Jehdeiah - rejoicer in Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levitical attendants
at the temple, a descendant of Shubael (1 Chr. 24:20).
(2.) A Meronothite, herdsman of the asses under David and Solomon (1
Jehiel - God's living one. (1.) The father
of Gibeon (1 Chr. 9:35).
(2.) One of David's guard (1 Chr. 11:44).
(3.) One of the Levites "of the second degree," appointed to conduct
the music on the occasion of the ark's being removed to Jerusalem (1 Chr.
(4.) A Hachmonite, a tutor in the family of David toward the close of
his reign (1 Chr. 27:32).
(5.) The second of Jehoshaphat's six sons (2 Chr. 21:2).
(6.) One of the Levites of the family of Heman who assisted Hezekiah
in his work of reformation (2 Chr. 29:14).
(7.) A "prince" and "ruler of the house of God" who contributed liberally
to the renewal of the temple sacrifices under Josiah (2 Chr. 35:8).
(8.) The father of Obadiah (Ezra 8:9).
(9.) One of the "sons" of Elam (Ezra 10:26).
(10.) Ezra 10:21.
Jehizkiah - Jehovah strengthens, one of
the chiefs of Ephraim (2 Chr. 28:12).
Jehoaddan - Jehovah his ornament, the wife
of King Jehoash, and mother of King Amaziah (2 Kings 14:2).
Jehoahaz - Jehovah his sustainer, or he
whom Jehovah holdeth. (1.) The youngest son of Jehoram, king of Judah (2
Chr. 21:17; 22:1, 6, 8, 9); usually Ahaziah (q.v.).
(2.) The son and successor of Jehu, king of Israel (2 Kings 10:35).
He reigned seventeen years, and followed the evil ways of the house of
Jeroboam. The Syrians, under Hazael and Benhadad, prevailed over him,
but were at length driven out of the land by his son Jehoash (13:1-9,
(3.) Josiah's third son, usually called Shallum (1 Chr. 3:15). He succeeded
his father on the throne, and reigned over Judah for three months (2 Kings
23:31, 34). He fell into the idolatrous ways of his predecessors (23:32),
was deposed by Pharaoh-Necho from the throne, and carried away prisoner
into Egypt, where he died in captivity (23:33, 34; Jer. 22:10-12; 2 Chr.
Jehoash - Jehovah-given. (1.) The son
of King Ahaziah. While yet an infant, he was saved from the general massacre
of the family by his aunt Jehosheba, and was apparently the only surviving
descendant of Solomon (2 Chr. 21:4, 17). His uncle, the high priest Jehoiada,
brought him forth to public notice when he was eight years of age, and
crowned and anointed him king of Judah with the usual ceremonies. Athaliah
was taken by surprise when she heard the shout of the people, "Long live
the king;" and when she appeared in the temple, Jehoiada commanded her
to be led forth to death (2 Kings 11:13-20). While the high priest lived,
Jehoash favoured the worship of God and observed the law; but on his death
he fell away into evil courses, and the land was defiled with idolatry.
Zechariah, the son and successor of the high priest, was put to death.
These evil deeds brought down on the land the judgement of God, and it
was oppressed by the Syrian invaders. He is one of the three kings omitted
by Matthew (1:8) in the genealogy of Christ, the other two being Ahaziah
and Amaziah. He was buried in the city of David (2 Kings 12:21). (See
(2.) The son and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Israel (2 Kings 14:1;
comp. 12:1; 13:10). When he ascended the throne the kingdom was suffering
from the invasion of the Syrians. Hazael "was cutting Israel short." He
tolerated the worship of the golden calves, yet seems to have manifested
a character of sincere devotion to the God of his fathers. He held the
prophet Elisha in honour, and wept by his bedside when he was dying, addressing
him in the words Elisha himself had used when Elijah was carried up into
heaven: "O my father, my father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen
thereof." He was afterwards involved in war with Amaziah, the king of
Judah (2 Chr. 25:23-24), whom he utterly defeated at Beth-shemesh, on
the borders of Dan and Philistia, and advancing on Jerusalem, broke down
a portion of the wall, and carried away the treasures of the temple and
the palace. He soon after died (B.C. 825), and was buried in Samaria (2
Kings 14:1-17, 19, 20). He was succeeded by his son. (See JOASH.)
Jehohanan - Jehovah-granted, Jeroboam II.
(1.) A Korhite, the head of one of the divisions of the temple porters (1
(2.) One of Jehoshaphat's "captains" (2 Chr. 17:15).
(3.) The father of Azariah (2 Chr. 28:12).
(4.) The son of Tobiah, an enemy of the Jews (Neh. 6:18).
(5.) Neh. 12:42.
(6.) Neh. 12:13.
Jehoiachin - succeeded his father Jehoiakin
(B.C. 599) when only eight years of age, and reigned for one hundred days
(2 Chr. 36:9). He is also called Jeconiah (Jer. 24:1; 27:20, etc.), and
Coniah (22:24; 37:1). He was succeeded by his uncle, Mattaniah = Zedekiah
(q.v.). He was the last direct heir to the Jewish crown. He was carried
captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, along with the flower of the nobility,
all the leading men in Jerusalem, and a great body of the general population,
some thirteen thousand in all (2 Kings 24:12-16; Jer. 52:28). After an imprisonment
of thirty-seven years (Jer. 52:31, 33), he was liberated by Evil-merodach,
and permitted to occupy a place in the king's household and sit at his table,
receiving "every day a portion until the day of his death, all the days
of his life" (52:32-34).
Jehoiada - Jehovah-known. (1.) The father
of Benaiah, who was one of David's chief warriors (2 Sam. 8:18; 20:23).
(2.) The high priest at the time of Athaliah's usurpation of the throne
of Judah. He married Jehosheba, or Jehoshabeath, the daughter of king
Jehoram (2 Chr. 22:11), and took an active part along with his wife in
the preservation and training of Jehoash when Athaliah slew all the royal
family of Judah.
The plans he adopted in replacing Jehoash on the throne of his ancestors
are described in 2 Kings 11:2; 12:2; 2 Chr. 22:11; 23:24. He was among
the foremost of the benefactors of the kingdom, and at his death was buried
in the city of David among the kings of Judah (2 Chr. 24:15, 16). He is
said to have been one hundred and thirty years old.
Jehoiakim - he whom Jehovah has set up,
the second son of Josiah, and eighteenth king of Judah, which he ruled over
for eleven years (B.C. 610-599). His original name was Eliakim (q.v.).
On the death of his father his younger brother Jehoahaz (=Shallum, Jer.
22:11), who favoured the Chaldeans against the Egyptians, was made king
by the people; but the king of Egypt, Pharaoh-necho, invaded the land
and deposed Jehoahaz (2 Kings 23:33, 34; Jer. 22:10-12), setting Eliakim
on the throne in his stead, and changing his name to Jehoiakim.
After this the king of Egypt took no part in Jewish politics, having
been defeated by the Chaldeans at Carchemish (2 Kings 24:7; Jer. 46:2).
Palestine was now invaded and conquered by Nebuchadnezzar. Jehoiakim was
taken prisoner and carried captive to Babylon (2 Chr. 36:6, 7). It was
at this time that Daniel also and his three companions were taken captive
to Babylon (Dan. 1:1, 2).
Nebuchadnezzar reinstated Jehoiakim on his throne, but treated him as
a vassal king. In the year after this, Jeremiah caused his prophecies
to be read by Baruch in the court of the temple. Jehoiakim, hearing of
this, had them also read in the royal palace before himself. The words
displeased him, and taking the roll from the hands of Baruch he cut it
in pieces and threw it into the fire (Jer. 36:23). During his disastrous
reign there was a return to the old idolatry and corruption of the days
After three years of subjection to Babylon, Jehoiakim withheld his tribute
and threw off the yoke (2 Kings 24:1), hoping to make himself independent.
Nebuchadnezzar sent bands of Chaldeans, Syrians, and Ammonites (2 Kings
24:2) to chastise his rebellious vassal. They cruelly harassed the whole
country (comp. Jer. 49:1-6). The king came to a violent death, and his
body having been thrown over the wall of Jerusalem, to convince the beseieging
army that he was dead, after having been dragged away, was buried beyond
the gates of Jerusalem "with the burial of an ass," B.C. 599 (Jer. 22:18,
19; 36:30). Nebuchadnezzar placed his son Jehoiachin on the throne, wishing
still to retain the kingdom of Judah as tributary to him.
Jehoiarib - Jehovah defends, a priest at
Jerusalem, head of one of the sacerdotal courses (1 Chr. 9:10; 24:7). His
"course" went up from Babylon after the Exile (Ezra 2:36-39; Neh. 7:39-42).
Jehonadab - Jehovah is liberal; or, whom
Jehovah impels. (1.) A son of Shimeah, and nephew of David. It was he who
gave the fatal wicked advice to Amnon, the heir to the throne (2 Sam. 13:3-6).
He was very "subtil," but unprincipled.
(2.) A son of Rechab, the founder of a tribe who bound themselves by
a vow to abstain from wine (Jer. 35:6-19). There were different settlements
of Rechabites (Judg. 1:16; 4:11; 1 Chr. 2:55). (See RECHABITE.) His interview
and alliance with Jehu are mentioned in 2 Kings 10:15-23. He went with
Jehu in his chariot to Samaria.
Jehonathan - whom Jehovah gave. (1.) One
of the stewards of David's store-houses (1 Chr. 27:25).
(2.) A Levite who taught the law to the people of Judah (2 Chr. 17:8).
(3.) Neh. 12:18.
Jehoram - Jehovah-exalted. (1.) Son of Toi,
king of Hamath, sent by his father to congratulate David on the occasion
of his victory over Hadadezer (2 Sam. 8:10).
(2.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1 Chr. 26:25).
(3.) A priest sent by Jehoshaphat to instructruct the people in Judah
(2 Chr. 17:8).
(4.) The son of Ahab and Jezebel, and successor to his brother Ahaziah
on the throne of Israel. He reigned twelve years, B.C. 896-884 (2 Kings
1:17; 3:1). His first work was to reduce to subjection the Moabites, who
had asserted their independence in the reign of his brother. Jehoshaphat,
king of Judah, assisted Jehoram in this effort. He was further helped
by his ally the king of Edom. Elisha went forth with the confederated
army (2 Kings 3:1-19), and at the solicitation of Jehoshaphat encouraged
the army with the assurance from the Lord of a speedy victory. The Moabites
under Mesha their king were utterly routed and their cities destroyed.
At Kir-haraseth Mesha made a final stand. The Israelites refrained from
pressing their victory further, and returned to their own land.
Elisha afterwards again befriended Jehoram when a war broke out between
the Syrians and Israel, and in a remarkable way brought that war to a
bloodless close (2 Kings 6:23). But Jehoram, becoming confident in his
own power, sank into idolatry, and brought upon himself and his land another
Syrian invasion, which led to great suffering and distress in Samaria
(2 Kings 6:24-33). By a remarkable providential interposition the city
was saved from utter destruction, and the Syrians were put to flight (2
Jehoram was wounded in a battle with the Syrians at Ramah, and obliged
to return to Jezreel (2 Kings 8:29; 9:14, 15), and soon after the army
proclaimed their leader Jehu king of Israel, and revolted from their allegiance
to Jehoram (2 Kings 9). Jehoram was pierced by an arrow from Jehu's bow
on the piece of ground at Jezreel which Ahab had taken from Naboth, and
there he died (2 Kings 9:21-29).
(5.) The eldest son and successor of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah. He
reigned eight years (B.C. 892-885) alone as king of Judah, having been
previously for some years associated with his father (2 Chr. 21:5, 20;
2 Kings 8:16). His wife was Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel.
His daughter Jehosheba was married to the high priest Jehoiada. He sank
into gross idolatry, and brought upon himself and his kingdom the anger
of Jehovah. The Edomites revolted from under his yoke, and the Philistines
and the Arabians and Cushites invaded the land, and carried away great
spoil, along with Jehoram's wives and all his children, except Ahaziah.
He died a painful death from a fearful malady, and was refused a place
in the sepulchre of the kings (2 Kings 8:16-24; 2 Chr. 21).
Jehoshaphat - Jehovah-judged. (1.) One of
David's body-guard (1 Chr. 11:43).
(2.) One of the priests who accompanied the removal of the ark to Jerusalem
(1 Chr. 15:24).
(3.) Son of Ahilud, "recorder" or annalist under David and Solomon (2
Sam. 8:16), a state officer of high rank, chancellor or vizier of the
(4.) Solomon's purveyor in Issachar (1 Kings 4:17).
(5.) The son and successor of Asa, king of Judah. After fortifying his
kingdom against Israel (2 Chr. 17:1, 2), he set himself to cleanse the
land of idolatry (1 Kings 22:43). In the third year of his reign he sent
out priests and Levites over the land to instruct the people in the law
(2 Chr. 17:7-9). He enjoyed a great measure of peace and prosperity, the
blessing of God resting on the people "in their basket and their store."
The great mistake of his reign was his entering into an alliance with
Ahab, the king of Israel, which involved him in much disgrace, and brought
disaster on his kingdom (1 Kings 22:1-33). Escaping from the bloody battle
of Ramoth-gilead, the prophet Jehu (2 Chr. 19:1-3) reproached him for
the course he had been pursuing, whereupon he entered with rigour on his
former course of opposition to all idolatry, and of deepening interest
in the worship of God and in the righteous government of the people (2
Again he entered into an alliance with Ahaziah, the king of Israel,
for the purpose of carrying on maritime commerce with Ophir. But the fleet
that was then equipped at Ezion-gaber was speedily wrecked. A new fleet
was fitted out without the co-operation of the king of Israel, and although
it was successful, the trade was not prosecuted (2 Chr. 20:35-37; 1 Kings
He subsequently joined Jehoram, king of Israel, in a war against the
Moabites, who were under tribute to Israel. This war was successful. The
Moabites were subdued; but the dreadful act of Mesha in offering his own
son a sacrifice on the walls of Kir-haresheth in the sight of the armies
of Israel filled him with horror, and he withdrew and returned to his
own land (2 Kings 3:4-27).
The last most notable event of his reign was that recorded in 2 Chr.
20. The Moabites formed a great and powerful confederacy with the surrounding
nations, and came against Jehoshaphat. The allied forces were encamped
at Engedi. The king and his people were filled with alarm, and betook
themselves to God in prayer. The king prayed in the court of the temple,
"O our God, wilt thou not judge them? for we have no might against this
great company that cometh against us." Amid the silence that followed,
the voice of Jahaziel the Levite was heard announcing that on the morrow
all this great host would be overthrown. So it was, for they quarrelled
among themselves, and slew one another, leaving to the people of Judah
only to gather the rich spoils of the slain. This was recognized as a
great deliverance wrought for them by God (B.C. 890). Soon after this
Jehoshaphat died, after a reign of twenty-five years, being sixty years
of age, and was succeeded by his son Jehoram (1 Kings 22:50). He had this
testimony, that "he sought the Lord with all his heart" (2 Chr. 22:9).
The kingdom of Judah was never more prosperous than under his reign.
(6.) The son of Nimshi, and father of Jehu, king of Israel (2 Kings
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - mentioned in Scripture
only in Joel 3:2, 12. This is the name given in modern times to the valley
between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, and the Kidron flows through
it. Here Jehoshaphat overthrew the confederated enemies of Israel (Ps. 83:6-8);
and in this valley also God was to overthrow the Tyrians, Zidonians, etc.
(Joel 3:4, 19), with an utter overthrow. This has been fulfilled; but Joel
speaks of the final conflict, when God would destroy all Jerusalem's enemies,
of whom Tyre and Zidon, etc., were types. The "valley of Jehoshaphat" may
therefore be simply regarded as a general term for the theatre of God's
final judgments on the enemies of Israel.
This valley has from ancient times been used by the Jews as a burial-ground.
It is all over paved with flat stones as tombstones, bearing on them Hebrew
Jehosheba - Jehovah-swearing, the daughter
of Jehoram, the king of Israel. She is called Jehoshabeath in 2 Chr. 22:11.
She was the only princess of the royal house who was married to a high priest,
Jehoiada (2 Chr. 22:11).
Jehovah - the special and significant name
(not merely an appellative title such as Lord [adonai]) by which God revealed
himself to the ancient Hebrews (Ex. 6:2, 3). This name, the Tetragrammaton
of the Greeks, was held by the later Jews to be so sacred that it was never
pronounced except by the high priest on the great Day of Atonement, when
he entered into the most holy place. Whenever this name occurred in the
sacred books they pronounced it, as they still do, "Adonai" (i.e., Lord),
thus using another word in its stead. The Massorets gave to it the vowel-points
appropriate to this word. This Jewish practice was founded on a false interpretation
of Lev. 24:16. The meaning of the word appears from Ex. 3:14 to be "the
unchanging, eternal, self-existent God," the "I am that I am," a convenant-keeping
God. (Comp. Mal. 3:6; Hos. 12:5; Rev. 1:4, 8.)
The Hebrew name "Jehovah" is generally translated in the Authorized
Version (and the Revised Version has not departed from this rule) by the
word LORD printed in small capitals, to distinguish it from the rendering
of the Hebrew Adonai and the Greek Kurios, which are also
rendered Lord, but printed in the usual type. The Hebrew word is translated
"Jehovah" only in Ex. 6:3; Ps. 83:18; Isa. 12:2; 26:4, and in the compound
names mentioned below.
It is worthy of notice that this name is never used in the LXX., the
Samaritan Pentateuch, the Apocrypha, or in the New Testament. It is found,
however, on the "Moabite stone" (q.v.), and consequently it must have
been in the days of Mesba so commonly pronounced by the Hebrews as to
be familiar to their heathen neighbours.
Jehovah-jireh - Jehovah will see; i.e.,
will provide, the name given by Abraham to the scene of his offering up
the ram which was caught in the thicket on Mount Moriah. The expression
used in Gen. 22:14, "in the mount of the Lord it shall be seen," has been
regarded as equivalent to the saying, "Man's extremity is God's opportunity."
Jehovah-nissi - Jehovah my banner, the title
given by Moses to the altar which he erected on the hill on the top of which
he stood with uplifted hands while Israel prevailed over their enemies the
Amalekites (Ex. 17:15).
Jehovah-shalom - Jehovah send peace, the
name which Gideon gave to the altar he erected on the spot at Ophrah where
the angel appeared to him (Judg. 6:24).
Jehovah-shammah - Jehovah is there, the
symbolical title given by Ezekiel to Jerusalem, which was seen by him in
vision (Ezek. 48:35). It was a type of the gospel Church.
Jehovah-tsidkenu - Jehovah our rightousness,
rendered in the Authorized Version, "The LORD our righteousness," a title
given to the Messiah (Jer. 23:6, marg.), and also to Jerusalem (33:16, marg.).
Jehozabad - Jehovah-given. (1.) The son
of Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4), one of the Levite porters.
(2.) The son of Shomer, one of the two conspirators who put king Jehoash
to death in Millo in Jerusalem (2 Kings 12:21).
(3.) 2 Chr. 17:18.
Jehozadak - Jehovah-justified, the son of
the high priest Seraiah at the time of the Babylonian exile (1 Chr. 6:14,
15). He was carried into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, and probably died
in Babylon. He was the father of Jeshua, or Joshua, who returned with Zerubbabel.
Jehu - Jehovah is he. (1.) The son of Obed,
and father of Azariah (1 Chr. 2:38).
(2.) One of the Benjamite slingers that joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr.
(3.) The son of Hanani, a prophet of Judah (1 Kings 16:1, 7; 2 Chr.
19:2; 20:34), who pronounced the sentence of God against Baasha, the king
(4.) King of Israel, the son of Jehoshaphat (2 Kings 9:2), and grandson
of Nimshi. The story of his exaltation to the throne is deeply interesting.
During the progress of a war against the Syrians, who were becoming more
and more troublesome to Israel, in a battle at Ramoth-gilead Jehoram,
the king of Israel, had been wounded; and leaving his army there, had
returned to Jezreel, whither his ally, Ahaziah, king of Judah, had also
gone on a visit of sympathy with him (2 Kings 8:28, 29). The commanders,
being left in charge of the conduct of the war, met in council; and while
engaged in their deliberations, a messenger from Elisha appeared in the
camp, and taking Jehu from the council, led him into a secret chamber,
and there anointed him king over Israel, and immediately retired and disappeared
(2 Kings 9:5, 6). On being interrogated by his companions as to the object
of this mysterious visitor, he informed them of what had been done, when
immediately, with the utmost enthusiasm, they blew their trumpets and
proclaimed him king (2 Kings 9:11-14). He then with a chosen band set
forth with all speed to Jezreel, where, with his own hand, he slew Jehoram,
shooting him through the heart with an arrow (9:24). The king of Judah,
when trying to escape, was fatally wounded by one of Jehu's soldiers at
Beth-gan. On entering the city, Jehu commanded the eunchs of the royal
palace to cast down Jezebel into the street, where her mangled body was
trodden under foot by the horses. Jehu was now master of Jezreel, whence
he communicated with the persons in authority in Samaria the capital,
commanding them to appear before him on the morrow with the heads of all
the royal princes of Samaria. Accordingly on the morrow seventy heads
were piled up in two heaps at his gate. At "the shearing-house" (2 Kings
10:12-14) other forty-two connected with the house of Ahab were put to
death (2 Kings 10:14). As Jehu rode on toward Samaria, he met Jehonadab
(q.v.), whom he took into his chariot, and they entered the capital together.
By a cunning stratagem he cut off all the worshippers of Baal found in
Samaria (2 Kings 10:19-25), and destroyed the temple of the idol (2 Kings
Notwithstanding all this apparent zeal for the worship of Jehovah, Jehu
yet tolerated the worship of the golden calves at Dan and Bethel. For
this the divine displeasure rested upon him, and his kingdom suffered
disaster in war with the Syrians (2 Kings 10:29-33). He died after a reign
of twenty-eight years (B.C. 884-856), and was buried in Samaria (10:34-36).
"He was one of those decisive, terrible, and ambitious, yet prudent, calculating,
and passionless men whom God from time to time raises up to change the
fate of empires and execute his judgments on the earth." He was the first
Jewish king who came in contact with the Assyrian power in the time of
Jehucal - able, the son of Shelemiah. He
is also called Jucal (Jer. 38:1). He was one of the two persons whom Zedekiah
sent to request the prophet Jeremiah to pray for the kingdom (Jer. 37:3)
during the time of its final siege by Nebuchadnezzar. He was accompanied
by Zephaniah (q.v.).
Jehudi - a Jew, son of Nethaniah. He was
sent by the princes to invite Baruch to read Jeremiah's roll to them (Jer.
Jeiel - snatched away by God. (1.) A descendant
of Benjamin (1 Chr. 9:35; 8:29).
(2.) One of the Levites who took part in praising God on the removal
of the ark to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 16:5).
(3.) 2 Chr. 29:13. A Levite of the sons of Asaph.
(4.) 2 Chr. 26:11. A scribe.
(5.) 1 Chr. 5:7. A Reubenite chief.
(6.) One of the chief Levites, who made an offering for the restoration
of the Passover by Josiah (2 Chr. 35:9).
(7.) Ezra 8:13.
(8.) Ezra 10:43.
Jemima - dove, the eldest of Job's three
daughters born after his time of trial (Job 42:14).
Jephthah - whom God sets free, or the
breaker through, a "mighty man of valour" who delivered Israel from the
oppression of the Ammonites (Judg. 11:1-33), and judged Israel six years
(12:7). He has been described as "a wild, daring, Gilead mountaineer,
a sort of warrior Elijah." After forty-five years of comparative quiet
Israel again apostatized, and in "process of time the children of Ammon
made war against Israel" (11:5). In their distress the elders of Gilead
went to fetch Jephthah out of the land of Tob, to which he had fled when
driven out wrongfully by his brothers from his father's inheritance (2),
and the people made him their head and captain. The "elders of Gilead"
in their extremity summoned him to their aid, and he at once undertook
the conduct of the war against Ammon. Twice he sent an embassy to the
king of Ammon, but in vain. War was inevitable. The people obeyed his
summons, and "the spirit of the Lord came upon him." Before engaging in
war he vowed that if successful he would offer as a "burnt-offering" whatever
would come out of the door of his house first to meet him on his return.
The defeat of the Ammonites was complete. "He smote them from Aroer, even
till thou come to Minnith, even twenty cities, and unto the plain of the
vineyards [Heb. 'Abel Keramim], with a very great slaughter" (Judg. 11:33).
The men of Ephraim regarded themselves as insulted in not having been
called by Jephthah to go with him to war against Ammon. This led to a
war between the men of Gilead and Ephraim (12:4), in which many of the
Ephraimites perished. (See SHIBBOLETH.) "Then died Jephthah the Gileadite,
and was buried in one of the cities of Gilead" (7).
Jephthah's vow - (Judg. 11:30, 31). After
a crushing defeat of the Ammonites, Jephthah returned to his own house,
and the first to welcome him was his own daughter. This was a terrible blow
to the victor, and in his despair he cried out, "Alas, my daughter! thou
hast brought me very low...I have opened my mouth unto the Lord, and cannot
go back." With singular nobleness of spirit she answered, "Do to me according
to that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth." She only asked two months
to bewail her maidenhood with her companions upon the mountains. She utters
no reproach against her father's rashness, and is content to yield her life
since her father has returned a conqueror. But was it so? Did Jephthah offer
up his daughter as a "burnt-offering"? This question has been much debated,
and there are many able commentators who argue that such a sacrifice was
actually offered. We are constrained, however, by a consideration of Jephthah's
known piety as a true worshipper of Jehovah, his evident acquaintance with
the law of Moses, to which such sacrifices were abhorrent (Lev. 18:21; 20:2-5;
Deut. 12:31), and the place he holds in the roll of the heroes of the faith
in the Epistle to the Hebrews (11:32), to conclude that she was only doomed
to a life of perpetual celibacy.
Jephunneh - nimble, or a beholder. (1.)
The father of Caleb, who was Joshua's companion in exploring Canaan (Num.
13:6), a Kenezite (Josh. 14:14). (2.) One of the descendants of Asher (1
Jerahmeel - loving God. (1.) The son of
Hezron, the brother of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:9, 25, 26, etc.).
(2.) The son of Kish, a Levite (1 Chr. 24:29).
(3.) Son of Hammelech (Jer. 36:26).
Jeremiah - raised up or appointed by Jehovah.
(1.) A Gadite who joined David in the wilderness (1 Chr. 12:10).
(2.) A Gadite warrior (1 Chr. 12:13).
(3.) A Benjamite slinger who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:4).
(4.) One of the chiefs of the tribe of Manasseh on the east of Jordan
(1 Chr. 5:24).
(5.) The father of Hamutal (2 Kings 23:31), the wife of Josiah.
(6.) One of the "greater prophets" of the Old Testament, son of Hilkiah
(q.v.), a priest of Anathoth (Jer. 1:1; 32:6). He was called to the prophetical
office when still young (1:6), in the thirteenth year of Josiah (B.C.
628). He left his native place, and went to reside in Jerusalem, where
he greatly assisted Josiah in his work of reformation (2 Kings 23:1-25).
The death of this pious king was bewailed by the prophet as a national
calamity (2 Chr. 35:25).
During the three years of the reign of Jehoahaz we find no reference
to Jeremiah, but in the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim the enmity
of the people against him broke out in bitter persecution, and he was
placed apparently under restraint (Jer. 36:5). In the fourth year of Jehoiakim
he was commanded to write the predictions given to him, and to read them
to the people on the fast-day. This was done by Baruch his servant in
his stead, and produced much public excitement. The roll was read to the
king. In his recklessness he seized the roll, and cut it to pieces, and
cast it into the fire, and ordered both Baruch and Jeremiah to be apprehended.
Jeremiah procured another roll, and wrote in it the words of the roll
the king had destroyed, and "many like words" besides (Jer. 36:32).
He remained in Jerusalem, uttering from time to time his words of warning,
but without effect. He was there when Nebuchadnezzar besieged the city
(Jer. 37:4, 5), B.C. 589. The rumour of the approach of the Egyptians
to aid the Jews in this crisis induced the Chaldeans to withdraw and return
to their own land. This, however, was only for a time. The prophet, in
answer to his prayer, received a message from God announcing that the
Chaldeans would come again and take the city, and burn it with fire (37:7,
8). The princes, in their anger at such a message by Jeremiah, cast him
into prison (37:15-38:13). He was still in confinement when the city was
taken (B.C. 588). The Chaldeans released him, and showed him great kindness,
allowing him to choose the place of his residence. He accordingly went
to Mizpah with Gedaliah, who had been made governor of Judea. Johanan
succeeded Gedaliah, and refusing to listen to Jeremiah's counsels, went
down into Egypt, taking Jeremiah and Baruch with him (Jer. 43:6). There
probably the prophet spent the remainder of his life, in vain seeking
still to turn the people to the Lord, from whom they had so long revolted
(44). He lived till the reign of Evil-Merodach, son of Nebuchadnezzar,
and must have been about ninety years of age at his death. We have no
authentic record of his death. He may have died at Tahpanhes, or, according
to a tradition, may have gone to Babylon with the army of Nebuchadnezzar;
but of this there is nothing certain.
Jeremiah, Book of - consists of twenty-three
separate and independent sections, arranged in five books. I. The introduction,
ch. 1. II. Reproofs of the sins of the Jews, consisting of seven sections,
(1.) ch. 2; (2.) ch. 3-6; (3.) ch. 7-10; (4.) ch. 11-13; (5.) ch. 14-17:18;
(6.) ch. 17:19-ch. 20; (7.) ch. 21-24. III. A general review of all nations,
in two sections, (1.) ch. 46-49; (2.) ch. 25; with an historical appendix
of three sections, (1.) ch. 26; (2.) ch. 27; (3.) ch. 28, 29. IV. Two sections
picturing the hopes of better times, (1.) ch. 30, 31; (2.) ch. 32,33; to
which is added an historical appendix in three sections, (1.) ch. 34:1-7;
(2.) ch. 34:8-22; (3.) ch. 35. V. The conclusion, in two sections, (1.)
ch. 36; (2.) ch. 45.
In Egypt, after an interval, Jeremiah is supposed to have added three
sections, viz., ch. 37-39; 40-43; and 44.
The principal Messianic prophecies are found in 23:1-8; 31:31-40; and
Jeremiah's prophecies are noted for the frequent repetitions found in
them of the same words and phrases and imagery. They cover the period
of about 30 years. They are not recorded in the order of time. When and
under what circumstances this book assumed its present form we know not.
The LXX. Version of this book is, in its arrangement and in other particulars,
singularly at variance with the original. The LXX. omits 10:6-8; 27:19-22;
29:16-20; 33:14-26; 39:4-13; 52:2, 3, 15, 28-30, etc. About 2,700 words
in all of the original are omitted. These omissions, etc., are capricious
and arbitrary, and render the version unreliable.
Jericho - place of fragrance, a fenced city
in the midst of a vast grove of palm trees, in the plain of Jordan, over
against the place where that river was crossed by the Israelites (Josh.
3:16). Its site was near the 'Ain es-Sultan, Elisha's Fountain (2 Kings
2:19-22), about 5 miles west of Jordan. It was the most important city in
the Jordan valley (Num. 22:1; 34:15), and the strongest fortress in all
the land of Canaan. It was the key to Western Palestine.
This city was taken in a very remarkable manner by the Israelites (Josh.
6). God gave it into their hands. The city was "accursed" (Heb. herem,
"devoted" to Jehovah), and accordingly (Josh. 6:17; comp. Lev. 27:28,
29; Deut. 13:16) all the inhabitants and all the spoil of the city were
to be destroyed, "only the silver, and the gold, and the vessels of brass
and of iron" were reserved and "put into the treasury of the house of
Jehovah" (Josh. 6:24; comp. Num. 31:22, 23, 50-54). Only Rahab "and her
father's household, and all that she had," were preserved from destruction,
according to the promise of the spies (Josh. 2:14). In one of the Amarna
tablets Adoni-zedec (q.v.) writes to the king of Egypt informing him that
the 'Abiri (Hebrews) had prevailed, and had taken the fortress of Jericho,
and were plundering "all the king's lands." It would seem that the Egyptian
troops had before this been withdrawn from Palestine.
This city was given to the tribe of Benjamin (Josh. 18:21), and it was
inhabited in the time of the Judges (Judg. 3:13; 2 Sam. 10:5). It is not
again mentioned till the time of David (2 Sam. 10:5). "Children of Jericho"
were among the captives who returned under Zerubbabel Ezra 2:34; Neh.
7:36). Hiel (q.v.) the Bethelite attempted to make it once more a fortified
city (1 Kings 16:34). Between the beginning and the end of his undertaking
all his children were cut off.
In New Testament times Jericho stood some distance to the south-east
of the ancient one, and near the opening of the valley of Achor. It was
a rich and flourishing town, having a considerable trade, and celebrated
for the palm trees which adorned the plain around. It was visited by our
Lord on his last journey to Jerusalem. Here he gave sight to two blind
men (Matt. 20:29-34; Mark 10:46-52), and brought salvation to the house
of Zacchaeus the publican (Luke 19:2-10).
The poor hamlet of er-Riha, the representative of modern Jericho, is
situated some two miles farther to the east. It is in a ruinous condition,
having been destroyed by the Turks in 1840. "The soil of the plain," about
the middle of which the ancient city stood, "is unsurpassed in fertility;
there is abundance of water for irrigation, and many of the old aqueducts
are almost perfect; yet nearly the whole plain is waste and desolate...The
climate of Jericho is exceedingly hot and unhealthy. This is accounted
for by the depression of the plain, which is about 1,200 feet below the
level of the sea."
There were three different Jerichos, on three different sites, the Jericho
of Joshua, the Jericho of Herod, and the Jericho of the Crusades. Er-Riha,
the modern Jericho, dates from the time of the Crusades. Dr. Bliss has
found in a hollow scooped out for some purpose or other near the foot
of the biggest mound above the Sultan's Spring specimens of Amorite or
pre-Israelitish pottery precisely identical with what he had discovered
on the site of ancient Lachish. He also traced in this place for a short
distance a mud brick wall in situ, which he supposes to be the very wall
that fell before the trumpets of Joshua. The wall is not far from the
foot of the great precipice of Quarantania and its numerous caverns, and
the spies of Joshua could easily have fled from the city and been speedily
hidden in these fastnesses.
Jerimoth - heights. (1.) One of the sons
of Bela (1 Chr. 7:7).
(2.) 1 Chr. 24:30, a Merarite Levite.
(3.) A Benjamite slinger who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:5).
(4.) A Levitical musician under Heman his father (1 Chr. 25:4).
(5.) 1 Chr. 27:19, ruler of Naphtali.
(6.) One of David's sons (2 Chr. 11:18).
(7.) A Levite, one of the overseers of the temple offerings (2 Chr.
31:13) in the reign of Hezekiah.
Jeroboam - increase of the people. (1.)
The son of Nebat (1 Kings 11:26-39), "an Ephrathite," the first king of
the ten tribes, over whom he reigned twenty-two years (B.C. 976-945). He
was the son of a widow of Zereda, and while still young was promoted by
Solomon to be chief superintendent of the "burnden", i.e., of the bands
of forced labourers. Influenced by the words of the prophet Ahijah, he began
to form conspiracies with the view of becoming king of the ten tribes; but
these having been discovered, he fled to Egypt (1 Kings 11:29-40), where
he remained for a length of time under the protection of Shishak I. On the
death of Solomon, the ten tribes, having revolted, sent to invite him to
become their king. The conduct of Rehoboam favoured the designs of Jeroboam,
and he was accordingly proclaimed "king of Israel" (1 Kings 12: 1-20). He
rebuilt and fortified Shechem as the capital of his kingdom. He at once
adopted means to perpetuate the division thus made between the two parts
of the kingdom, and erected at Dan and Bethel, the two extremities of his
kingdom, "golden calves," which he set up as symbols of Jehovah, enjoining
the people not any more to go up to worship at Jerusalem, but to bring their
offerings to the shrines he had erected. Thus he became distinguished as
the man "who made Israel to sin." This policy was followed by all the succeeding
kings of Israel.
While he was engaged in offering incense at Bethel, a prophet from Judah
appeared before him with a warning message from the Lord. Attempting to
arrest the prophet for his bold words of defiance, his hand was "dried
up," and the altar before which he stood was rent asunder. At his urgent
entreaty his "hand was restored him again" (1 Kings 13:1-6, 9; comp. 2
Kings 23:15); but the miracle made no abiding impression on him. His reign
was one of constant war with the house of Judah. He died soon after his
son Abijah (1 Kings 14:1-18).
(2.) Jeroboam II., the son and successor of Jehoash, and the fourteenth
king of Israel, over which he ruled for forty-one years, B.C. 825-784
(2 Kings 14:23). He followed the example of the first Jeroboam in keeping
up the worship of the golden calves (2 Kings 14:24). His reign was contemporary
with those of Amaziah (2 Kings 14:23) and Uzziah (15:1), kings of Judah.
He was victorious over the Syrians (13:4; 14:26, 27), and extended Israel
to its former limits, from "the entering of Hamath to the sea of the plain"
(14:25; Amos 6:14). His reign of forty-one years was the most prosperous
that Israel had ever known as yet. With all this outward prosperity, however,
iniquity widely prevailed in the land (Amos 2:6-8; 4:1; 6:6; Hos. 4:12-14).
The prophets Hosea (1:1), Joel (3:16; Amos 1:1, 2), Amos (1:1), and Jonah
(2 Kings 14:25) lived during his reign. He died, and was buried with his
ancestors (14:29). He was succeeded by his son Zachariah (q.v.).
His name occurs in Scripture only in 2 Kings 13:13; 14:16, 23, 27, 28,
29; 15:1, 8; 1 Chr. 5:17; Hos. 1:1; Amos 1:1; 7:9, 10, 11. In all other
passages it is Jeroboam the son of Nebat that is meant.
Jeroham - cherished; who finds mercy. (1.)
Father of Elkanah, and grandfather of the prophet Samuel (1 Sam. 1:1).
(2.) The father of Azareel, the "captain" of the tribe of Dan (1 Chr.
(3.) 1 Chr. 12:7; a Benjamite.
(4.) 2 Chr. 23:1; one whose son assisted in placing Joash on the throne.
(5.) 1 Chr. 9:8; a Benjamite.
(6.) 1 Chr. 9:12; a priest, perhaps the same as in Neh. 11:12.
Jerubbaal - contender with Baal; or, let
Baal plead, a surname of Gideon; a name given to him because he destroyed
the altar of Baal (Judg. 6:32; 7:1; 8:29; 1 Sam. 12:11).
Jerubbesheth - contender with the shame;
i.e., idol, a surname also of Gideon (2 Sam. 11:21).
Jeruel - founded by God, a "desert" on the
ascent from the valley of the Dead Sea towards Jerusalem. It lay beyond
the wilderness of Tekoa, in the direction of Engedi (2 Chr. 20:16, 20).
It corresponds with the tract of country now called el-Hasasah.
Jerusalem - called also Salem, Ariel, Jebus,
the "city of God," the "holy city;" by the modern Arabs el-Khuds, meaning
"the holy;" once "the city of Judah" (2 Chr. 25:28). This name is in the
original in the dual form, and means "possession of peace," or "foundation
of peace." The dual form probably refers to the two mountains on which it
was built, viz., Zion and Moriah; or, as some suppose, to the two parts
of the city, the "upper" and the "lower city." Jerusalem is a "mountain
city enthroned on a mountain fastness" (comp. Ps. 68:15, 16; 87:1; 125:2;
76:1, 2; 122:3). It stands on the edge of one of the highest table-lands
in Palestine, and is surrounded on the south-eastern, the southern, and
the western sides by deep and precipitous ravines.
It is first mentioned in Scripture under the name Salem (Gen. 14:18;
comp. Ps. 76:2). When first mentioned under the name Jerusalem, Adonizedek
was its king (Josh. 10:1). It is afterwards named among the cities of
Benjamin (Judg. 19:10; 1 Chr. 11:4); but in the time of David it was divided
between Benjamin and Judah. After the death of Joshua the city was taken
and set on fire by the men of Judah (Judg. 1:1-8); but the Jebusites were
not wholly driven out of it. The city is not again mentioned till we are
told that David brought the head of Goliath thither (1 Sam. 17:54). David
afterwards led his forces against the Jebusites still residing within
its walls, and drove them out, fixing his own dwelling on Zion, which
he called "the city of David" (2 Sam. 5:5-9; 1 Chr. 11:4-8). Here he built
an altar to the Lord on the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite (2
Sam. 24:15-25), and thither he brought up the ark of the covenant and
placed it in the new tabernacle which he had prepared for it. Jerusalem
now became the capital of the kingdom.
After the death of David, Solomon built the temple, a house for the
name of the Lord, on Mount Moriah (B.C. 1010). He also greatly strengthened
and adorned the city, and it became the great centre of all the civil
and religious affairs of the nation (Deut. 12:5; comp. 12:14; 14:23; 16:11-16;
After the disruption of the kingdom on the accession to the throne of
Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, Jerusalem became the capital of the kingdom
of the two tribes. It was subsequently often taken and retaken by the
Egyptians, the Assyrians, and by the kings of Israel (2 Kings 14:13, 14;
18:15, 16; 23:33-35; 24:14; 2 Chr. 12:9; 26:9; 27:3, 4; 29:3; 32:30; 33:11),
till finally, for the abounding iniquities of the nation, after a siege
of three years, it was taken and utterly destroyed, its walls razed to
the ground, and its temple and palaces consumed by fire, by Nebuchadnezzar,
the king of Babylon (2 Kings 25; 2 Chr. 36; Jer. 39), B.C. 588. The desolation
of the city and the land was completed by the retreat of the principal
Jews into Egypt (Jer. 40-44), and by the final carrying captive into Babylon
of all that still remained in the land (52:3), so that it was left without
an inhabitant (B.C. 582). Compare the predictions, Deut. 28; Lev. 26:14-39.
But the streets and walls of Jerusalem were again to be built, in troublous
times (Dan. 9:16, 19, 25), after a captivity of seventy years. This restoration
was begun B.C. 536, "in the first year of Cyrus" (Ezra 1:2, 3, 5-11).
The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah contain the history of the re-building
of the city and temple, and the restoration of the kingdom of the Jews,
consisting of a portion of all the tribes. The kingdom thus constituted
was for two centuries under the dominion of Persia, till B.C. 331; and
thereafter, for about a century and a half, under the rulers of the Greek
empire in Asia, till B.C. 167. For a century the Jews maintained their
independence under native rulers, the Asmonean princes. At the close of
this period they fell under the rule of Herod and of members of his family,
but practically under Rome, till the time of the destruction of Jerusalem,
A.D. 70. The city was then laid in ruins.
The modern Jerusalem by-and-by began to be built over the immense beds
of rubbish resulting from the overthrow of the ancient city; and whilst
it occupies certainly the same site, there are no evidences that even
the lines of its streets are now what they were in the ancient city. Till
A.D. 131 the Jews who still lingered about Jerusalem quietly submitted
to the Roman sway. But in that year the emperor (Hadrian), in order to
hold them in subjection, rebuilt and fortified the city. The Jews, however,
took possession of it, having risen under the leadership of one Bar-Chohaba
(i.e., "the son of the star") in revolt against the Romans. Some four
years afterwards (A.D. 135), however, they were driven out of it with
great slaughter, and the city was again destroyed; and over its ruins
was built a Roman city called Aelia Capitolina, a name which it retained
till it fell under the dominion of the Mohammedans, when it was called
el-Khuds, i.e., "the holy."
In A.D. 326 Helena, mother of the emperor Constantine, made a pilgrimage
to Jerusalem with the view of discovering the places mentioned in the
life of our Lord. She caused a church to be built on what was then supposed
to be the place of the nativity at Bethlehem. Constantine, animated by
her example, searched for the holy sepulchre, and built over the supposed
site a magnificent church, which was completed and dedicated A.D. 335.
He relaxed the laws against the Jews till this time in force, and permitted
them once a year to visit the city and wail over the desolation of "the
holy and beautiful house."
In A.D. 614 the Persians, after defeating the Roman forces of the emperor
Heraclius, took Jerusalem by storm, and retained it till A.D. 637, when
it was taken by the Arabians under the Khalif Omar. It remained in their
possession till it passed, in A.D. 960, under the dominion of the Fatimite
khalifs of Egypt, and in A.D. 1073 under the Turcomans. In A.D. 1099 the
crusader Godfrey of Bouillon took the city from the Moslems with great
slaughter, and was elected king of Jerusalem. He converted the Mosque
of Omar into a Christian cathedral. During the eighty-eight years which
followed, many churches and convents were erected in the holy city. The
Church of the Holy Sepulchre was rebuilt during this period, and it alone
remains to this day. In A.D. 1187 the sultan Saladin wrested the city
from the Christians. From that time to the present day, with few intervals,
Jerusalem has remained in the hands of the Moslems. It has, however, during
that period been again and again taken and retaken, demolished in great
part and rebuilt, no city in the world having passed through so many vicissitudes.
In the year 1850 the Greek and Latin monks residing in Jerusalem had
a fierce dispute about the guardianship of what are called the "holy places."
In this dispute the emperor Nicholas of Russia sided with the Greeks,
and Louis Napoleon, the emperor of the French, with the Latins. This led
the Turkish authorities to settle the question in a way unsatisfactory
to Russia. Out of this there sprang the Crimean War, which was protracted
and sanguinary, but which had important consequences in the way of breaking
down the barriers of Turkish exclusiveness.
Modern Jerusalem "lies near the summit of a broad mountain-ridge, which
extends without interruption from the plain of Esdraelon to a line drawn
between the southern end of the Dead Sea and the southeastern corner of
the Mediterranean." This high, uneven table-land is everywhere from 20
to 25 geographical miles in breadth. It was anciently known as the mountains
of Ephraim and Judah.
"Jerusalem is a city of contrasts, and differs widely from Damascus,
not merely because it is a stone town in mountains, whilst the latter
is a mud city in a plain, but because while in Damascus Moslem religion
and Oriental custom are unmixed with any foreign element, in Jerusalem
every form of religion, every nationality of East and West, is represented
at one time."
Jerusalem is first mentioned under that name in the Book of Joshua,
and the Tell-el-Amarna collection of tablets includes six letters from
its Amorite king to Egypt, recording the attack of the Abiri about B.C.
1480. The name is there spelt Uru-Salim ("city of peace"). Another monumental
record in which the Holy City is named is that of Sennacherib's attack
in B.C. 702. The "camp of the Assyrians" was still shown about A.D. 70,
on the flat ground to the north-west, included in the new quarter of the
The city of David included both the upper city and Millo, and was surrounded
by a wall built by David and Solomon, who appear to have restored the
original Jebusite fortifications. The name Zion (or Sion) appears to have
been, like Ariel ("the hearth of God"), a poetical term for Jerusalem,
but in the Greek age was more specially used of the Temple hill. The priests'
quarter grew up on Ophel, south of the Temple, where also was Solomon's
Palace outside the original city of David. The walls of the city were
extended by Jotham and Manasseh to include this suburb and the Temple
(2 Chr. 27:3; 33:14).
Jerusalem is now a town of some 50,000 inhabitants, with ancient mediaeval
walls, partly on the old lines, but extending less far to the south. The
traditional sites, as a rule, were first shown in the 4th and later centuries
A.D., and have no authority. The results of excavation have, however,
settled most of the disputed questions, the limits of the Temple area,
and the course of the old walls having been traced.
Jerusha - possession, or possessed; i.e.,
"by a husband", the wife of Uzziah, and mother of king Jotham (2 Kings 15:33).
Jeshaiah - deliverance of Jehovah. (1.)
A Kohathite Levite, the father of Joram, of the family of Eliezer (1 Chr.
26:25); called also Isshiah (24:21).
(2.) One of the sons of Jeduthum (1 Chr. 25:3, 15).
(3.) One of the three sons of Hananiah (1 Chr. 3:21).
(4.) Son of Athaliah (Ezra 8:7).
(5.) A Levite of the family of Merari (8:19).
Jeshanah - a city of the kingdom of Israel
(2 Chr. 13:19).
Jesharelah - upright towards God, the head
of the seventh division of Levitical musicians (1 Chr. 25:14).
Jeshebeab - seat of his father, the head
of the fourteenth division of priests (1 Chr. 24:13).
Jesher - uprightness, the first of the three
sons of Caleb by Azubah (1 Chr. 2:18).
Jeshimon - the waste, probably some high
waste land to the south of the Dead Sea (Num. 21:20; 23:28; 1 Sam. 23:19,
24); or rather not a proper name at all, but simply "the waste" or "wilderness,"
the district on which the plateau of Ziph (q.v.) looks down.
Jeshua - (1.) Head of the ninth priestly
order (Ezra 2:36); called also Jeshuah (1 Chr. 24:11).
(2.) A Levite appointed by Hezekiah to distribute offerings in the priestly
cities (2 Chr. 31:15).
(3.) Ezra 2:6; Neh. 7:11.
(4.) Ezra 2:40; Neh. 7:43.
(5.) The son of Jozadak, and high priest of the Jews under Zerubbabel
(Neh. 7:7; 12:1, 7, 10, 26); called Joshua (Hag. 1:1, 12; 2:2, 4; Zech.
3:1, 3, 6, 8, 9).
(6.) A Levite (Ezra 8:33).
(7.) Neh. 3:19.
(8.) A Levite who assisted in the reformation under Nehemiah (8:7; 9:4,
(9.) Son of Kadmiel (Neh. 12:24).
(10.) A city of Judah (Neh. 11:26).
(11.) Neh. 8:17; Joshua, the son of Nun.
Jeshurun - a poetical name for the people
of Israel, used in token of affection, meaning, "the dear upright people"
(Deut. 32:15; 33:5, 26; Isa. 44:2).
Jesse - firm, or a gift, a son of Obed,
the son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 4:17, 22; Matt. 1:5, 6; Luke 3:32). He was
the father of eight sons, the youngest of whom was David (1 Sam. 17:12).
The phrase "stem of Jesse" is used for the family of David (Isa. 11:1),
and "root of Jesse" for the Messiah (Isa. 11:10; Rev. 5:5). Jesse was a
man apparently of wealth and position at Bethlehem (1 Sam. 17:17, 18, 20;
Ps. 78:71). The last reference to him is of David's procuring for him an
asylum with the king of Moab (1 Sam. 22:3).
Jesus - (1.) Joshua, the son of Nun (Acts
7:45; Heb. 4:8; R.V., "Joshua").
(2.) A Jewish Christian surnamed Justus (Col. 4:11).
Je'sus, the proper, as Christ is the official, name of our Lord. To
distinguish him from others so called, he is spoken of as "Jesus of Nazareth"
(John 18:7), and "Jesus the son of Joseph" (John 6:42).
This is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua, which was originally
Hoshea (Num. 13:8, 16), but changed by Moses into Jehoshua (Num. 13:16;
1 Chr. 7:27), or Joshua. After the Exile it assumed the form Jeshua, whence
the Greek form Jesus. It was given to our Lord to denote the object of
his mission, to save (Matt. 1:21).
The life of Jesus on earth may be divided into two great periods, (1)
that of his private life, till he was about thirty years of age; and (2)
that of his public life, which lasted about three years.
In the "fulness of time" he was born at Bethlehem, in the reign of the
emperor Augustus, of Mary, who was betrothed to Joseph, a carpenter (Matt.
1:1; Luke 3:23; comp. John 7:42). His birth was announced to the shepherds
(Luke 2:8-20). Wise men from the east came to Bethlehem to see him who
was born "King of the Jews," bringing gifts with them (Matt. 2:1-12).
Herod's cruel jealousy led to Joseph's flight into Egypt with Mary and
the infant Jesus, where they tarried till the death of this king (Matt.
2:13-23), when they returned and settled in Nazareth, in Lower Galilee
(2:23; comp. Luke 4:16; John 1:46, etc.). At the age of twelve years he
went up to Jerusalem to the Passover with his parents. There, in the temple,
"in the midst of the doctors," all that heard him were "astonished at
his understanding and answers" (Luke 2:41, etc.).
Eighteen years pass, of which we have no record beyond this, that he
returned to Nazareth and "increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour
with God and man" (Luke 2:52).
He entered on his public ministry when he was about thirty years of
age. It is generally reckoned to have extended to about three years. "Each
of these years had peculiar features of its own. (1.) The first year may
be called the year of obscurity, both because the records of it which
we possess are very scanty, and because he seems during it to have been
only slowly emerging into public notice. It was spent for the most part
in Judea. (2.) The second year was the year of public favour, during which
the country had become thoroughly aware of him; his activity was incessant,
and his frame rang through the length and breadth of the land. It was
almost wholly passed in Galilee. (3.) The third was the year of opposition,
when the public favour ebbed away. His enemies multiplied and assailed
him with more and more pertinacity, and at last he fell a victim to their
hatred. The first six months of this final year were passed in Galilee,
and the last six in other parts of the land.", Stalker's Life of Jesus
Christ, p. 45.
The only reliable sources of information regarding the life of Christ
on earth are the Gospels, which present in historical detail the words
and the work of Christ in so many different aspects. (See CHIRST.)
Jether - surplus; excellence. (1.) Father-in-law
of Moses (Ex. 4:18 marg.), called elsewhere Jethro (q.v.).
(2.) The oldest of Gideon's seventy sons (Judg. 8:20).
(3.) The father of Amasa, David's general (1 Kings 2:5, 32); called
Ithra (2 Sam. 17:25).
(4.) 1 Chr. 7:38.
(5.) 1 Chr. 2:32; one of Judah's posterity.
(6.) 1 Chr. 4:17.
Jetheth - a peg, or a prince, one of the
Edomitish kings of Mount Seir (Gen. 36:40).
Jethlah - suspended; high, a city on the
borders of Dan (Josh. 19:42).
Jethro - his excellence, or gain, a
prince or priest of Midian, who succeeded his father Reuel. Moses spent
forty years after his exile from the Egyptian court as keeper of Jethro's
flocks. While the Israelites were encamped at Sinai, and soon after their
victory over Amalek, Jethro came to meet Moses, bringing with him Zipporah
and her two sons. They met at the "mount of God," and "Moses told him
all that the Lord had done unto Pharaoh" (Ex. 18:8). On the following
day Jethro, observing the multiplicity of the duties devolving on Moses,
advised him to appoint subordinate judges, rulers of thousands, of hundreds,
of fifties, and of tens, to decide smaller matters, leaving only the weightier
matters to be referred to Moses, to be laid before the Lord. This advice
Moses adopted (Ex. 18). He was also called Hobab (q.v.), which was probably
his personal name, while Jethro was an official name. (See MOSES.)
Jetur - an enclosure, one of the twelve
sons of Ishmael (Gen. 25:15).
Jeuel - snatched away by God, a descendant
of Zerah (1 Chr. 9:6).
Jeush - assembler. (1.) The oldest of Esau's
three sons by Aholibamah (Gen. 36:5, 14, 18).
(2.) A son of Bilhan, grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr. 7:10).
(3.) A Levite, one of the sons of Shimei (1 Chr. 23:10, 11).
(4.) One of the three sons of Rehoboam (2 Chr. 11:19).
(5.) 1 Chr. 8:39.
Jew - the name derived from the patriarch
Judah, at first given to one belonging to the tribe of Judah or to the separate
kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 16:6; 25:25; Jer. 32:12; 38:19; 40:11; 41:3),
in contradistinction from those belonging to the kingdom of the ten tribes,
who were called Israelites.
During the Captivity, and after the Restoration, the name, however,
was extended to all the Hebrew nation without distinction (Esther 3:6,
10; Dan. 3:8, 12; Ezra 4:12; 5:1, 5).
Originally this people were called Hebrews (Gen. 39:14; 40:15; Ex. 2:7;
3:18; 5:3; 1 Sam. 4:6, 9, etc.), but after the Exile this name fell into
disuse. But Paul was styled a Hebrew (2 Cor. 11:22; Phil. 3:5).
The history of the Jewish nation is interwoven with the history of Palestine
and with the narratives of the lives of their rulers and chief men. They
are now  dispersed over all lands, and to this day remain a separate
people, "without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice,
and without an image [R.V. 'pillar,' marg. 'obelisk'], and without an
ephod, and without teraphim" (Hos. 3:4). Till about the beginning of the
present century  they were everywhere greatly oppressed, and often
cruelly persecuted; but now their condition is greatly improved, and they
are admitted in most European countries to all the rights of free citizens.
In 1860 the "Jewish disabilities" were removed, and they were admitted
to a seat in the British Parliament. Their number in all is estimated
at about six millions, about four millions being in Europe.
There are three names used in the New Testament to designate this people,
(1.) Jews, as regards their nationality, to distinguish them from Gentiles.
(2.) Hebrews, with regard to their language and education, to distinguish
them from Hellenists, i.e., Jews who spoke the Greek language. (3.) Israelites,
as respects their sacred privileges as the chosen people of God. "To other
races we owe the splendid inheritance of modern civilization and secular
culture; but the religious education of mankind has been the gift of the
Jewess - a woman of Hebrew birth, as Eunice,
the mother of Timothy (Acts 16:1; 2 Tim. 1:5), and Drusilla (Acts 24:24),
wife of Felix, and daughter of Herod Agrippa I.
Jezebel - chaste, the daughter of Ethbaal,
the king of the Zidonians, and the wife of Ahab, the king of Israel (1 Kings
16:31). This was the "first time that a king of Israel had allied himself
by marriage with a heathen princess; and the alliance was in this case of
a peculiarly disastrous kind. Jezebel has stamped her name on history as
the representative of all that is designing, crafty, malicious, revengeful,
and cruel. She is the first great instigator of persecution against the
saints of God. Guided by no principle, restrained by no fear of either God
or man, passionate in her attachment to her heathen worship, she spared
no pains to maintain idolatry around her in all its splendour. Four hundred
and fifty prophets ministered under her care to Baal, besides four hundred
prophets of the groves [R.V., 'prophets of the Asherah'], which ate at her
table (1 Kings 18:19). The idolatry, too, was of the most debased and sensual
kind." Her conduct was in many respects very disastrous to the kingdom both
of Israel and Judah (21:1-29). At length she came to an untimely end. As
Jehu rode into the gates of Jezreel, she looked out at the window of the
palace, and said, "Had Zimri peace, who slew his master?" He looked up and
called to her chamberlains, who instantly threw her from the window, so
that she was dashed in pieces on the street, and his horses trod her under
their feet. She was immediately consumed by the dogs of the street (2 Kings
9:7-37), according to the word of Elijah the Tishbite (1 Kings 21:19).
Her name afterwards came to be used as the synonym for a wicked woman
(Rev. 2: 20).
It may be noted that she is said to have been the grand-aunt of Dido,
the founder of Carthage.
Jeziel - assembled by God, a son of Azmaveth.
He was one of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
Jezreel - God scatters. (1.) A town of Issachar
(Josh. 19:18), where the kings of Israel often resided (1 Kings 18:45; 21:1;
2 Kings 9:30). Here Elijah met Ahab, Jehu, and Bidkar; and here Jehu executed
his dreadful commission against the house of Ahab (2 Kings 9:14-37; 10:1-11).
It has been identified with the modern Zerin, on the most western point
of the range of Gilboa, reaching down into the great and fertile valley
of Jezreel, to which it gave its name.
(2.) A town in Judah (Josh. 15:56), to the south-east of Hebron. Ahinoam,
one of David's wives, probably belonged to this place (1 Sam. 27:3).
(3.) A symbolical name given by Hosea to his oldest son (Hos. 1:4),
in token of a great slaughter predicted by him, like that which had formerly
taken place in the plain of Esdraelon (comp. Hos. 1:4, 5).
Jezreel, Blood of - the murder perpetrated
here by Ahab and Jehu (Hos. 1:4; comp. 1 Kings 18:4; 2 Kings 9:6-10).
Jezreel, Day of - the time predicted for
the execution of vengeance for the deeds of blood committed there (Hos.
Jezreel, Ditch of - (1 Kings 21:23; comp.
13), the fortification surrounding the city, outside of which Naboth was
Jezreel, Fountain of - where Saul encamped
before the battle of Gilboa (1 Sam. 29:1). In the valley under Zerin there
are two considerable springs, one of which, perhaps that here referred to,
"flows from under a sort of cavern in the wall of conglomerate rock which
here forms the base of Gilboa. The water is excellent; and issuing from
crevices in the rocks, it spreads out at once into a fine limpid pool forty
or fifty feet in diameter, full of fish" (Robinson). This may be identical
with the "well of Harod" (Judg. 7:1; comp. 2 Sam. 23:25), probably the 'Ain
Jalud, i.e., the "spring of Goliath."
Jezreel, Portion of - the field adjoining
the city (2 Kings 9:10, 21, 36, 37). Here Naboth was stoned to death (1
Jezreel, Tower of - one of the turrets which
guarded the entrance to the city (2 Kings 9:17).
Jezreel, Valley of - lying on the northern
side of the city, between the ridges of Gilboa and Moreh, an offshoot of
Esdraelon, running east to the Jordan (Josh. 17:16; Judg. 6:33; Hos. 1:5).
It was the scene of the signal victory gained by the Israelites under Gideon
over the Midianites, the Amalekites, and the "children of the east" (Judg.
6:3). Two centuries after this the Israelites were here defeated by the
Philistines, and Saul and Jonathan, with the flower of the army of Israel,
fell (1 Sam. 31:1-6).
This name was in after ages extended to the whole of the plain of Esdraelon
(q.v.). It was only this plain of Jezreel and that north of Lake Huleh
that were then accessible to the chariots of the Canaanites (comp. 2 Kings
Joab - Jehovah is his father. (1.) One of
the three sons of Zeruiah, David's sister, and "captain of the host" during
the whole of David's reign (2 Sam. 2:13; 10:7; 11:1; 1 Kings 11:15). His
father's name is nowhere mentioned, although his sepulchre at Bethlehem
is mentioned (2 Sam. 2:32). His two brothers were Abishai and Asahel, the
swift of foot, who was killed by Abner (2 Sam. 2:13-32), whom Joab afterwards
treacherously murdered (3:22-27). He afterwards led the assault at the storming
of the fortress on Mount Zion, and for this service was raised to the rank
of "prince of the king's army" (2 Sam. 5:6-10; 1 Chr. 27:34). His chief
military achievements were, (1) against the allied forces of Syria and Ammon;
(2) against Edom (1 Kings 11:15, 16); and (3) against the Ammonites (2 Sam.
10:7-19; 11:1, 11). His character is deeply stained by the part he willingly
took in the murder of Uriah (11:14-25). He acted apparently from a sense
of duty in putting Absalom to death (18:1-14). David was unmindful of the
many services Joab had rendered to him, and afterwards gave the command
of the army to Amasa, Joab's cousin (2 Sam. 20:1-13; 19:13). When David
was dying Joab espoused the cause of Adonijah in preference to that of Solomon.
He was afterwards slain by Benaiah, by the command of Solomon, in accordance
with his father's injunction (2 Sam. 3:29; 20:5-13), at the altar to which
he had fled for refuge. Thus this hoary conspirator died without one to
lift up a voice in his favour. He was buried in his own property in the
"wilderness," probably in the north-east of Jerusalem (1 Kings 2:5, 28-34).
Benaiah succeeded him as commander-in-chief of the army.
(2.) 1 Chr. 4:14.
(3.) Ezra 2:6.
Joah - Jehovah his brother; i.e., helper.
(1.) One of the sons of Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4), a Korhite porter.
(2.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1 Chr. 6:21), probably the same
as Ethan (42).
(3.) The son of Asaph, and "recorder" (q.v.) or chronicler to King Hezekiah
(2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37).
(4.) Son of Joahaz, and "recorder" (q.v.) or keeper of the state archives
under King Josiah (2 Chr. 34:8).
Joahaz - (2 Chr. 34:8), a contracted form
of Jehoahaz (q.v.).
Joanna - whom Jehovah has graciously given.
(1.) The grandson of Zerubbabel, in the lineage of Christ (Luke 3:27); the
same as Hananiah (1 Chr. 3:19).
(2.) The wife of Chuza, the steward of Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee
(Luke 8:3). She was one of the women who ministered to our Lord, and to
whom he appeared after his resurrection (Luke 8:3; 24:10).
Joash - whom Jehovah bestowed. (1.) A contracted
form of Jehoash, the father of Gideon (Judg. 6:11, 29; 8:13, 29, 32).
(2.) One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr.
(3.) One of King Ahab's sons (1 Kings 22:26).
(4.) King of Judah (2 Kings 11:2; 12:19, 20). (See JEHOASH.)
(5.) King of Israel (2 Kings 13:9, 12, 13, 25). (See JEHOASH)
(6.) 1 Chr. 7:8.
(7.) One who had charge of the royal stores of oil under David and Solomon
(1 Chr. 27:28).
Job - persecuted, an Arabian patriarch who
resided in the land of Uz (q.v.). While living in the midst of great prosperity,
he was suddenly overwhelmed by a series of sore trials that fell upon him.
Amid all his sufferings he maintained his integrity. Once more God visited
him with the rich tokens of his goodness and even greater prosperity than
he had enjoyed before. He survived the period of trial for one hundred and
forty years, and died in a good old age, an example to succeeding generations
of integrity (Ezek. 14:14, 20) and of submissive patience under the sorest
calamities (James 5:11). His history, so far as it is known, is recorded
in his book.
Jobab - dweller in the desert. (1.) One
of the sons of Joktan, and founder of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 10:29). (2.)
King of Edom, succeeded Bela (Gen. 36:33, 34). (3.) A Canaanitish king (Josh.
11:1) who joined the confederacy against Joshua.
Job, Book of - A great diversity of opinion
exists as to the authorship of this book. From internal evidence, such as
the similarity of sentiment and language to those in the Psalms and Proverbs
(see Ps. 88 and 89), the prevalence of the idea of "wisdom," and the style
and character of the composition, it is supposed by some to have been written
in the time of David and Solomon. Others argue that it was written by Job
himself, or by Elihu, or Isaiah, or perhaps more probably by Moses, who
was "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and mighty in words and
deeds" (Acts 7:22). He had opportunities in Midian for obtaining the knowledge
of the facts related. But the authorship is altogether uncertain.
As to the character of the book, it is a historical poem, one of the
greatest and sublimest poems in all literature. Job was a historical person,
and the localities and names were real and not fictious. It is "one of
the grandest portions of the inspired Scriptures, a heavenly-repleished
storehouse of comfort and instruction, the patriarchal Bible, and a precious
monument of primitive theology. It is to the Old Testament what the Epistle
to the Romans is to the New." It is a didactic narrative in a dramatic
This book was apparently well known in the days of Ezekiel, B.C. 600
(Ezek. 14:14). It formed a part of the sacred Scriptures used by our Lord
and his apostles, and is referred to as a part of the inspired Word (Heb.
12:5; 1 Cor. 3:19).
The subject of the book is the trial of Job, its occasion, nature, endurance,
and issue. It exhibits the harmony of the truths of revelation and the
dealings of Providence, which are seen to be at once inscrutable, just,
and merciful. It shows the blessedness of the truly pious, even amid sore
afflictions, and thus ministers comfort and hope to tried believers of
every age. It is a book of manifold instruction, and is profitable for
doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and for instruction in righteousness
(2 Tim. 3:16).
It consists of,
(1.) An historical introduction in prose (ch. 1,2).
(2.) The controversy and its solution, in poetry (ch. 3-42:6).
Job's desponding lamentation (ch. 3) is the occasion of the controversy
which is carried on in three courses of dialogues between Job and his
three friends. The first course gives the commencement of the controversy
(ch. 4-14); the second the growth of the controversy (15-21); and the
third the height of the controversy (22-27). This is followed by the solution
of the controversy in the speeches of Elihu and the address of Jehovah,
followed by Job's humble confession (42:1-6) of his own fault and folly.
(3.) The third division is the historical conclusion, in prose (42:7-15).
Sir J. W. Dawson in "The Expositor" says: "It would now seem that the
language and theology of the book of Job can be better explained by supposing
it to be a portion of Minean [Southern Arabia] literature obtained by
Moses in Midian than in any other way. This view also agrees better than
any other with its references to natural objects, the art of mining, and
Jochebed - Jehovah is her glory, the wife
of Amram, and the mother of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses (Num. 26:59). She is
spoken of as the sister of Kohath, Amram's father (Ex. 6:20; comp. 16, 18;
Joel - Jehovah is his God. (1.) The
oldest of Samuel's two sons appointed by him as judges in Beersheba (1
Sam. 8:2). (2.) A descendant of Reuben (1 Chr. 5:4,8). (3.) One of David's
famous warriors (1 Chr. 11:38). (4.) A Levite of the family of Gershom
(1 Chr. 15:7, 11). (5.) 1 Chr. 7:3. (6.) 1 Chr. 27:20. (7.) The second
of the twelve minor prophets. He was the son of Pethuel. His personal
history is only known from his book.
Joelah - a Benjamite who joined David at
Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:7).
Joel, Book of - Joel was probably a resident
in Judah, as his commission was to that people. He makes frequent mention
of Judah and Jerusalem (1:14; 2:1, 15, 32; 3:1, 12, 17, 20, 21).
He probably flourished in the reign of Uzziah (about B.C. 800), and
was contemporary with Amos and Isaiah.
The contents of this book are, (1.) A prophecy of a great public calamity
then impending over the land, consisting of a want of water and an extraordinary
plague of locusts (1:1-2:11). (2.) The prophet then calls on his countrymen
to repent and to turn to God, assuring them of his readiness to forgive
(2:12-17), and foretelling the restoration of the land to its accustomed
fruitfulness (18-26). (3.) Then follows a Messianic prophecy, quoted by
Peter (Acts 2:39). (4.) Finally, the prophet foretells portents and judgments
as destined to fall on the enemies of God (ch. 3, but in the Hebrew text
Joezer - Jehovah is his help, one of the
Korhites who became part of David's body-guard (1 Chr. 12:6).
Johanan - whom Jehovah graciously bestows.
(1.) One of the Gadite heroes who joined David in the desert of Judah (1
(2.) The oldest of King Josiah's sons (1 Chr. 3:15).
(3.) Son of Careah, one of the Jewish chiefs who rallied round Gedaliah,
whom Nebuchadnezzar had made governor in Jerusalem (2 Kings 25:23; Jer.
40:8). He warned Gedaliah of the plans of Ishmael against him, a warning
which was unheeded (Jer. 40:13, 16). He afterwards pursued the murderer
of the governor, and rescued the captives (41:8, 13, 15, 16). He and his
associates subsequently fled to Tahpanhes in Egypt (43:2, 4, 5), taking
Jeremiah with them. "The flight of Gedaliah's community to Egypt extinguished
the last remaining spark of life in the Jewish state. The work of the
ten centuries since Joshua crossed the Jordan had been undone."
John - (1.) One who, with Annas and Caiaphas,
sat in judgment on the apostles Peter and John (Acts 4:6). He was of the
kindred of the high priest; otherwise unknown.
(2.) The Hebrew name of Mark (q.v.). He is designated by this name in
the acts of the Apostles (12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37).
(3.) THE APOSTLE, brother of James the "Greater" (Matt. 4:21; 10:2;
Mark 1:19; 3:17; 10:35). He was one, probably the younger, of the sons
of Zebedee (Matt. 4:21) and Salome (Matt. 27:56; comp. Mark 15:40), and
was born at Bethsaida. His father was apparently a man of some wealth
(comp. Mark 1:20; Luke 5:3; John 19:27). He was doubtless trained in all
that constituted the ordinary education of Jewish youth. When he grew
up he followed the occupation of a fisherman on the Lake of Galilee. When
John the Baptist began his ministry in the wilderness of Judea, John,
with many others, gathered round him, and was deeply influenced by his
teaching. There he heard the announcement, "Behold the Lamb of God," and
forthwith, on the invitation of Jesus, became a disciple and ranked among
his followers (John 1:36, 37) for a time. He and his brother then returned
to their former avocation, for how long is uncertain. Jesus again called
them (Matt. 4: 21; Luke 5:1-11), and now they left all and permanently
attached themselves to the company of his disciples. He became one of
the innermost circle (Mark 5:37; Matt. 17:1; 26:37; Mark 13:3). He was
the disciple whom Jesus loved. In zeal and intensity of character he was
a "Boanerges" (Mark 3:17). This spirit once and again broke out (Matt.
20:20-24; Mark 10:35-41; Luke 9:49, 54). At the betrayal he and Peter
follow Christ afar off, while the others betake themselves to hasty flight
(John 18:15). At the trial he follows Christ into the council chamber,
and thence to the praetorium (18:16, 19, 28) and to the place of crucifixion
(19:26, 27). To him and Peter, Mary first conveys tidings of the resurrection
(20:2), and they are the first to go and see what her strange words mean.
After the resurrection he and Peter again return to the Sea of Galilee,
where the Lord reveals himself to them (21:1, 7). We find Peter and John
frequently after this together (Acts 3:1; 4:13). John remained apparently
in Jerusalem as the leader of the church there (Acts 15:6; Gal. 2:9).
His subsequent history is unrecorded. He was not there, however, at the
time of Paul's last visit (Acts 21:15-40). He appears to have retired
to Ephesus, but at what time is unknown. The seven churches of Asia were
the objects of his special care (Rev. 1:11). He suffered under persecution,
and was banished to Patmos (1:9); whence he again returned to Ephesus,
where he died, probably about A.D. 98, having outlived all or nearly all
the friends and companions even of his maturer years. There are many interesting
traditions regarding John during his residence at Ephesus, but these cannot
claim the character of historical truth.
John, First Epistle of - the fourth of the
catholic or "general" epistles. It was evidently written by John the evangelist,
and probably also at Ephesus, and when the writer was in advanced age. The
purpose of the apostle (1:1-4) is to declare the Word of Life to those to
whom he writes, in order that they might be united in fellowship with the
Father and his Son Jesus Christ. He shows that the means of union with God
are, (1) on the part of Christ, his atoning work (1:7; 2:2; 3:5; 4:10, 14;
5:11, 12) and his advocacy (2:1); and (2), on the part of man, holiness
(1:6), obedience (2:3), purity (3:3), faith (3:23; 4:3; 5:5), and love (2:7,
8; 3:14; 4:7; 5:1).
John, Gospel of - The genuineness of this
Gospel, i.e., the fact that the apostle John was its author, is beyond all
reasonable doubt. In recent times, from about 1820, many attempts have been
made to impugn its genuineness, but without success.
The design of John in writing this Gospel is stated by himself (John
20:31). It was at one time supposed that he wrote for the purpose of supplying
the omissions of the synoptical, i.e., of the first three, Gospels, but
there is no evidence for this. "There is here no history of Jesus and
his teaching after the manner of the other evangelists. But there is in
historical form a representation of the Christian faith in relation to
the person of Christ as its central point; and in this representation
there is a picture on the one hand of the antagonism of the world to the
truth revealed in him, and on the other of the spiritual blessedness of
the few who yield themselves to him as the Light of life" (Reuss).
After the prologue (1:1-5), the historical part of the book begins with
verse 6, and consists of two parts. The first part (1:6-ch. 12) contains
the history of our Lord's public ministry from the time of his introduction
to it by John the Baptist to its close. The second part (ch. 13-21) presents
our Lord in the retirement of private life and in his intercourse with
his immediate followers (13-17), and gives an account of his sufferings
and of his appearances to the disciples after his resurrection (18-21).
The peculiarities of this Gospel are the place it gives (1) to the mystical
relation of the Son to the Father, and (2) of the Redeemer to believers;
(3) the announcement of the Holy Ghost as the Comforter; (4) the prominence
given to love as an element in the Christian character. It was obviously
addressed primarily to Christians.
It was probably written at Ephesus, which, after the destruction of
Jerusalem (A.D. 70), became the centre of Christian life and activity
in the East, about A.D. 90.
John, Second Epistle of - is addressed to
"the elect lady," and closes with the words, "The children of thy elect
sister greet thee;" but some would read instead of "lady" the proper name
Kyria. Of the thirteen verses composing this epistle seven are in the First
Epistle. The person addressed is commended for her piety, and is warned
against false teachers.
John the Baptist - the "forerunner of our
Lord." We have but fragmentary and imperfect accounts of him in the Gospels.
He was of priestly descent. His father, Zacharias, was a priest of the course
of Abia (1 Chr. 24:10), and his mother, Elisabeth, was of the daughters
of Aaron (Luke 1:5). The mission of John was the subject of prophecy (Matt.
3:3; Isa. 40:3; Mal. 3:1). His birth, which took place six months before
that of Jesus, was foretold by an angel. Zacharias, deprived of the power
of speech as a token of God's truth and a reproof of his own incredulity
with reference to the birth of his son, had the power of speech restored
to him on the occasion of his circumcision (Luke 1:64). After this no more
is recorded of him for thirty years than what is mentioned in Luke 1:80.
John was a Nazarite from his birth (Luke 1:15; Num. 6:1-12). He spent his
early years in the mountainous tract of Judah lying between Jerusalem and
the Dead Sea (Matt. 3:1-12).
At length he came forth into public life, and great multitudes from
"every quarter" were attracted to him. The sum of his preaching was the
necessity of repentance. He denounced the Sadducees and Pharisees as a
"generation of vipers," and warned them of the folly of trusting to external
privileges (Luke 3:8). "As a preacher, John was eminently practical and
discriminating. Self-love and covetousness were the prevalent sins of
the people at large. On them, therefore, he enjoined charity and consideration
for others. The publicans he cautioned against extortion, the soldiers
against crime and plunder." His doctrine and manner of life roused the
entire south of Palestine, and the people from all parts flocked to the
place where he was, on the banks of the Jordan. There he baptized thousands
The fame of John reached the ears of Jesus in Nazareth (Matt. 3:5),
and he came from Galilee to Jordan to be baptized of John, on the special
ground that it became him to "fulfil all righteousness" (3:15). John's
special office ceased with the baptism of Jesus, who must now "increase"
as the King come to his kingdom. He continued, however, for a while to
bear testimony to the Messiahship of Jesus. He pointed him out to his
disciples, saying, "Behold the Lamb of God." His public ministry was suddenly
(after about six months probably) brought to a close by his being cast
into prison by Herod, whom he had reproved for the sin of having taken
to himself the wife of his brother Philip (Luke 3:19). He was shut up
in the castle of Machaerus (q.v.), a fortress on the southern extremity
of Peraea, 9 miles east of the Dead Sea, and here he was beheaded. His
disciples, having consigned the headless body to the grave, went and told
Jesus all that had occurred (Matt. 14:3-12). John's death occurred apparently
just before the third Passover of our Lord's ministry. Our Lord himself
testified regarding him that he was a "burning and a shining light" (John
John, Third Epistle of - is addressed to
Caius, or Gaius, but whether to the Christian of that name in Macedonia
(Acts 19: 29) or in Corinth (Rom. 16:23) or in Derbe (Acts 20:4) is uncertain.
It was written for the purpose of commending to Gaius some Christians who
were strangers in the place where he lived, and who had gone thither for
the purpose of preaching the gospel (ver. 7).
The Second and Third Epistles were probably written soon after the First,
and from Ephesus.
Joiada - (whom Jehovah favours) = Jehoiada.
(1.) Neh. 3:6. (2.) One of the high priests (12:10, 11, 22).
Joiakim - (whom Jehovah has set up) = Jehoiakim,
a high priest, the son and successor of Jeshua (Neh. 12:10, 12, 26).
Joiarib - (whom Jehovah defends) = Jehoiarib.
(1.) The founder of one of the courses of the priests (Neh. 11:10).
(2.) Neh. 11:5; a descendant of Judah.
(3.) Neh. 12:6.
(4.) Ezra 8:16, a "man of understanding" whom Ezra sent to "bring ministers
for the house of God."
Jokdeam - a city in the mountains of Judah
Jokim - whom Jehovah has set up, one of
the descendants of Shelah (1 Chr. 4:22).
Jokmeam - gathering of the people, a city
of Ephraim, which was given with its suburbs to the Levites (1 Chr. 6:68).
It lay somewhere in the Jordan valley (1 Kings 4:12, R.V.; but in A.V. incorrectly