Ishbi-benob - my seat at Nob, one of the Rephaim, whose spear was
three hundred shekels in weight. He was slain by Abishai (2 Sam. 21:16,
Ish-bosheth - man of shame or humiliation,
the youngest of Saul's four sons, and the only one who survived him (2 Sam.
2-4). His name was originally Eshbaal (1 Chr. 8:33; 9:39). He was about
forty years of age when his father and three brothers fell at the battle
of Gilboa. Through the influence of Abner, Saul's cousin, he was acknowledged
as successor to the throne of Saul, and ruled over all Israel, except the
tribe of Judah (over whom David was king), for two years, having Mahanaim,
on the east of Jordan, as his capital (2 Sam. 2:9). After a troubled and
uncertain reign he was murdered by his guard, who stabbed him while he was
asleep on his couch at mid-day (2 Sam. 4:5-7); and having cut off his head,
presented it to David, who sternly rebuked them for this cold-blooded murder,
and ordered them to be immediately executed (9-12).
Ishi - my husband, a symbolical name
used in Hos. 2:16 (See BAALI.)
Ishmael - God hears. (1.) Abraham's
eldest son, by Hagar the concubine (Gen. 16:15; 17:23). He was born at
Mamre, when Abraham was eighty-six years of age, eleven years after his
arrival in Canaan (16:3; 21:5). At the age of thirteen he was circumcised
(17:25). He grew up a true child of the desert, wild and wayward. On the
occasion of the weaning of Isaac his rude and wayward spirit broke out
in expressions of insult and mockery (21:9, 10); and Sarah, discovering
this, said to Abraham, "Expel this slave and her son." Influenced by a
divine admonition, Abraham dismissed Hagar and her son with no more than
a skin of water and some bread. The narrative describing this act is one
of the most beautiful and touching incidents of patriarchal life (Gen.
21:14-16). (See HAGAR.)
Ishmael settled in the land of Paran, a region lying between Canaan
and the mountains of Sinai; and "God was with him, and he became a great
archer" (Gen. 21:9-21). He became a great desert chief, but of his history
little is recorded. He was about ninety years of age when his father Abraham
died, in connection with whose burial he once more for a moment reappears.
On this occasion the two brothers met after being long separated. "Isaac
with his hundreds of household slaves, Ishmael with his troops of wild
retainers and half-savage allies, in all the state of a Bedouin prince,
gathered before the cave of Machpelah, in the midst of the men of Heth,
to pay the last duties to the 'father of the faithful,' would make a notable
subject for an artist" (Gen. 25:9). Of the after events of his life but
little is known. He died at the age of one hundred and thirty-seven years,
but where and when are unknown (25:17). He had twelve sons, who became
the founders of so many Arab tribes or colonies, the Ishmaelites, who
spread over the wide desert spaces of Northern Arabia from the Red Sea
to the Euphrates (Gen. 37:25, 27, 28; 39:1), "their hand against every
man, and every man's hand against them."
(2.) The son of Nethaniah, "of the seed royal" (Jer. 40:8, 15). He plotted
against Gedaliah, and treacherously put him and others to death. He carried
off many captives, "and departed to go over to the Ammonites."
Ishmaiah - heard by Jehovah. (1.) A Gibeonite
who joined David at Ziklag, "a hero among the thirty and over the thirty"
(1 Chr. 12:4).
(2.) Son of Obadiah, and viceroy of Zebulun under David and Solomon
(1 Chr. 27:19).
Ishmeelites - (Gen. 37:28; 39:1, A.V.) should
be "Ishmaelites," as in the Revised Version.
Ishtob - man of Tob, one of the small Syrian
kingdoms which together constituted Aram (2 Sam. 10:6,8).
Island - (Heb. 'i, "dry land," as opposed
to water) occurs in its usual signification (Isa. 42:4, 10, 12, 15, comp.
Jer. 47:4), but more frequently simply denotes a maritime region or sea-coast
(Isa. 20:6, R.V.," coastland;" 23:2, 6; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:6, 7). (See
CHITTIM.) The shores of the Mediterranean are called the "islands of the
sea" (Isa. 11:11), or the "isles of the Gentiles" (Gen. 10:5), and sometimes
simply "isles" (Ps. 72:10); Ezek. 26:15, 18; 27:3, 35; Dan. 11:18).
Israel - the name conferred on Jacob
after the great prayer-struggle at Peniel (Gen. 32:28), because "as a
prince he had power with God and prevailed." (See JACOB.) This is the
common name given to Jacob's descendants. The whole people of the twelve
tribes are called "Israelites," the "children of Israel" (Josh. 3:17;
7:25; Judg. 8:27; Jer. 3:21), and the "house of Israel" (Ex. 16:31; 40:38).
This name Israel is sometimes used emphatically for the true Israel
(Ps. 73:1: Isa. 45:17; 49:3; John 1:47; Rom. 9:6; 11:26).
After the death of Saul the ten tribes arrogated to themselves this
name, as if they were the whole nation (2 Sam. 2:9, 10, 17, 28; 3:10,
17; 19:40-43), and the kings of the ten tribes were called "kings of Israel,"
while the kings of the two tribes were called "kings of Judah."
After the Exile the name Israel was assumed as designating the entire
Israel, Kingdom of - (B.C. 975-B.C. 722).
Soon after the death of Solomon, Ahijah's prophecy (1 Kings 11:31-35) was
fulfilled, and the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam, the son and successor
of Solomon, was scarcely seated on his throne when the old jealousies between
Judah and the other tribes broke out anew, and Jeroboam was sent for from
Egypt by the malcontents (12:2,3). Rehoboam insolently refused to lighten
the burdensome taxation and services which his father had imposed on his
subjects (12:4), and the rebellion became complete. Ephraim and all Israel
raised the old cry, "Every man to his tents, O Israel" (2 Sam. 20:1). Rehoboam
fled to Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:1-18; 2 Chr. 10), and Jeroboam was proclaimed
king over all Israel at Shechem, Judah and Benjamin remaining faithful to
Solomon's son. War, with varying success, was carried on between the two
kingdoms for about sixty years, till Jehoshaphat entered into an alliance
with the house of Ahab.
Extent of the kingdom. In the time of Solomon the area of Palestine,
excluding the Phoenician territories on the shore of the Mediterranean,
did not much exceed 13,000 square miles. The kingdom of Israel comprehended
about 9,375 square miles. Shechem was the first capital of this kingdom
(1 Kings 12:25), afterwards Tirza (14:17). Samaria was subsequently chosen
as the capital (16:24), and continued to be so till the destruction of
the kingdom by the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:5). During the siege of Samaria
(which lasted for three years) by the Assyrians, Shalmaneser died and
was succeeded by Sargon, who himself thus records the capture of that
city: "Samaria I looked at, I captured; 27,280 men who dwelt in it I carried
away" (2 Kings 17:6) into Assyria. Thus after a duration of two hundred
and fifty-three years the kingdom of the ten tribes came to an end. They
were scattered throughout the East. (See CAPTIVITY.)
"Judah held its ground against Assyria for yet one hundred and twenty-three
years, and became the rallying-point of the dispersed of every tribe,
and eventually gave its name to the whole race. Those of the people who
in the last struggle escaped into the territories of Judah or other neighbouring
countries naturally looked to Judah as the head and home of their race.
And when Judah itself was carried off to Babylon, many of the exiled Israelites
joined them from Assyria, and swelled that immense population which made
Babylonia a second Palestine."
After the deportation of the ten tribes, the deserted land was colonized
by various eastern tribes, whom the king of Assyria sent thither (Ezra
4:2, 10; 2 Kings 17:24-29). (See KINGS.)
In contrast with the kingdom of Judah is that of Israel. (1.) "There
was no fixed capital and no religious centre. (2.) The army was often
insubordinate. (3.) The succession was constantly interrupted, so that
out of nineteen kings there were no less than nine dynasties, each ushered
in by a revolution. (4.) The authorized priests left the kingdom in a
body, and the priesthood established by Jeroboam had no divine sanction
and no promise; it was corrupt at its very source." (Maclean's O. T. Hist.)
Issachar - hired (Gen. 30:18). "God hath
given me," said Leah, "my hire (Heb. sekhari)...and she called his name
Issachar." He was Jacob's ninth son, and was born in Padan-aram (comp. 28:2).
He had four sons at the going down into Egypt (46:13; Num. 26:23, 25).
Issachar, Tribe of, during the journey through the wilderness, along
with Judah and Zebulun (Num. 2:5), marched on the east of the tabernacle.
This tribe contained 54,400 fighting men when the census was taken at
Sinai. After the entrance into the Promised Land, this tribe was one of
the six which stood on Gerizim during the ceremony of the blessing and
cursing (Deut. 27:12). The allotment of Issachar is described in Josh.
19:17-23. It included the plain of Esdraelon (=Jezreel), which was and
still is the richest portion of Palestine (Deut. 33:18, 19; 1 Chr. 12:40).
The prophetic blessing pronounced by Jacob on Issachar corresponds with
that of Moses (Gen. 49:14, 15; comp. Deut. 33:18, 19).
Italian band - the name of the Roman cohort
to which Cornelius belonged (Acts 10:1), so called probably because it consisted
of men recruited in Italy.
Italy - Acts 18:2; 27:1, 6; Heb. 13:24),
like most geographical names, was differently used at different periods
of history. As the power of Rome advanced, nations were successively conquered
and added to it till it came to designate the whole country to the south
of the Alps. There was constant intercourse between Palestine and Italy
in the time of the Romans.
Ithamar - palm isle, the fourth and
youngest son of Aaron (1 Chr. 6:3). He was consecrated to the priesthood
along with his brothers (Ex. 6:23); and after the death of Nadab and Abihu,
he and Eleazar alone discharged the functions of that office (Lev. 10:6,
12; Num. 3:4). He and his family occupied the position of common priest
till the high priesthood passed into his family in the person of Eli (1
Kings 2:27), the reasons for which are not recorded. (See ZADOK.)
Ithrite - two of David's warriors so designated
(2 Sam. 23:38; 1 Chr. 11:40).
Ittai - near; timely; or, with the Lord.
(1.) A Benjamite, one of David's thirty heroes (2 Sam. 23:29).
(2.) A native of Gath, a Philistine, who had apparently the command
of the six hundred heroes who formed David's band during his wanderings
(2 Sam. 15:19-22; comp. 1 Sam. 23:13; 27:2; 30:9, 10). He is afterwards
with David at Mahanaim, holding in the army equal rank with Joab and Abishai
(2 Sam. 18:2, 5, 12). He then passes from view.
Ituraea - a district in the north-east of
Palestine, forming, along with the adjacent territory of Trachonitis, the
tetrarchy of Philip (Luke 3:1). The present Jedur comprehends the chief
part of Ituraea. It is bounded on the east by Trachonitis, on the south
by Gaulanitis, on the west by Hermon, and on the north by the plain of Damascus.
Ivah - overturning, a city of the Assyrians,
whence colonists were brought to Samaria (2 Kings 18:34; 19:13). It lay
on the Euphrates, between Sepharvaim and Henah, and is supposed by some
to have been the Ahava of Ezra (8:15).
Ivory - (Heb. pl. shenhabbim, the "tusks
of elephants") was early used in decorations by the Egyptians, and a great
trade in it was carried on by the Assyrians (Ezek. 27:6; Rev. 18:12). It
was used by the Phoenicians to ornament the box-wood rowing-benches of their
galleys, and Hiram's skilled workmen made Solomon's throne of ivory (1 Kings
10:18). It was brought by the caravans of Dedan (Isa. 21:13), and from the
East Indies by the navy of Tarshish (1 Kings 10:22). Many specimens of ancient
Egyptian and Assyrian ivory-work have been preserved. The word habbim
is derived from the Sanscrit ibhas, meaning "elephant," preceded
by the Hebrew article (ha); and hence it is argued that Ophir, from which
it and the other articles mentioned in 1 Kings 10:22 were brought, was in
Izhar - oil, one of the sons of Kohath,
and grandson of Levi (Ex. 6:18, 21; Num. 16:1).
Izrahite - the designation of one of David's
officers (1 Chr. 27:8).
Jaakan - he twists, one of the sons of Ezer,
the son of Seir the Horite (1 Chr. 1:42).
Jaakobah - heel-catcher, a form of the name
Jacob, one of the descendants of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:36).
Jaala - a wild she-goat, one of the Nethinim,
whose descendants returned from the Captivity (Neh. 7:58).
Jaalam - concealer, the second of Esau's
three sons by Aholibamah (Gen. 36:5, 14).
Jaanai - mourner, one of the chief Gadites
(1 Chr. 5:12).
Jaare-oregim - forests of the weavers, a
Bethlehemite (2 Sam. 21:19), and the father of Elhanan, who slew Goliath.
In 1 Chr. 20:5 called JAIR.
Jaasau - fabricator, an Israelite who renounced
his Gentile wife after the Return (Ezra 10:37).
Jaasiel - made by God, one of David's body-guard,
the son of Abner (1 Chr. 27:21), called Jasiel in 1 Chr. 11:47.
Jaaz-aniah - heard by Jehovah. (1.) The
son of Jeremiah, and one of the chief Rechabites (Jer. 35:3).
(2.) The son of Shaphan (Ezek. 8:11).
(3.) The son of Azur, one of the twenty-five men seen by Ezekiel (11:1)
at the east gate of the temple.
(4.) A Maachathite (2 Kings 25:23; Jer. 40:8; 42:1). He is also called
Azariah (Jer. 43:2).
Jaazer - he (God) helps, a city of the Amorites
on the east of Jordan, and assigned, with neighbouring places in Gilead,
to Gad (Num. 32:1, 35; Josh. 13:25). It was allotted to the Merarite Levites
(21:39). In David's time it was occupied by the Hebronites, i.e., the descendants
of Kohath (1 Chr. 26:31). It is mentioned in the "burdens" proclaimed over
Moab (Isa. 16:8, 9; Jer. 48:32). Its site is marked by the modern ruin called
Sar or Seir, about 10 miles west of Amman, and 12 from Heshbon. "The vineyards
that once covered the hill-sides are gone; and the wild Bedawin from the
eastern desert make cultivation of any kind impossible."
Jaaziah - comforted by Jehovah, a descendant
of Merari the Levite (1 Chr. 24:26,27).
Jaaziel - comforted by God, a Levitical
musician (1 Chr. 15:18).
Jabal - a stream, a descendant of Cain,
and brother of Jubal; "the father of such as dwell in tents and have cattle"
(Gen. 4:20). This description indicates that he led a wandering life.
Jabbok - a pouring out, or a wrestling,
one of the streams on the east of Jordan, into which it falls about midway
between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, or about 45 miles below the
Sea of Galilee. It rises on the eastern side of the mountains of Gilead,
and runs a course of about 65 miles in a wild and deep ravine. It was the
boundary between the territory of the Ammonites and that of Og, king of
Bashan (Josh. 12:1-5; Num. 21:24); also between the tribe of Reuben and
the half tribe of Manasseh (21:24; Deut. 3:16). In its course westward across
the plains it passes more than once underground. "The scenery along its
banks is probably the most picturesque in Palestine; and the ruins of town
and village and fortress which stud the surrounding mountain-side render
the country as interesting as it is beautiful." This river is now called
the Zerka, or blue river.
Jabesh - dry. (1.) For Jabesh-Gilead (1
(2.) The father of Shallum (2 Kings 15:10, 13, 14), who usurped the
throne of Israel on the death of Zachariah.
Jabesh-Gilead - a town on the east of Jordan,
on the top of one of the green hills of Gilead, within the limits of the
half tribe of Manasseh, and in full view of Beth-shan. It is first mentioned
in connection with the vengeance taken on its inhabitants because they had
refused to come up to Mizpeh to take part with Israel against the tribe
of Benjamin (Judg. 21:8-14). After the battles at Gibeah, that tribe was
almost extinguished, only six hundred men remaining. An expedition went
against Jabesh-Gilead, the whole of whose inhabitants were put to the sword,
except four hundred maidens, whom they brought as prisoners and sent to
"proclaim peace" to the Benjamites who had fled to the crag Rimmon. These
captives were given to them as wives, that the tribe might be saved from
extinction (Judg. 21).
This city was afterwards taken by Nahash, king of the Ammonites, but
was delivered by Saul, the newly-elected king of Israel. In gratitude
for this deliverance, forty years after this, the men of Jabesh-Gilead
took down the bodies of Saul and of his three sons from the walls of Beth-shan,
and after burning them, buried the bones under a tree near the city (1
Sam. 31:11-13). David thanked them for this act of piety (2 Sam. 2:4-6),
and afterwards transferred the remains to the royal sepulchre (21:14).
It is identified with the ruins of ed-Deir, about 6 miles south of Pella,
on the north of the Wady Yabis.
Jabez - affiction. (1.) A descendant of
Judah, of whom it is recorded that "God granted him that which he requested"
(1 Chr. 4:9, 10).
(2.) A place inhabited by several families of the scribes (1 Chr. 2:55).
Jabin - discerner; the wise. (1.) A king
of Hazor, at the time of the entrance of Israel into Canaan (Josh. 11:1-14),
whose overthrow and that of the northern chief with whom he had entered
into a confederacy against Joshua was the crowning act in the conquest of
the land (11:21-23; comp. 14:6-15). This great battle, fought at Lake Merom,
was the last of Joshua's battles of which we have any record. Here for the
first time the Israelites encountered the iron chariots and horses of the
(2.) Another king of Hazor, called "the king of Canaan," who overpowered
the Israelites of the north one hundred and sixty years after Joshua's
death, and for twenty years held them in painful subjection. The whole
population were paralyzed with fear, and gave way to hopeless despondency
(Judg. 5:6-11), till Deborah and Barak aroused the national spirit, and
gathering together ten thousand men, gained a great and decisive victory
over Jabin in the plain of Esdraelon (Judg. 4:10-16; comp. Ps. 83:9).
This was the first great victory Israel had gained since the days of Joshua.
They never needed to fight another battle with the Canaanites (Judg. 5:31).
Jabneel - built by God. (1.) A town in the
north boundary of Judah (Josh. 15:11), called afterwards by the Greeks Jamnia,
the modern Yebna, 11 miles south of Jaffa. After the fall of Jerusalem (A.D.
70), it became one of the most populous cities of Judea, and the seat of
a celebrated school.
(2.) A town on the border of Naphtali (Josh. 19:33). Its later name
was Kefr Yemmah, "the village by the sea," on the south shore of Lake
Jabneh - building, (2 Chr. 26:6), identical
with Jabneel (Josh. 15:11).
Jachan - mourner, one of the chief Gadite
"brothers" in Bashan (1 Chr. 5:13).
Jachin - firm. (1.) The fourth son of Simeon
(Gen. 46:10), called also Jarib (1 Chr. 4:24).
(2.) The head of one of the courses (the twenty-first) of priests (1
(3.) One of the priests who returned from the Exile (1 Chr. 9:10).
Jachin and Boaz - the names of two brazen
columns set up in Solomon's temple (1 Kings 7:15-22). Each was eighteen
cubits high and twelve in circumference (Jer. 52:21, 23; 1 Kings 7:17-21).
They had doubtless a symbolical import.
Jacinth - properly a flower of a reddish
blue or deep purple (hyacinth), and hence a precious stone of that colour
(Rev. 21:20). It has been supposed to designate the same stone as the ligure
(Heb. leshem) mentioned in Ex. 28:19 as the first stone of the third row
in the high priest's breast-plate. In Rev. 9:17 the word is simply descriptive
Jacob - one who follows on another's heels;
supplanter, (Gen. 25:26; 27:36; Hos. 12:2-4), the second born of the twin
sons of Isaac by Rebekah. He was born probably at Lahai-roi, when his father
was fifty-nine and Abraham one hundred and fifty-nine years old. Like his
father, he was of a quiet and gentle disposition, and when he grew up followed
the life of a shepherd, while his brother Esau became an enterprising hunter.
His dealing with Esau, however, showed much mean selfishness and cunning
When Isaac was about 160 years of age, Jacob and his mother conspired
to deceive the aged patriarch (Gen. 27), with the view of procuring the
transfer of the birthright to himself. The birthright secured to him who
possessed it (1) superior rank in his family (Gen. 49:3); (2) a double
portion of the paternal inheritance (Deut. 21:17); (3) the priestly office
in the family (Num. 8:17-19); and (4) the promise of the Seed in which
all nations of the earth were to be blessed (Gen. 22:18).
Soon after his acquisition of his father's blessing (Gen. 27), Jacob
became conscious of his guilt; and afraid of the anger of Esau, at the
suggestion of Rebekah Isaac sent him away to Haran, 400 miles or more,
to find a wife among his cousins, the family of Laban, the Syrian (28).
There he met with Rachel (29). Laban would not consent to give him his
daughter in marriage till he had served seven years; but to Jacob these
years "seemed but a few days, for the love he had to her." But when the
seven years were expired, Laban craftily deceived Jacob, and gave him
his daughter Leah. Other seven years of service had to be completed probably
before he obtained the beloved Rachel. But "life-long sorrow, disgrace,
and trials, in the retributive providence of God, followed as a consequence
of this double union."
At the close of the fourteen years of service, Jacob desired to return
to his parents, but at the entreaty of Laban he tarried yet six years
with him, tending his flocks (31:41). He then set out with his family
and property "to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan" (Gen. 31).
Laban was angry when he heard that Jacob had set out on his journey, and
pursued after him, overtaking him in seven days. The meeting was of a
painful kind. After much recrimination and reproach directed against Jacob,
Laban is at length pacified, and taking an affectionate farewell of his
daughters, returns to his home in Padanaram. And now all connection of
the Israelites with Mesopotamia is at an end.
Soon after parting with Laban he is met by a company of angels, as if
to greet him on his return and welcome him back to the Land of Promise
(32:1, 2). He called the name of the place Mahanaim, i.e., "the double
camp," probably his own camp and that of the angels. The vision of angels
was the counterpart of that he had formerly seen at Bethel, when, twenty
years before, the weary, solitary traveller, on his way to Padan-aram,
saw the angels of God ascending and descending on the ladder whose top
reached to heaven (28:12).
He now hears with dismay of the approach of his brother Esau with a
band of 400 men to meet him. In great agony of mind he prepares for the
worst. He feels that he must now depend only on God, and he betakes himself
to him in earnest prayer, and sends on before him a munificent present
to Esau, "a present to my lord Esau from thy servant Jacob." Jacob's family
were then transported across the Jabbok; but he himself remained behind,
spending the night in communion with God. While thus engaged, there appeared
one in the form of a man who wrestled with him. In this mysterious contest
Jacob prevailed, and as a memorial of it his name was changed to Israel
(wrestler with God); and the place where this occured he called Peniel,
"for", said he, "I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved"
After this anxious night, Jacob went on his way, halting, mysteriously
weakened by the conflict, but strong in the assurance of the divine favour.
Esau came forth and met him; but his spirit of revenge was appeased, and
the brothers met as friends, and during the remainder of their lives they
maintained friendly relations. After a brief sojourn at Succoth, Jacob
moved forward and pitched his tent near Shechem (q.v.), 33:18; but at
length, under divine directions, he moved to Bethel, where he made an
altar unto God (35:6,7), and where God appeared to him and renewed the
Abrahamic covenant. While journeying from Bethel to Ephrath (the Canaanitish
name of Bethlehem), Rachel died in giving birth to her second son Benjamin
(35:16-20), fifteen or sixteen years after the birth of Joseph. He then
reached the old family residence at Mamre, to wait on the dying bed of
his father Isaac. The complete reconciliation between Esau and Jacob was
shown by their uniting in the burial of the patriarch (35:27-29).
Jacob was soon after this deeply grieved by the loss of his beloved
son Joseph through the jealousy of his brothers (37:33). Then follows
the story of the famine, and the successive goings down into Egypt to
buy corn (42), which led to the discovery of the long-lost Joseph, and
the patriarch's going down with all his household, numbering about seventy
souls (Ex. 1:5; Deut. 10:22; Acts 7:14), to sojourn in the land of Goshen.
Here Jacob, "after being strangely tossed about on a very rough ocean,
found at last a tranquil harbour, where all the best affections of his
nature were gently exercised and largely unfolded" (Gen. 48). At length
the end of his checkered course draws nigh, and he summons his sons to
his bedside that he may bless them. Among his last words he repeats the
story of Rachel's death, although forty years had passed away since that
event took place, as tenderly as if it had happened only yesterday; and
when "he had made an end of charging his sons, he gathered up his feet
into the bed, and yielded up the ghost" (49:33). His body was embalmed
and carried with great pomp into the land of Canaan, and buried beside
his wife Leah in the cave of Machpelah, according to his dying charge.
There, probably, his embalmed body remains to this day (50:1-13). (See
The history of Jacob is referred to by the prophets Hosea (12:3, 4,
12) and Malachi (1:2). In Micah 1:5 the name is a poetic synonym for Israel,
the kingdom of the ten tribes. There are, besides the mention of his name
along with those of the other patriarchs, distinct references to events
of his life in Paul's epistles (Rom. 9:11-13; Heb. 12:16; 11:21). See
references to his vision at Bethel and his possession of land at Shechem
in John 1:51; 4:5, 12; also to the famine which was the occasion of his
going down into Egypt in Acts 7:12 (See LUZ; BETHEL.)
Jacob's Well - (John 4:5, 6). This is one
of the few sites in Palestine about which there is no dispute. It was dug
by Jacob, and hence its name, in the "parcel of ground" which he purchased
from the sons of Hamor (Gen. 33:19). It still exists, but although after
copious rains it contains a little water, it is now usually quite dry. It
is at the entrance to the valley between Ebal and Gerizim, about 2 miles
south-east of Shechem. It is about 9 feet in diameter and about 75 feet
in depth, though in ancient times it was no doubt much deeper, probably
twice as deep. The digging of such a well must have been a very laborious
and costly undertaking.
"Unfortunately, the well of Jacob has not escaped that misplaced religious
veneration which cannot be satisfied with leaving the object of it as
it is, but must build over it a shrine to protect and make it sacred.
A series of buildings of various styles, and of different ages, have cumbered
the ground, choked up the well, and disfigured the natural beauty and
simplicity of the spot. At present the rubbish in the well has been cleared
out; but there is still a domed structure over it, and you gaze down the
shaft cut in the living rock and see at a depth of 70 feet the surface
of the water glimmering with a pale blue light in the darkness, while
you notice how the limestone blocks that form its curb have been worn
smooth, or else furrowed by the ropes of centuries" (Hugh Macmillan).
At the entrance of the enclosure round the well is planted in the ground
one of the wooden poles that hold the telegraph wires between Jerusalem
Jaddua - known. (1.) One of the chiefs who
subscribed the covenant (Neh. 10:21).
(2.) The last high priest mentioned in the Old Testament (Neh. 12:11,
22), sons of Jonathan.
Jadon - judge, a Meronothite who assisted
in rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:7).
Jael - mountain-goat, the wife of Heber
the Kenite (Judg. 4:17-22). When the Canaanites were defeated by Barak,
Sisera, the captain of Jabin's army, fled and sought refuge with the friendly
tribe of Heber, beneath the oaks of Zaanaim. As he drew near, Jael invited
him to enter her tent. He did so, and as he lay wearied on the floor he
fell into a deep sleep. She then took in her left hand one of the great
wooden pins ("nail") which fastened down the cords of the tent, and in
her right hand the mallet, or "hammer," used for driving it into the ground,
and stealthily approaching her sleeping guest, with one well-directed
blow drove the nail through his temples into the earth (Judg. 5:27). She
then led Barak, who was in pursuit, into her tent, and boastfully showed
him what she had done. (See SISERA; DEBORAH.)
Jagur - place of sojourn, a city on the
southern border of Judah (Josh. 15:21).
Jah - a contraction for Jehovah (Ps. 68:4).
Jahath - union. (1.) A son of Shimei, and
grandson of Gershom (1 Chr. 23:10).
(2.) One of the sons of Shelomoth, of the family of Kohath (1 Chr. 24:22).
(3.) A Levite of the family of Merari, one of the overseers of the repairs
of the temple under Josiah (2 Chr. 34:12).
Jahaz - trodden down (called also Jahaza,
Josh. 13:18; Jahazah, 21:36; Jahzah, 1 Chr. 6:78), a town where Sihon was
defeated, in the borders of Moab and in the land of the Ammonites beyond
Jordan, and north of the river Arnon (Num. 21:23; Deut. 2:32). It was situated
in the tribe of Reuben, and was assigned to the Merarite Levites (Josh.
13:18; 21:36). Here was fought the decisive battle in which Sihon (q.v.)
was completely routed, and his territory (the modern Belka) came into the
possession of Israel. This town is mentioned in the denunciations of the
prophets against Moab (Isa. 15:4; Jer. 48:34).
Jahaziel - beheld by God. (1.) The third
son of Hebron (1 Chr. 23:19).
(2.) A Benjamite chief who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:4).
(3.) A priest who accompanied the removal of the ark to Jerusalem (1
(4.) The son of Zechariah, a Levite of the family of Asaph (2 Chr. 20:14-17).
He encouraged Jehoshaphat against the Moabites and Ammonites.
Jahdai - grasper, a descendant of Caleb,
of the family of Hezron (1 Chr. 2:47).
Jahzeel - allotted by God, the first of
the sons of Naphtali (Gen. 46:24).
Jahzerah - returner, the son of Meshullam,
and father of Adiel (1 Chr. 9:12).
Jailer - (of Philippi), Acts 16:23. The
conversion of the Roman jailer, a man belonging to a class "insensible as
a rule and hardened by habit, and also disposed to despise the Jews, who
were the bearers of the message of the gospel," is one of those cases which
illustrate its universality and power.
Jair - enlightener. (1.) The son of Segub.
He was brought up with his mother in Gilead, where he had possessions (1
Chr. 2:22). He distinguished himself in an expedition against Bashan, and
settled in the part of Argob on the borders of Gilead. The small towns taken
by him there are called Havoth-jair, i.e., "Jair's villages" (Num. 32:41;
Deut. 3:14; Josh. 13:30).
(2.) The eighth judge of Israel, which he ruled for twenty-two years.
His opulence is described in Judg. 10:3-5. He had thirty sons, each riding
on "ass colts." They had possession of thirty of the sixty cities (1 Kings
4:13; 1 Chr. 2:23) which formed the ancient Havoth-jair.
(3.) A Benjamite, the father of Mordecai, Esther's uncle (Esther 2:5).
(4.) The father of Elhanan, who slew Lahmi, the brother of Goliath (1
Jairus - a ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum,
whose only daughter Jesus restored to life (Mark 5:22; Luke 8:41). Entering
into the chamber of death, accompanied by Peter and James and John and the
father and mother of the maiden, he went forward to the bed whereon the
corpse lay, and said, Talitha cumi, i.e., "Maid, arise," and immediately
the spirit of the maiden came to her again, and she arose straightway; and
"at once to strengthen that life which had come back to her, and to prove
that she was indeed no ghost, but had returned to the realities of a mortal
existence, he commanded to give her something to eat" (Mark 5:43).
Jakeh - pious, the father of Agur (Prov.
30:1). Nothing is known of him.
Jakim - establisher. (1.) Chief of the twelfth
priestly order (1 Chr. 24:12).
(2.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:19).
(3.) Margin in Matt. 1:11 means Jehoiakim.
Jalon - lodger, the last of the four sons
of Ezra, of the tribe of Judah (1 Chr. 4:17).
Jambres - one of those who opposed Moses
in Egypt (2 Tim. 3:8). (See JANNES.)
James - (1.) The son of Zebedee and Salome;
an elder brother of John the apostle. He was one of the twelve. He was by
trade a fisherman, in partnership with Peter (Matt. 20:20; 27:56). With
John and Peter he was present at the transfiguration (Matt. 17:1; Mark 9:2),
at the raising of Jairus's daughter (Mark 5:37-43), and in the garden with
our Lord (14:33). Because, probably, of their boldness and energy, he and
John were called Boanerges, i.e., "sons of thunder." He was the first martyr
among the apostles, having been beheaded by King Herod Agrippa (Acts 12:1,
2), A.D. 44. (Comp. Matt. 4:21; 20:20-23).
(2.) The son of Alphaeus, or Cleopas, "the brother" or near kinsman
or cousin of our Lord (Gal. 1:18, 19), called James "the Less," or "the
Little," probably because he was of low stature. He is mentioned along
with the other apostles (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15). He had a separate
interview with our Lord after his resurrection (1 Cor. 15:7), and is mentioned
as one of the apostles of the circumcision (Acts 1:13). He appears to
have occupied the position of head of the Church at Jerusalem, where he
presided at the council held to consider the case of the Gentiles (Acts
12:17; 15:13-29: 21:18-24). This James was the author of the epistle which
bears his name.
James, Epistle of - (1.) Author of, was
James the Less, the Lord's brother, one of the twelve apostles. He was one
of the three pillars of the Church (Gal. 2:9).
(2.) It was addressed to the Jews of the dispersion, "the twelve tribes
(3.) The place and time of the writing of the epistle were Jerusalem,
where James was residing, and, from internal evidence, the period between
Paul's two imprisonments at Rome, probably about A.D. 62.
(4.) The object of the writer was to enforce the practical duties of
the Christian life. "The Jewish vices against which he warns them are,
formalism, which made the service of God consist in washings and outward
ceremonies, whereas he reminds them (1:27) that it consists rather in
active love and purity; fanaticism, which, under the cloak of religious
zeal, was tearing Jerusalem in pieces (1:20); fatalism, which threw its
sins on God (1:13); meanness, which crouched before the rich (2:2); falsehood,
which had made words and oaths play-things (3:2-12); partisanship (3:14);
evil speaking (4:11); boasting (4:16); oppression (5:4). The great lesson
which he teaches them as Christians is patience, patience in trial (1:2),
patience in good works (1:22-25), patience under provocation (3:17), patience
under oppression (5:7), patience under persecution (5:10); and the ground
of their patience is that the coming of the Lord draweth nigh, which is
to right all wrong (5:8)."
"Justification by works," which James contends for, is justification
before man, the justification of our profession of faith by a consistent
life. Paul contends for the doctrine of "justification by faith;" but
that is justification before God, a being regarded and accepted as just
by virtue of the righteousness of Christ, which is received by faith.
Jannes - one of the Egyptians who "withstood
Moses" (2 Tim. 3:8).
Janoah - or Jano'hah, rest. (1.) A town
on the north-eastern border of Ephraim, in the Jordan valley (Josh. 16:6,
7). Identified with the modern Yanun, 8 miles south-east of Nablus.
(2.) A town of Northern Palestine, within the boundaries of Naphtali.
It was taken by the king of Assyria (2 Kings 15:29).
Janum - slumber, a town in the mountains
of Judah (Josh. 15:53).
Japheth - wide spreading: "God shall enlarge
Japheth" (Heb. Yaphat Elohim le-Yephet, Gen. 9:27. Some, however, derive
the name from yaphah, "to be beautiful;" hence white), one of the
sons of Noah, mentioned last in order (Gen. 5:32; 6:10; 7:13), perhaps first
by birth (10:21; comp. 9:24). He and his wife were two of the eight saved
in the ark (1 Pet. 3:20). He was the progenitor of many tribes inhabiting
the east of Europe and the north of Asia (Gen. 10:2-5). An act of filial
piety (9:20-27) was the occasion of Noah's prophecy of the extension of
After the Flood the earth was re-peopled by the descendants of Noah,
"the sons of Japheth" (Gen. 10:2), "the sons of Ham" (6), and "the sons
of Shem" (22). It is important to notice that modern ethnological science,
reasoning from a careful analysis of facts, has arrived at the conclusion
that there is a three-fold division of the human family, corresponding
in a remarkable way with the great ethnological chapter of the book of
Genesis (10). The three great races thus distinguished are called the
Semitic, Aryan, and Turanian (Allophylian). "Setting aside the cases where
the ethnic names employed are of doubtful application, it cannot reasonably
be questioned that the author [of Gen. 10] has in his account of the sons
of Japheth classed together the Cymry or Celts (Gomer), the Medes (Madai),
and the Ionians or Greeks (Javan), thereby anticipating what has become
known in modern times as the 'Indo-European Theory,' or the essential
unity of the Aryan (Asiatic) race with the principal races of Europe,
indicated by the Celts and the Ionians. Nor can it be doubted that he
has thrown together under the one head of 'children of Shem' the Assyrians
(Asshur), the Syrians (Aram), the Hebrews (Eber), and the Joktanian Arabs
(Joktan), four of the principal races which modern ethnology recognizes
under the heading of 'Semitic.' Again, under the heading of 'sons of Ham,'
the author has arranged 'Cush', i.e., the Ethiopians; 'Mizraim,' the people
of Egypt; 'Sheba and Dedan,' or certain of the Southern Arabs; and 'Nimrod,'
or the ancient people of Babylon, four races between which the latest
linguistic researches have established a close affinity" (Rawlinson's
Japhia - splendid. (1.) The king of Lachish,
who joined in the confederacy against Joshua (Josh. 10:3), and was defeated
and slain. In one of the Amarna tablets he speaks of himself as king of
Gezer. Called also Horam (Josh. 10:33).
(2.) One of the sons of David (2 Sam. 5:15), born in Jerusalem.
(3.) A town in the southern boundary of Zebulum (Josh. 19:12); now Yafa,
2 miles south-west of Nazareth.
Japho - beauty, a sea-port in Dan (Josh.
19:46); called Joppa (q.v.) in 2 Chr. 2:16; Ezra 3:7; Jonah 1:3; and in
Jared - descent. (1.) The fourth antediluvian
patriarch in descent from Seth (Gen. 5:15-20; Luke 3:37), the father of
Enoch; called Jered in 1 Chr. 1:2.
(2.) A son of Ezra probably (1 Chr. 4:18).
Jarib - an adversary. (1.) A son of Simeon
(1 Chr. 4:24).
(2.) One of the chiefs sent by Ezra to bring up the priests to Jerusalem
(3.) Ezra 10:18.
Jarmuth - height. (1.) A town in the plain
of Judah (Josh. 15:35), originally the residence of one of the Canaanitish
kings (10:3, 5, 23). It has been identified with the modern Yarmuk, a village
about 7 miles north-east of Beit-Jibrin.
(2.) A Levitical city of the tribe of Issachar (Josh. 21:29), supposed
by some to be the Ramah of Samuel (1 Sam. 19:22).
Jashen - sleeping, called also Hashem (1
Chr. 11:34); a person, several of whose sons were in David's body-guard
(2 Sam. 23:32).
Jasher - upright. "The Book of Jasher,"
rendered in the LXX. "the Book of the Upright One," by the Vulgate "the
Book of Just Ones," was probably a kind of national sacred song-book, a
collection of songs in praise of the heroes of Israel, a "book of golden
deeds," a national anthology. We have only two specimens from the book,
(1) the words of Joshua which he spake to the Lord at the crisis of the
battle of Beth-horon (Josh. 10:12, 13); and (2) "the Song of the Bow," that
beautiful and touching mournful elegy which David composed on the occasion
of the death of Saul and Jonathan (2 Sam. 1:18-27).
Jashobeam - dweller among the people; or
to whom the people turn, the Hachmonite (1 Chr. 11:11), one of David's chief
heroes who joined him at Ziklag (12:6). He was the first of the three who
broke through the host of the Philistines to fetch water to David from the
well of Bethlehem (2 Sam. 23:13-17). He is also called Adino the Eznite
Jashub - returner. (1.) The third of Issachar's
four sons (1 Chr. 7:1); called also Job (Gen. 46:13).
(2.) Ezra 10:29.
Jason - he that will cure, the host of Paul
and Silas in Thessalonica. The Jews assaulted his house in order to seize
Paul, but failing to find him, they dragged Jason before the ruler of the
city (Acts 17:5-9). He was apparently one of the kinsmen of Paul (Rom. 16:21),
and accompanied him from Thessalonica to Corinth.
Jasper - (Heb. yashpheh, "glittering"),
a gem of various colours, one of the twelve inserted in the high priest's
breast-plate (Ex. 28:20). It is named in the building of the New Jerusalem
(Rev. 21:18, 19). It was "most precious," "clear as crystal" (21:11). It
was emblematic of the glory of God (4:3).
Jattir - pre-eminent, a city in the mountains
of Judah (Josh. 15:48; 21:14).
Javan - (1.) The fourth "son" of Japheth
(Gen. 10:2), whose descendants settled in Greece, i.e., Ionia, which bears
the name of Javan in Hebrew. Alexander the Great is called the "king of
Javan" (rendered "Grecia," Dan. 8:21; 10:20; comp. 11:2; Zech. 9:13). This
word was universally used by the nations of the East as the generic name
of the Greek race.
(2.) A town or district of Arabia Felix, from which the Syrians obtained
iron, cassia, and calamus (Ezek. 27:19).
Javelin - (1.) Heb. hanith, a lance, from
its flexibility (1 Sam. 18:10, 11; 19:9, 10; 20:33).
(2.) Heb. romah, a lance for heavy-armed troops, so called from its
piercing (Num. 25:7). (See ARMS.)
Jaw-bone - of an ass afforded Samson a weapon
for the great slaughter of the Philistines (Judg. 15.15), in which he slew
a thousand men. In verse 19 the Authorized Version reads, "God clave a hollow
place that was in the jaw, and there came water thereout." This is a mis-translation
of the words. The rendering should be as in the Revised Version, "God clave
the hollow place that is in Lehi," etc., Lehi (q.v.) being the name of the
hill where this conflict was waged, possibly so called because it was in
shape like a jaw-bone.
Jealousy - suspicion of a wife's purity,
one of the strongest passions (Num. 5:14; Prov. 6:34; Cant. 8:6); also an
intense interest for another's honour or prosperity (Ps. 79:5; 1 Cor. 10:22;
Jealousy, Image of - an idolatrous object,
seen in vision by Ezekiel (Ezek. 8:3, 5), which stood in the priests' or
inner court of the temple. Probably identical with the statue of Astarte
(2 Kings 21:7).
Jealousy offering - the name of the offering
the husband was to bring when he charged his wife with adultery (Num. 5:11-15).
Jealousy, Waters of - water which the suspected
wife was required to drink, so that the result might prove her guilt or
innocence (Num. 5:12-17, 27). We have no record of this form of trial having
been actually resorted to.
Jearim - forests, a mountain on the border
of Judah (Josh. 15:10).
Jebus - trodden hard, or fastness, or "the
waterless hill", the name of the Canaanitish city which stood on Mount Zion
(Josh. 15:8; 18:16, 28). It is identified with Jerusalem (q.v.) in Judg.
19:10, and with the castle or city of David (1 Chr. 11:4,5). It was a place
of great natural strength, and its capture was one of David's most brilliant
achievements (2 Sam. 5:8).
Jebusites - the name of the original inhabitants
of Jebus, mentioned frequently among the seven nations doomed to destruction
(Gen. 10:16; 15:21; Ex. 3:8, 17; 13:5, etc.). At the time of the arrival
of the Israelites in Palestine they were ruled by Adonizedek (Josh. 10:1,
23). They were defeated by Joshua, and their king was slain; but they were
not entirely driven out of Jebus till the time of David, who made it the
capital of his kingdom instead of Hebron. The site on which the temple was
afterwards built belonged to Araunah, a Jebusite, from whom it was purchased
by David, who refused to accept it as a free gift (2 Sam. 24:16-25; 1 Chr.
Jecoliah - able through Jehovah, the wife
of King Amaziah, and mother of King Uzziah (2 Chr. 26:3).
Jedaiah - (1.) Invoker of Jehovah. The son
of Shimri, a chief Simeonite (1 Chr. 4:37).
(2.) One of those who repaired the walls of Jerusalem after the return
from Babylon (Neh. 3:10).
(3.) Knowing Jehovah. The chief of one of the courses of the priests
(1 Chr. 24:7).
(4.) A priest in Jerusalem after the Exile (1 Chr. 9:10).
Jediael - known by God. (1.) One of the
sons of Benjamin, whose descendants numbered 17,200 warriors (1 Chr. 7:6,
(2.) A Shimrite, one of David's bodyguard (1 Chr. 11:45). Probably same
as in 12:20.
(3.) A Korhite of the family of Ebiasaph, and one of the gate-keepers
to the temple (1 Chr. 26:2).
Jedidiah - beloved by Jehovah, the name
which, by the mouth of Nathan, the Lord gave to Solomon at his birth as
a token of the divine favour (2 Sam. 12:25).
Jeduthun - lauder; praising, a Levite of
the family of Merari, and one of the three masters of music appointed by
David (1 Chr. 16:41, 42; 25:1-6). He is called in 2 Chr. 35:15 "the king's
seer." His descendants are mentioned as singers and players on instruments
(Neh. 11:17). He was probably the same as Ethan (1 Chr. 15:17, 19). In the
superscriptions to Ps. 39, 62, and 77, the words "upon Jeduthun" probably
denote a musical instrument; or they may denote the style or tune invented
or introduced by Jeduthun, or that the psalm was to be sung by his choir.
Jegar-sahadutha - pile of testimony, the
Aramaic or Syriac name which Laban gave to the pile of stones erected as
a memorial of the covenant between him and Jacob (Gen. 31:47), who, however,
called it in Hebrew by an equivalent name, Galeed (q.v.).
Jehaleleel - praiser of God. (1.) A descendant
of Judah (1 Chr. 4:16).
(2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (2 Chr. 29:12).