 4:4) are the only others who bear the title of "prophetess,"
for the word in Isa. 8:3 means only the prophet's wife.
Humiliation of Christ - (Phil. 2:8), seen
in (1) his birth (Gal. 4:4; Luke 2:7; John 1:46; Heb. 2:9), (2) his circumstances,
(3) his reputation (Isa. 53; Matt. 26:59, 67; Ps. 22:6; Matt. 26:68), (4)
his soul (Ps. 22:1; Matt. 4:1-11; Luke 22:44; Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:15), (5)
his death (Luke 23; John 19; Mark 15:24, 25), (6) and his burial (Isa. 53:9;
Matt. 27:57, 58, 60).
His humiliation was necessary (1) to execute the purpose of God (Acts
2:23, 24; Ps. 40:6-8), (2) fulfil the Old Testament types and prophecies,
(3) satisfy the law in the room of the guilty (Isa. 53; Heb. 9:12, 15),
procure for them eternal redemption, (4) and to show us an example.
Humility - a prominent Christian grace (Rom.
12:3; 15:17, 18; 1 Cor. 3:5-7; 2 Cor. 3:5; Phil. 4:11-13). It is a state
of mind well pleasing to God (1 Pet. 3:4); it preserves the soul in tranquillity
(Ps. 69:32, 33), and makes us patient under trials (Job 1:22).
Christ has set us an example of humility (Phil. 2:6-8). We should be
led thereto by a remembrance of our sins (Lam. 3:39), and by the thought
that it is the way to honour (Prov. 16:18), and that the greatest promises
are made to the humble (Ps. 147:6; Isa. 57:15; 66:2; 1 Pet. 5:5). It is
a "great paradox in Christianity that it makes humility the avenue to
Hunting - mentioned first in Gen. 10:9 in
connection with Nimrod. Esau was "a cunning hunter" (Gen. 25:27). Hunting
was practised by the Hebrews after their settlement in the "Land of Promise"
(Lev. 17:15; Prov. 12:27). The lion and other ravenous beasts were found
in Palestine (1 Sam. 17:34; 2 Sam. 23:20; 1 Kings 13:24; Ezek. 19:3-8),
and it must have been necessary to hunt and destroy them. Various snares
and gins were used in hunting (Ps. 91:3; Amos 3:5; 2 Sam. 23:20).
War is referred to under the idea of hunting (Jer. 16:16; Ezek. 32:30).
Hur - a hole, as of a viper, etc. (1.) A
son of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:19, 50; 4:1, 4; comp. 2 Chr. 1:5).
(2.) The husband of Miriam, Moses' sister (Ex. 17:10-12). He was associated
with Aaron in charge of the people when Moses was absent on Sinai (Ex.
24:14). He was probably of the tribe of Judah, and grandfather of Bezaleel
(Ex. 31:2; 35:30; 1 Chr. 2:19).
(3.) One of the five princes of Midian who were defeated and slain by
the Israelites under the command of Phinehas (Num. 31:8).
Hurai - linen-worker, one of David's heroes,
a native of the valley of Mount Gaash (1 Chr. 11:32).
Husband - i.e., the "house-band," connecting
and keeping together the whole family. A man when betrothed was esteemed
from that time a husband (Matt. 1:16, 20; Luke 2:5). A recently married
man was exempt from going to war for "one year" (Deut. 20:7; 24:5).
Husbandman - one whose business it is
to cultivate the ground. It was one of the first occupations, and was
esteemed most honourable (Gen. 9:20; 26:12, 14; 37:7, etc.). All the Hebrews,
except those engaged in religious services, were husbandmen. (See AGRICULTURE.)
Hushai - quick, "the Archite," "the king's
friend" (1 Chr. 27:33). When David fled from Jerusalem, on account of the
rebellion of Absalom, and had reached the summit of Olivet, he there met
Hushai, whom he sent back to Jerusalem for the purpose of counteracting
the influence of Ahithophel, who had joined the ranks of Absalom (2 Sam.
15:32, 37; 16:16-18). It was by his advice that Absalom refrained from immediately
pursuing after David. By this delay the cause of Absalom was ruined, for
it gave David time to muster his forces.
Husk - In Num. 6:4 (Heb. zag) it means the
"skin" of a grape. In 2 Kings 4:42 (Heb. tsiqlon) it means a "sack" for
grain, as rendered in the Revised Version. In Luke 15:16, in the parable
of the Prodigal Son, it designates the beans of the carob tree, or Ceratonia
siliqua. From the supposition, mistaken, however, that it was on the husks
of this tree that John the Baptist fed, it is called "St. John's bread"
and "locust tree." This tree is in "February covered with innumerable purple-red
pendent blossoms, which ripen in April and May into large crops of pods
from 6 to 10 inches long, flat, brown, narrow, and bent like a horn (whence
the Greek name keratia, meaning 'little horns'), with a sweetish taste when
still unripe. Enormous quantities of these are gathered for sale in various
towns and for exportation." "They were eaten as food, though only by the
poorest of the poor, in the time of our Lord." The bean is called a "gerah,"
which is used as the name of the smallest Hebrew weight, twenty of these
making a shekel.
Hymn - occurs only Eph. 5:19 and Col. 3:16.
The verb to "sing an hymn" occurs Matt. 26:30 and Mark 14:26. The same Greek
word is rendered to "sing praises" Acts 16:25 (R.V., "sing hymns") and Heb.
2:12. The "hymn" which our Lord sang with his disciples at the last Supper
is generally supposed to have been the latter part of the Hallel, comprehending
Ps. 113-118. It was thus a name given to a number of psalms taken together
and forming a devotional exercise.
The noun hymn is used only with reference to the services of the Greeks,
and was distinguished from the psalm. The Greek tunes required Greek hymns.
Our information regarding the hymnology of the early Christians is very
Hypocrite - one who puts on a mask and feigns
himself to be what he is not; a dissembler in religion. Our Lord severely
rebuked the scribes and Pharisees for their hypocrisy (Matt. 6:2, 5, 16).
"The hypocrite's hope shall perish" (Job 8:13). The Hebrew word here rendered
"hypocrite" rather means the "godless" or "profane," as it is rendered in
Jer. 23:11, i.e., polluted with crimes.
Hyssop - (Heb. 'ezob; LXX. hyssopos), first
mentioned in Ex. 12:22 in connection with the institution of the Passover.
We find it afterwards mentioned in Lev. 14:4, 6, 52; Num. 19:6, 18; Heb.
9:19. It is spoken of as a plant "springing out of the wall" (1 Kings 4:33).
Many conjectures have been formed as to what this plant really was. Some
contend that it was a species of marjoram (origanum), six species of which
are found in Palestine. Others with more probability think that it was the
caper plant, the Capparis spinosa of Linnaeus. This plant grew in Egypt,
in the desert of Sinai, and in Palestine. It was capable of producing a
stem three or four feet in length (Matt. 27:48; Mark 15:36. Comp. John 19:29).
Ibhar - chosen, one of David's sons (1 Chr.
3:6; 2 Sam. 5:15).
Ibleam - people-waster, a city assigned
to Manasseh (Josh. 17:11), from which the Israelites, however, could not
expel the Canaanites (Judg. 1:27). It is also called Bileam (1 Chr. 6:70).
It was probably the modern Jelamah, a village 2 1/2 miles north of Jenin.
Ibzan - illustrious, the tenth judge of
Israel (Judg. 12:8-10). He ruled seven years.
Ice - frequently mentioned (Job 6:16;
38:29; Ps. 147:17, etc.). (See CRYSTAL.)
Ichabod - When the tidings of the disastrous
defeat of the Israelites in the battle against the Philistines near to Mizpeh
were carried to Shiloh, the wife of Phinehas "was near to be delivered.
And when she heard the tidings that the ark of God was taken, and that her
father-in-law and her husband were dead, she bowed herself and travailed"
(1 Sam. 4:19-22). In her great distress she regarded not "the women that
stood by her," but named the child that was born "Ichabod" i.e., no glory,
saying, "The glory is departed from Isreal;" and with that word on her lips
Iconium - the capital of ancient Lycaonia.
It was first visited by Paul and Barnabas from Antioch-in-Pisidia during
the apostle's first missionary journey (Acts 13:50, 51). Here they were
persecuted by the Jews, and being driven from the city, they fled to Lystra.
They afterwards returned to Iconium, and encouraged the church which had
been founded there (14:21,22). It was probably again visited by Paul during
his third missionary journey along with Silas (18:23). It is the modern
Konieh, at the foot of Mount Taurus, about 120 miles inland from the Mediterranean.
Idalah - snares(?), a city near the west
border of Zebulun (Josh. 19:15). It has been identified with the modern
Jeida, in the valley of Kishon.
Iddo - (1.) Timely (1 Chr. 6:21). A Gershonite
(2.) Lovely. The son of Zechariah (1 Chr. 27:21), the ruler of Manasseh
in David's time.
(3.) Timely. The father of Ahinadab, who was one of Solomon's purveyors
(1 Kings 4:14).
(4.) Lovely. A prophet of Judah who wrote the history of Rehoboam and
Abijah (2 Chr. 12:15). He has been identified with Oded (2 Chr. 15:1).
(5.) Lovely. The father of Berachiah, and grandfather of the prophet
Zechariah (Zech. 1:1, 7). He returned from Babylon (Neh. 12:4).
Idol - (1.) Heb. aven, "nothingness;" "vanity"
(Isa. 66:3; 41:29; Deut. 32:21; 1 Kings 16:13; Ps. 31:6; Jer. 8:19, etc.).
(2.) 'Elil, "a thing of naught" (Ps. 97:7; Isa. 19:3); a word of contempt,
used of the gods of Noph (Ezek. 30:13).
(3.) 'Emah, "terror," in allusion to the hideous form of idols (Jer.
(4.) Miphletzeth, "a fright;" "horror" (1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chr. 15:16).
(5.) Bosheth, "shame;" "shameful thing" (Jer. 11:13; Hos. 9:10); as
characterizing the obscenity of the worship of Baal.
(6.) Gillulim, also a word of contempt, "dung;" "refuse" (Ezek. 16:36;
20:8; Deut. 29:17, marg.).
(7.) Shikkuts, "filth;" "impurity" (Ezek. 37:23; Nah. 3:6).
(8.) Semel, "likeness;" "a carved image" (Deut. 4:16).
(9.) Tselem, "a shadow" (Dan. 3:1; 1 Sam. 6:5), as distinguished from
the "likeness," or the exact counterpart.
(10.) Temunah, "similitude" (Deut. 4:12-19). Here Moses forbids the
several forms of Gentile idolatry.
(11.) 'Atsab, "a figure;" from the root "to fashion," "to labour;" denoting
that idols are the result of man's labour (Isa. 48:5; Ps. 139:24, "wicked
way;" literally, as some translate, "way of an idol").
(12.) Tsir, "a form;" "shape" (Isa. 45:16).
(13.) Matztzebah, a "statue" set up (Jer. 43:13); a memorial stone like
that erected by Jacob (Gen. 28:18; 31:45; 35:14, 20), by Joshua (4:9),
and by Samuel (1 Sam. 7:12). It is the name given to the statues of Baal
(2 Kings 3:2; 10:27).
(14.) Hammanim, "sun-images." Hamman is a synonym of Baal, the sun-god
of the Phoenicians (2 Chr. 34:4, 7; 14:3, 5; Isa. 17:8).
(15.) Maskith, "device" (Lev. 26:1; Num. 33:52). In Lev. 26:1, the words
"image of stone" (A.V.) denote "a stone or cippus with the image of an
idol, as Baal, Astarte, etc." In Ezek. 8:12, "chambers of imagery" (maskith),
are "chambers of which the walls are painted with the figures of idols;"
comp. ver. 10, 11.
(16.) Pesel, "a graven" or "carved image" (Isa. 44:10-20). It denotes
also a figure cast in metal (Deut. 7:25; 27:15; Isa. 40:19; 44:10).
(17.) Massekah, "a molten image" (Deut. 9:12; Judg. 17:3, 4).
(18.) Teraphim, pl., "images," family gods (penates) worshipped by Abram's
kindred (Josh. 24:14). Put by Michal in David's bed (Judg. 17:5; 18:14,
17, 18, 20; 1 Sam. 19:13).
"Nothing can be more instructive and significant than this multiplicity
and variety of words designating the instruments and inventions of idolatry."
Idolatry - image-worship or divine honour
paid to any created object. Paul describes the origin of idolatry in Rom.
1:21-25: men forsook God, and sank into ignorance and moral corruption (1:28).
The forms of idolatry are, (1.) Fetishism, or the worship of trees,
rivers, hills, stones, etc.
(2.) Nature worship, the worship of the sun, moon, and stars, as the
supposed powers of nature.
(3.) Hero worship, the worship of deceased ancestors, or of heroes.
In Scripture, idolatry is regarded as of heathen origin, and as being
imported among the Hebrews through contact with heathen nations. The first
allusion to idolatry is in the account of Rachel stealing her father's
teraphim (Gen. 31:19), which were the relics of the worship of other gods
by Laban's progenitors "on the other side of the river in old time" (Josh.
24:2). During their long residence in Egypt the Hebrews fell into idolatry,
and it was long before they were delivered from it (Josh. 24:14; Ezek.
20:7). Many a token of God's displeasure fell upon them because of this
The idolatry learned in Egypt was probably rooted out from among the
people during the forty years' wanderings; but when the Jews entered Palestine,
they came into contact with the monuments and associations of the idolatry
of the old Canaanitish races, and showed a constant tendency to depart
from the living God and follow the idolatrous practices of those heathen
nations. It was their great national sin, which was only effectually rebuked
by the Babylonian exile. That exile finally purified the Jews of all idolatrous
The first and second commandments are directed against idolatry of every
form. Individuals and communities were equally amenable to the rigorous
code. The individual offender was devoted to destruction (Ex. 22:20).
His nearest relatives were not only bound to denounce him and deliver
him up to punishment (Deut. 13:20-10), but their hands were to strike
the first blow when, on the evidence of two witnesses at least, he was
stoned (Deut. 17:2-7). To attempt to seduce others to false worship was
a crime of equal enormity (13:6-10). An idolatrous nation shared the same
fate. No facts are more strongly declared in the Old Testament than that
the extermination of the Canaanites was the punishment of their idolatry
(Ex. 34:15, 16; Deut. 7; 12:29-31; 20:17), and that the calamities of
the Israelites were due to the same cause (Jer. 2:17). "A city guilty
of idolatry was looked upon as a cancer in the state; it was considered
to be in rebellion, and treated according to the laws of war. Its inhabitants
and all their cattle were put to death." Jehovah was the theocratic King
of Israel, the civil Head of the commonwealth, and therefore to an Israelite
idolatry was a state offence (1 Sam. 15:23), high treason. On taking possession
of the land, the Jews were commanded to destroy all traces of every kind
of the existing idolatry of the Canaanites (Ex. 23:24, 32; 34:13; Deut.
7:5, 25; 12:1-3).
In the New Testament the term idolatry is used to designate covetousness
(Matt. 6:24; Luke 16:13; Col. 3:5; Eph. 5:5).
Idumaea - the Greek form of Edom (Isa.
34:5, 6; Ezek. 35:15; 36:5, but in R.V. "Edom"). (See EDOM).
Igal - avengers. (1.) Num. 13:7, one of
the spies of the tribe of Issachar. (2.) Son of Nathan of Zobah, and one
of David's warriors (2 Sam. 23:36). (3.) 1 Chr. 3:22.
Iim - ruins. (1.) A city in the south of
Judah (Josh. 15:29).
(2.) One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num. 33:45).
Ije-abarim - ruins of Abarim, the forty-seventh
station of the Israelites in the wilderness, "in the border of Moab" (Num.
Ijon - a ruin, a city of Naphtali, captured
by Ben-hadad of Syria at the instance of Asa (1 Kings 15:20), and afterwards
by Tiglath-pileser of Assyria (2 Kings 15:29) in the reign of Pekah; now
Ilai - an Ahohite, one of David's chief
warriors (1 Chr. 11:29); called also Zalmon (2 Sam. 23:28).
Illyricum - a country to the north-west
of Macedonia, on the eastern shores of the Adriatic, now almost wholly comprehended
in Dalmatia, a name formerly given to the southern part of Illyricum (2
Tim. 4:10). It was traversed by Paul in his third missionary journey (Rom.
15:19). It was the farthest district he had reached in preaching the gospel
of Christ. This reference to Illyricum is in harmony with Acts 20:2, inasmuch
as the apostle's journey over the parts of Macedonia would bring him to
the borders of Illyricum.
Imagery - only in the phrase "chambers
of his imagery" (Ezek. 8:12). (See CHAMBER.)
Imla - replenisher, the father of Micaiah
the prophet (2 Chr. 18:7,8).
Immanuel - God with us. In the Old Testament
it occurs only in Isa. 7:14 and 8:8. Most Christian interpreters have regarded
these words as directly and exclusively a prophecy of our Saviour, an interpretation
borne out by the words of the evangelist Matthew (1:23).
Immer - talkative. (1.) The head of the
sixteenth priestly order (1 Chr. 24:14). (2.) Jer. 20:1. (3.) Ezra 2:37;
Neh. 7:40. (4.) Ezra 2:59; Neh. 7:61. (5.) The father of Zadok (Neh. 3:29).
Immortality - perpetuity of existence. The
doctrine of immortality is taught in the Old Testament. It is plainly implied
in the writings of Moses (Gen. 5:22, 24; 25:8; 37:35; 47:9; 49:29, comp.
Heb. 11:13-16; Ex. 3:6, comp. Matt. 22:23). It is more clearly and fully
taught in the later books (Isa. 14:9; Ps. 17:15; 49:15; 73:24). It was thus
a doctrine obviously well known to the Jews.
With the full revelation of the gospel this doctrine was "brought to
light" (2 Tim. 1:10; 1 Cor. 15; 2 Cor. 5:1-6; 1 Thess. 4:13-18).
Imputation - is used to designate any action
or word or thing as reckoned to a person. Thus in doctrinal language (1)
the sin of Adam is imputed to all his descendants, i.e., it is reckoned
as theirs, and they are dealt with therefore as guilty; (2) the righteousness
of Christ is imputed to them that believe in him, or so attributed to them
as to be considered their own; and (3) our sins are imputed to Christ, i.e.,
he assumed our "law-place," undertook to answer the demands of justice for
our sins. In all these cases the nature of imputation is the same (Rom.
5:12-19; comp. Philemon 1:18, 19).
Incarnation - that act of grace whereby
Christ took our human nature into union with his Divine Person, became man.
Christ is both God and man. Human attributes and actions are predicated
of him, and he of whom they are predicated is God. A Divine Person was united
to a human nature (Acts 20:28; Rom. 8:32; 1 Cor. 2:8; Heb. 2:11-14; 1 Tim.
3:16; Gal. 4:4, etc.). The union is hypostatical, i.e., is personal; the
two natures are not mixed or confounded, and it is perpetual.
Incense - a fragrant composition prepared
by the "art of the apothecary." It consisted of four ingredients "beaten
small" (Ex. 30:34-36). That which was not thus prepared was called "strange
incense" (30:9). It was offered along with every meat-offering; and besides
was daily offered on the golden altar in the holy place, and on the great
day of atonement was burnt by the high priest in the holy of holies (30:7,
8). It was the symbol of prayer (Ps. 141:1,2; Rev. 5:8; 8:3, 4).
India - occurs only in Esther 1:1 and 8:9,
where the extent of the dominion of the Persian king is described. The country
so designated here is not the peninsula of Hindustan, but the country surrounding
the Indus, the Punjab. The people and the products of India were well known
to the Jews, who seem to have carried on an active trade with that country
(Ezek. 27:15, 24).
Inkhorn - The Hebrew word so rendered means
simply a round vessel or cup for containing ink, which was generally worn
by writers in the girdle (Ezek. 9:2, 3,11). The word "inkhorn" was used
by the translators, because in former times in this country horns were used
for containing ink.
Inn - in the modern sense, unknown in the
East. The khans or caravanserais, which correspond to the European inn,
are not alluded to in the Old Testament. The "inn" mentioned in Ex. 4:24
was just the halting-place of the caravan. In later times khans were erected
for the accommodation of travellers. In Luke 2:7 the word there so rendered
denotes a place for loosing the beasts of their burdens. It is rendered
"guest-chamber" in Mark 14:14 and Luke 22:11. In Luke 10:34 the word so
rendered is different. That inn had an "inn-keeper," who attended to the
wants of travellers.
Inspiration - that extraordinary or supernatural
divine influence vouchsafed to those who wrote the Holy Scriptures, rendering
their writings infallible. "All scripture is given by inspiration of God"
(R.V., "Every scripture inspired of God"), 2 Tim. 3:16. This is true of
all the "sacred writings," not in the sense of their being works of genius
or of supernatural insight, but as "theopneustic," i.e., "breathed into
by God" in such a sense that the writers were supernaturally guided to express
exactly what God intended them to express as a revelation of his mind and
will. The testimony of the sacred writers themselves abundantly demonstrates
this truth; and if they are infallible as teachers of doctrine, then the
doctrine of plenary inspiration must be accepted. There are no errors in
the Bible as it came from God, none have been proved to exist. Difficulties
and phenomena we cannot explain are not errors. All these books of the Old
and New Testaments are inspired. We do not say that they contain, but that
they are, the Word of God. The gift of inspiration rendered the writers
the organs of God, for the infallible communication of his mind and will,
in the very manner and words in which it was originally given.
As to the nature of inspiration we have no information. This only we
know, it rendered the writers infallible. They were all equally inspired,
and are all equally infallible. The inspiration of the sacred writers
did not change their characters. They retained all their individual peculiarities
as thinkers or writers. (See BIBLE; WORD OF GOD.)
Intercession of Christ - Christ's priestly
office consists of these two parts, (1) the offering up of himself as a
sacrifice, and (2) making continual intercession for us.
When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luke 23:34; John
17:20; Heb. 5:7); but now he exercises this function of his priesthood
in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence of God for us (Heb.
His advocacy with the Father for his people rests on the basis of his
own all-perfect sacrifice. Thus he pleads for and obtains the fulfilment
of all the promises of the everlasting covenant (1 John 2:1; John 17:24;
Heb. 7:25). He can be "touched with the feeling of our infirmities," and
is both a merciful and a faithful high priest (Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:15, 16).
This intercession is an essential part of his mediatorial work. Through
him we have "access" to the Father (John 14:6; Eph. 2:18; 3:12). "The
communion of his people with the Father will ever be sustained through
him as mediatorial Priest" (Ps. 110:4; Rev. 7:17).
Intercession of the Spirit - (Rom. 8:26,
27; John 14:26). "Christ is a royal Priest (Zech. 6:13). From the same throne,
as King, he dispenses his Spirit to all the objects of his care, while as
Priest he intercedes for them. The Spirit acts for him, taking only of his
things. They both act with one consent, Christ as principal, the Spirit
as his agent. Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate in heaven,
according to the provisions of the everlasting covenant. The Holy Spirit
works upon our minds and hearts, enlightening and quickening, and thus determining
our desires 'according to the will of God,' as our advocate within us. The
work of the one is complementary to that of the other, and together they
form a complete whole.", Hodge's Outlines of Theology.
Iphedeiah - set free by Jehovah, a chief
of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:25).
Ira - citizen; wakeful. (1.) A Tekoite,
one of David's thirty warriors (2 Sam. 23:26).
(2.) An Ithrite, also one of David's heroes (2 Sam. 23:38).
(3.) A Jairite and priest, a royal chaplain (2 Sam. 20:26) or confidential
adviser (comp. 2 Sam. 8:18; 1 Chr. 18:17).
Irad - runner; wild ass, one of the antediluvian
patriarchs, the father of Mehujael (Gen. 4:18), and grandson of Cain.
Iram - citizen, chief of an Edomite tribe
in Mount Seir (Gen. 36:43).
Irha-heres - according to some MSS.,
meaning "city of destruction." Other MSS. read 'Irhahares; rendered
"city of the sun", Isa. 19:18, where alone the word occurs. This name
may probably refer to Heliopolis. The prophecy here points to a time when
the Jews would so increase in number there as that the city would fall
under their influence. This might be in the time of the Ptolemies. (See
Iron - Tubal-Cain is the first-mentioned
worker in iron (Gen. 4:22). The Egyptians wrought it at Sinai before the
Exodus. David prepared it in great abundance for the temple (1 Chr. 22:3:
29:7). The merchants of Dan and Javan brought it to the market of Tyre (Ezek.
27:19). Various instruments are mentioned as made of iron (Deut. 27:5; 19:5;
Josh. 17:16, 18; 1 Sam. 17:7; 2 Sam. 12:31; 2 Kings 6:5, 6; 1 Chr. 22:3;
Figuratively, a yoke of iron (Deut. 28:48) denotes hard service; a rod
of iron (Ps. 2:9), a stern government; a pillar of iron (Jer. 1:18), a
strong support; a furnace of iron (Deut. 4:20), severe labour; a bar of
iron (Job 40:18), strength; fetters of iron (Ps. 107:10), affliction;
giving silver for iron (Isa. 60:17), prosperity.
Irrigation - As streams were few in Palestine,
water was generally stored up in winter in reservoirs, and distributed through
gardens in numerous rills, which could easily be turned or diverted by the
foot (Deut. 11:10).
For purposes of irrigation, water was raised from streams or pools by
water-wheels, or by a shaduf, commonly used on the banks of the Nile to
the present day.
Isaac - laughter. (1) Israel, or the kingdom
of the ten tribes (Amos 7:9, 16).
(2.) The only son of Abraham by Sarah. He was the longest lived of the
three patriarchs (Gen. 21:1-3). He was circumcised when eight days old
(4-7); and when he was probably two years old a great feast was held in
connection with his being weaned.
The next memorable event in his life is that connected with the command
of God given to Abraham to offer him up as a sacrifice on a mountain in
the land of Moriah (Gen. 22). (See ABRAHAM.) When he was forty years of
age Rebekah was chosen for his wife (Gen. 24). After the death and burial
of his father he took up his residence at Beer-lahai-roi (25:7-11), where
his two sons, Esau and Jacob, were born (21-26), the former of whom seems
to have been his favourite son (27,28).
In consequence of a famine (Gen. 26:1) Isaac went to Gerar, where he
practised deception as to his relation to Rebekah, imitating the conduct
of his father in Egypt (12:12-20) and in Gerar (20:2). The Philistine
king rebuked him for his prevarication.
After sojourning for some time in the land of the Philistines, he returned
to Beersheba, where God gave him fresh assurance of covenant blessing,
and where Abimelech entered into a covenant of peace with him.
The next chief event in his life was the blessing of his sons (Gen.
27:1). He died at Mamre, "being old and full of days" (35:27-29), one
hundred and eighty years old, and was buried in the cave of Machpelah.
In the New Testament reference is made to his having been "offered up"
by his father (Heb. 11:17; James 2:21), and to his blessing his sons (Heb.
11:20). As the child of promise, he is contrasted with Ishmael (Rom. 9:7,
10; Gal. 4:28; Heb. 11:18).
Isaac is "at once a counterpart of his father in simple devoutness and
purity of life, and a contrast in his passive weakness of character, which
in part, at least, may have sprung from his relations to his mother and
wife. After the expulsion of Ishmael and Hagar, Isaac had no competitor,
and grew up in the shade of Sarah's tent, moulded into feminine softness
by habitual submission to her strong, loving will." His life was so quiet
and uneventful that it was spent "within the circle of a few miles; so
guileless that he let Jacob overreach him rather than disbelieve his assurance;
so tender that his mother's death was the poignant sorrow of years; so
patient and gentle that peace with his neighbours was dearer than even
such a coveted possession as a well of living water dug by his own men;
so grandly obedient that he put his life at his father's disposal; so
firm in his reliance on God that his greatest concern through life was
to honour the divine promise given to his race.", Geikie's Hours, etc.
Isaiah - (Heb. Yesh'yahu, i.e., "the salvation
of Jehovah"). (1.) The son of Amoz (Isa. 1:1; 2:1), who was apparently a
man of humble rank. His wife was called "the prophetess" (8:3), either because
she was endowed with the prophetic gift, like Deborah (Judg. 4:4) and Huldah
(2 Kings 22:14-20), or simply because she was the wife of "the prophet"
(Isa. 38:1). He had two sons, who bore symbolical names.
He exercised the functions of his office during the reigns of Uzziah
(or Azariah), Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah (1:1). Uzziah reigned fifty-two
years (B.C. 810-759), and Isaiah must have begun his career a few years
before Uzziah's death, probably B.C. 762. He lived till the fourteenth
year of Hezekiah, and in all likelihood outlived that monarch (who died
B.C. 698), and may have been contemporary for some years with Manasseh.
Thus Isaiah may have prophesied for the long period of at least sixty-four
His first call to the prophetical office is not recorded. A second call
came to him "in the year that King Uzziah died" (Isa. 6:1). He exercised
his ministry in a spirit of uncompromising firmness and boldness in regard
to all that bore on the interests of religion. He conceals nothing and
keeps nothing back from fear of man. He was also noted for his spirituality
and for his deep-toned reverence toward "the holy One of Israel."
In early youth Isaiah must have been moved by the invasion of Israel
by the Assyrian monarch Pul (q.v.), 2 Kings 15:19; and again, twenty years
later, when he had already entered on his office, by the invasion of Tiglath-pileser
and his career of conquest. Ahaz, king of Judah, at this crisis refused
to co-operate with the kings of Israel and Syria in opposition to the
Assyrians, and was on that account attacked and defeated by Rezin of Damascus
and Pekah of Samaria (2 Kings 16:5; 2 Chr. 28:5, 6). Ahaz, thus humbled,
sided with Assyria, and sought the aid of Tiglath-pileser against Israel
and Syria. The consequence was that Rezin and Pekah were conquered and
many of the people carried captive to Assyria (2 Kings 15:29; 16:9; 1
Chr. 5:26). Soon after this Shalmaneser determined wholly to subdue the
kingdom of Israel. Samaria was taken and destroyed (B.C. 722). So long
as Ahaz reigned, the kingdom of Judah was unmolested by the Assyrian power;
but on his accession to the throne, Hezekiah (B.C. 726), who "rebelled
against the king of Assyria" (2 Kings 18:7), in which he was encouraged
by Isaiah, who exhorted the people to place all their dependence on Jehovah
(Isa. 10:24; 37:6), entered into an alliance with the king of Egypt (Isa.
30:2-4). This led the king of Assyria to threaten the king of Judah, and
at length to invade the land. Sennacherib (B.C. 701) led a powerful army
into Palestine. Hezekiah was reduced to despair, and submitted to the
Assyrians (2 Kings 18:14-16). But after a brief interval war broke out
again, and again Sennacherib (q.v.) led an army into Palestine, one detachment
of which threatened Jerusalem (Isa. 36:2-22; 37:8). Isaiah on that occasion
encouraged Hezekiah to resist the Assyrians (37:1-7), whereupon Sennacherib
sent a threatening letter to Hezekiah, which he "spread before the Lord"
(37:14). The judgement of God now fell on the Assyrian host. "Like Xerxes
in Greece, Sennacherib never recovered from the shock of the disaster
in Judah. He made no more expeditions against either Southern Palestine
or Egypt." The remaining years of Hezekiah's reign were peaceful (2 Chr.
32:23, 27-29). Isaiah probably lived to its close, and possibly into the
reign of Manasseh, but the time and manner of his death are unknown. There
is a tradition that he suffered martyrdom in the heathen reaction in the
time of Manasseh (q.v.).
(2.) One of the heads of the singers in the time of David (1 Chr. 25:3,15,
(3.) A Levite (1 Chr. 26:25). (4.) Ezra 8:7. (5.) Neh. 11:7.
Isaiah, The Book of - consists of prophecies
delivered (Isa. 1) in the reign of Uzziah (1-5), (2) of Jotham (6), (3)
Ahaz (7-14:28), (4) the first half of Hezekiah's reign (14:28-35), (5) the
second half of Hezekiah's reign (36-66). Thus, counting from the fourth
year before Uzziah's death (B.C. 762) to the last year of Hezekiah (B.C.
698), Isaiah's ministry extended over a period of sixty-four years. He may,
however, have survived Hezekiah, and may have perished in the way indicated
The book, as a whole, has been divided into three main parts: (1.) The
first thirty-five chapters, almost wholly prophetic, Israel's enemy Assyria,
present the Messiah as a mighty Ruler and King. (2.) Four chapters are
historical (36-39), relating to the times of Hezekiah. (3.) Prophetical
(40-66), Israel's enemy Babylon, describing the Messiah as a suffering
victim, meek and lowly.
The genuineness of the section Isa. 40-66 has been keenly opposed by
able critics. They assert that it must be the production of a deutero-Isaiah,
who lived toward the close of the Babylonian captivity. This theory was
originated by Koppe, a German writer at the close of the last century.
There are other portions of the book also (e.g., ch. 13; 24-27; and certain
verses in ch. 14 and 21) which they attribute to some other prophet than
Isaiah. Thus they say that some five or seven, or even more, unknown prophets
had a hand in the production of this book. The considerations which have
led to such a result are various: (1.) They cannot, as some say, conceive
it possible that Isaiah, living in B.C. 700, could foretell the appearance
and the exploits of a prince called Cyrus, who would set the Jews free
from captivity one hundred and seventy years after. (2.) It is alleged
that the prophet takes the time of the Captivity as his standpoint, and
speaks of it as then present; and (3) that there is such a difference
between the style and language of the closing section (40-66) and those
of the preceding chapters as to necessitate a different authorship, and
lead to the conclusion that there were at least two Isaiahs. But even
granting the fact of a great diversity of style and language, this will
not necessitate the conclusion attempted to be drawn from it. The diversity
of subjects treated of and the peculiarities of the prophet's position
at the time the prophecies were uttered will sufficiently account for
The arguments in favour of the unity of the book are quite conclusive.
When the LXX. version was made (about B.C. 250) the entire contents of
the book were ascribed to Isaiah, the son of Amoz. It is not called in
question, moreover, that in the time of our Lord the book existed in the
form in which we now have it. Many prophecies in the disputed portions
are quoted in the New Testament as the words of Isaiah (Matt. 3:3; Luke
3:4-6; 4:16-41; John 12:38; Acts 8:28; Rom. 10:16-21). Universal and persistent
tradition has ascribed the whole book to one author.
Besides this, the internal evidence, the similarity in the language
and style, in the thoughts and images and rhetorical ornaments, all points
to the same conclusion; and its local colouring and allusions show that
it is obviously of Palestinian origin. The theory therefore of a double
authorship of the book, much less of a manifold authorship, cannot be
maintained. The book, with all the diversity of its contents, is one,
and is, we believe, the production of the great prophet whose name it
Iscah - spy, the daughter of Haran and sister
of Milcah and Lot (Gen. 11:29, 31).
Iscariot - (See JUDAS.)
Ishbak - leaving, one of Abraham's sons
by Keturah (Gen. 25:2).