Jokneam - gathered by the people, (Josh. 19:11; 21:34), a city "of
Carmel" (12:22), i.e., on Carmel, allotted with its suburbs to the Merarite
Levites. It is the modern Tell Kaimon, about 12 miles south-west of Nazareth,
on the south of the river Kishon.
Jokshan - snarer, the second son of Abraham
and Keturah (Gen. 25:2, 3; 1 Chr. 1:32).
Joktan - little, the second of the two sons
of Eber (Gen. 10:25; 1 Chr. 1:19). There is an Arab tradition that Joktan
(Arab. Kahtan) was the progenitor of all the purest tribes of Central and
Joktheel - subdued by God. (1.) A city of
Judah near Lachish (Josh. 15, 38). Perhaps the ruin Kutlaneh, south of Gezer.
(2.) Amaziah, king of Judah, undertook a great expedition against Edom
(2 Chr. 25:5-10), which was completely successful. He routed the Edomites
and slew vast numbers of them. So wonderful did this victory appear to
him that he acknowledged that it could have been achieved only by the
special help of God, and therefore he called Selah (q.v.), their great
fortress city, by the name of Joktheel (2 Kings 14:7).
Jonadab - =Jehon'adab. (1.) The son of Rechab,
and founder of the Rechabites (q.v.), 2 Kings 10:15; Jer. 35:6, 10.
(2.) The son of Shimeah, David's brother (2 Sam. 13:3). He was "a very
Jonah - a dove, the son of Amittai of Gath-hepher.
He was a prophet of Israel, and predicted the restoration of the ancient
boundaries (2 Kings 14:25-27) of the kingdom. He exercised his ministry
very early in the reign of Jeroboam II., and thus was contemporary with
Hosea and Amos; or possibly he preceded them, and consequently may have
been the very oldest of all the prophets whose writings we possess. His
personal history is mainly to be gathered from the book which bears his
name. It is chiefly interesting from the two-fold character in which he
appears, (1) as a missionary to heathen Nineveh, and (2) as a type of the
"Son of man."
Jonah, Book of - This book professes to
give an account of what actually took place in the experience of the prophet.
Some critics have sought to interpret the book as a parable or allegory,
and not as a history. They have done so for various reasons. Thus (1) some
reject it on the ground that the miraculous element enters so largely into
it, and that it is not prophetical but narrative in its form; (2) others,
denying the possibility of miracles altogether, hold that therefore it cannot
be true history.
Jonah and his story is referred to by our Lord (Matt. 12:39, 40; Luke
11:29), a fact to which the greatest weight must be attached. It is impossible
to interpret this reference on any other theory. This one argument is
of sufficient importance to settle the whole question. No theories devised
for the purpose of getting rid of difficulties can stand against such
a proof that the book is a veritable history.
There is every reason to believe that this book was written by Jonah
himself. It gives an account of (1) his divine commission to go to Nineveh,
his disobedience, and the punishment following (1:1-17); (2) his prayer
and miraculous deliverance (1:17-2:10); (3) the second commission given
to him, and his prompt obedience in delivering the message from God, and
its results in the repentance of the Ninevites, and God's long-sparing
mercy toward them (ch. 3); (4) Jonah's displeasure at God's merciful decision,
and the rebuke tendered to the impatient prophet (ch. 4). Nineveh was
spared after Jonah's mission for more than a century. The history of Jonah
may well be regarded "as a part of that great onward movement which was
before the Law and under the Law; which gained strength and volume as
the fulness of the times drew near.", Perowne's Jonah.
Jonas - (1.) Greek form of Jonah (Matt.
12:39, 40, 41, etc.).
(2.) The father of the apostles Peter (John 21:15-17) and Andrew; but
the reading should be (also in 1:42), as in the Revised Version, "John,"
instead of Jonas.
Jonathan - whom Jehovah gave, the name of
fifteen or more persons that are mentioned in Scripture. The chief of these
are, (1.) A Levite descended from Gershom (Judg. 18:30). His history is
recorded in 17:7-13 and 18:30. The Rabbins changed this name into Manasseh
"to screen the memory of the great lawgiver from the stain of having so
unworthy an apostate among his near descendants." He became priest of the
idol image at Dan, and this office continued in his family till the Captivity.
(2.) The eldest son of king Saul, and the bosom friend of David. He
is first mentioned when he was about thirty years of age, some time after
his father's accession to the throne (1 Sam. 13:2). Like his father, he
was a man of great strength and activity (2 Sam. 1:23), and excelled in
archery and slinging (1 Chr. 12:2;2 Sam. 1:22). The affection that evidently
subsisted between him and his father was interrupted by the growth of
Saul's insanity. At length, "in fierce anger," he left his father's presence
and cast in his lot with the cause of David (1 Sam. 20:34). After an eventful
career, interwoven to a great extent with that of David, he fell, along
with his father and his two brothers, on the fatal field of Gilboa (1
Sam. 31:2, 8). He was first buried at Jabesh-gilead, but his remains were
afterwards removed with those of his father to Zelah, in Benjamin (2 Sam.
21:12-14). His death was the occasion of David's famous elegy of "the
Song of the Bow" (2 Sam. 1:17-27). He left one son five years old, Merib-baal,
or Mephibosheth (2 Sam. 4:4; comp. 1 Chr. 8:34).
(3.) Son of the high priest Abiathar, and one who adhered to David at
the time of Absalom's rebellion (2 Sam. 15:27, 36). He is the last descendant
of Eli of whom there is any record.
(4.) Son of Shammah, and David's nephew, and also one of his chief warriors
(2 Sam. 21:21). He slew a giant in Gath.
Jonath-elem-rechokim - dove of the dumbness
of the distance; i.e., "the silent dove in distant places", title of Ps.
56. This was probably the name of some well known tune or melody to which
the psalm was to be sung.
Joppa - beauty, a town in the portion of
Dan (Josh. 19:46; A.V., "Japho"), on a sandy promontory between Caesarea
and Gaza, and at a distance of 30 miles north-west from Jerusalem. It is
one of the oldest towns in Asia. It was and still is the chief sea-port
of Judea. It was never wrested from the Phoenicians. It became a Jewish
town only in the second century B.C. It was from this port that Jonah "took
ship to flee from the presence of the Lord" (Jonah 1:3). To this place also
the wood cut in Lebanon by Hiram's men for Solomon was brought in floats
(2 Chr. 2:16); and here the material for the building of the second temple
was also landed (Ezra 3:7). At Joppa, in the house of Simon the tanner,
"by the sea-side," Peter resided "many days," and here, "on the house-top,"
he had his "vision of tolerance" (Acts 9:36-43). It bears the modern name
of Jaffa, and exibituds all the decrepitude and squalor of cities ruled
over by the Turks. "Scarcely any other town has been so often overthrown,
sacked, pillaged, burned, and rebuilt." Its present population is said to
be about 16,000. It was taken by the French under Napoleon in 1799, who
gave orders for the massacre here of 4,000 prisoners. It is connected with
Jerusalem by the only carriage road that exists in the country, and also
by a railway completed in 1892. It is noticed on monuments B.C. 1600-1300,
and was attacked by Sannacharib B.C. 702.
Joram - =Jeho'ram. (1.) One of the kings
of Israel (2 Kings 8:16, 25, 28). He was the son of Ahab.
(2.) Jehoram, the son and successor of Jehoshaphat on the throne of
Judah (2 Kings 8:24).
Jordan - Heb. Yarden, "the descender;" Arab.
Nahr-esh-Sheriah, "the watering-place" the chief river of Palestine. It
flows from north to south down a deep valley in the centre of the country.
The name descender is significant of the fact that there is along its whole
course a descent to its banks; or it may simply denote the rapidity with
which it "descends" to the Dead Sea.
It originates in the snows of Hermon, which feed its perennial fountains.
Two sources are generally spoken of. (1.) From the western base of a hill
on which once stood the city of Dan, the northern border-city of Palestine,
there gushes forth a considerable fountain called the Leddan, which is
the largest fountain in Syria and the principal source of the Jordan.
(2.) Beside the ruins of Banias, the ancient Caesarea Philippi and the
yet more ancient Panium, is a lofty cliff of limestone, at the base of
which is a fountain. This is the other source of the Jordan, and has always
been regarded by the Jews as its true source. It rushes down to the plain
in a foaming torrent, and joins the Leddan about 5 miles south of Dan
(Tell-el-Kady). (3.) But besides these two historical fountains there
is a third, called the Hasbany, which rises in the bottom of a valley
at the western base of Hermon, 12 miles north of Tell-el-Kady. It joins
the main stream about a mile below the junction of the Leddan and the
Banias. The river thus formed is at this point about 45 feet wide, and
flows in a channel from 12 to 20 feet below the plain. After this it flows,
"with a swift current and a much-twisted course," through a marshy plain
for some 6 miles, when it falls into the Lake Huleh, "the waters of Merom"
During this part of its course the Jordan has descended about 1,100
feet. At Banias it is 1,080 feet above sea-level. Flowing from the southern
extremity of Lake Huleh, here almost on a level with the sea, it flows
for 2 miles "through a waste of islets and papyrus," and then for 9 miles
through a narrow gorge in a foaming torrent onward to the Sea of Galilee
"In the whole valley of the Jordan from the Lake Huleh to the Sea of
Galilee there is not a single settled inhabitant. Along the whole eastern
bank of the river and the lakes, from the base of Hermon to the ravine
of Hieromax, a region of great fertility, 30 miles long by 7 or 8 wide,
there are only some three inhabited villages. The western bank is almost
as desolate. Ruins are numerous enough. Every mile or two is an old site
of town or village, now well nigh hid beneath a dense jungle of thorns
and thistles. The words of Scripture here recur to us with peculiar force:
'I will make your cities waste, and bring your sanctuaries unto desolation...And
I will bring the land into desolation: and your enemies which dwell therein
shall be astonished at it...And your land shall be desolate, and your
cities waste. Then shall the land enjoy her sabbaths, as long as it lieth
desolate' (Lev. 26:31-34).", Dr. Porter's Handbook.
From the Sea of Galilee, at the level of 682 feet below the Mediterranean,
the river flows through a long, low plain called "the region of Jordan"
(Matt. 3:5), and by the modern Arabs the Ghor, or "sunken plain." This
section is properly the Jordan of Scripture. Down through the midst of
the "plain of Jordan" there winds a ravine varying in breadth from 200
yards to half a mile, and in depth from 40 to 150 feet. Through it the
Jordan flows in a rapid, rugged, tortuous course down to the Dead Sea.
The whole distance from the southern extremity of the Sea of Galilee to
the Dead Sea is in a straight line about 65 miles, but following the windings
of the river about 200 miles, during which it falls 618 feet. The total
length of the Jordan from Banias is about 104 miles in a straight line,
during which it falls 2,380 feet.
There are two considerable affluents which enter the river between the
Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, both from the east. (1.) The Wady Mandhur,
called the Yarmuk by the Rabbins and the Hieromax by the Greeks. It formed
the boundary between Bashan and Gilead. It drains the plateau of the Hauran.
(2.) The Jabbok or Wady Zerka, formerly the northern boundary of Ammon.
It enters the Jordan about 20 miles north of Jericho.
The first historical notice of the Jordan is in the account of the separation
of Abraham and Lot (Gen. 13:10). "Lot beheld the plain of Jordan as the
garden of the Lord." Jacob crossed and recrossed "this Jordan" (32:10).
The Israelites passed over it as "on dry ground" (Josh. 3:17; Ps. 114:3).
Twice afterwards its waters were miraculously divided at the same spot
by Elijah and Elisha (2 Kings 2:8, 14).
The Jordan is mentioned in the Old Testament about one hundred and eighty
times, and in the New Testament fifteen times. The chief events in gospel
history connected with it are (1) John the Baptist's ministry, when "there
went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judaea, and were baptized of him in
Jordan" (Matt. 3:6). (2.) Jesus also "was baptized of John in Jordan"
Joseph - remover or increaser. (1.) The
elder of the two sons of Jacob by Rachel (Gen. 30:23, 24), who, on the occasion
of his birth, said, "God hath taken away [Heb. 'asaph] my reproach." "The
Lord shall add [Heb. yoseph] to me another son" (Gen. 30:24). He was a child
of probably six years of age when his father returned from Haran to Canaan
and took up his residence in the old patriarchal town of Hebron. "Now Israel
loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old
age," and he "made him a long garment with sleeves" (Gen. 37:3, R.V. marg.),
i.e., a garment long and full, such as was worn by the children of nobles.
This seems to be the correct rendering of the words. The phrase, however,
may also be rendered, "a coat of many pieces", i.e., a patchwork of many
small pieces of divers colours.
When he was about seventeen years old Joseph incurred the jealous hatred
of his brothers (Gen. 37:4). They "hated him, and could not speak peaceably
unto him." Their anger was increased when he told them his dreams (37:11).
Jacob desiring to hear tidings of his sons, who had gone to Shechem
with their flocks, some 60 miles from Hebron, sent Joseph as his messenger
to make inquiry regarding them. Joseph found that they had left Shechem
for Dothan, whither he followed them. As soon as they saw him coming they
began to plot against him, and would have killed him had not Reuben interposed.
They ultimately sold him to a company of Ishmaelite merchants for twenty
pieces (shekels) of silver (about $2, 10s.), ten pieces less than the
current value of a slave, for "they cared little what they had for him,
if so be they were rid of him." These merchants were going down with a
varied assortment of merchandise to the Egyptian market, and thither they
conveyed him, and ultimately sold him as a slave to Potiphar, an "officer
of Pharaoh's, and captain of the guard" (Gen. 37:36). "The Lord blessed
the Egyptian's house for Joseph's sake," and Potiphar made him overseer
over his house. At length a false charge having been brought against him
by Potiphar's wife, he was at once cast into the state prison (39; 40),
where he remained for at least two years. After a while the "chief of
the cupbearers" and the "chief of the bakers" of Pharaoh's household were
cast into the same prison (40:2). Each of these new prisoners dreamed
a dream in the same night, which Joseph interpreted, the event occurring
as he had said.
This led to Joseph's being remembered subsequently by the chief butler
when Pharaoh also dreamed. At his suggestion Joseph was brought from prison
to interpret the king's dreams. Pharaoh was well pleased with Joseph's
wisdom in interpreting his dreams, and with his counsel with reference
to the events then predicted; and he set him over all the land of Egypt
(Gen. 41:46), and gave him the name of Zaphnath-paaneah. He was married
to Asenath, the daughter of the priest of On, and thus became a member
of the priestly class. Joseph was now about thirty years of age.
As Joseph had interpreted, seven years of plenty came, during which
he stored up great abundance of corn in granaries built for the purpose.
These years were followed by seven years of famine "over all the face
of the earth," when "all countries came into Egypt to Joseph to buy corn"
(Gen. 41:56, 57; 47:13, 14). Thus "Joseph gathered up all the money that
was in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, for the corn which
they bought." Afterwards all the cattle and all the land, and at last
the Egyptians themselves, became the property of Pharaoh.
During this period of famine Joseph's brethren also came down to Egypt
to buy corn. The history of his dealings with them, and of the manner
in which he at length made himself known to them, is one of the most interesting
narratives that can be read (Gen. 42-45). Joseph directed his brethren
to return and bring Jacob and his family to the land of Egypt, saying,
"I will give you the good of the land of Egypt, and ye shall eat the fat
of the land. Regard not your stuff; for the good of all the land is yours."
Accordingly Jacob and his family, to the number of threescore and ten
souls, together with "all that they had," went down to Egypt. They were
settled in the land of Goshen, where Joseph met his father, and "fell
on his neck, and wept on his neck a good while" (Gen. 46:29).
The excavations of Dr. Naville have shown the land of Goshen to be the
Wady Tumilat, between Ismailia and Zagazig. In Goshen (Egyptian Qosem)
they had pasture for their flocks, were near the Asiatic frontier of Egypt,
and were out of the way of the Egyptian people. An inscription speaks
of it as a district given up to the wandering shepherds of Asia.
Jacob at length died, and in fulfilment of a promise which he had exacted,
Joseph went up to Canaan to bury his father in "the field of Ephron the
Hittite" (Gen. 47:29-31; 50:1-14). This was the last recorded act of Joseph,
who again returned to Egypt.
"The 'Story of the Two Brothers,' an Egyptian romance written for the
son of the Pharaoh of the Oppression, contains an episode very similar
to the Biblical account of Joseph's treatment by Potiphar's wife. Potiphar
and Potipherah are the Egyptian Pa-tu-pa-Ra, 'the gift of the sun-god.'
The name given to Joseph, Zaphnath-paaneah, is probably the Egyptian Zaf-nti-pa-ankh,
'nourisher of the living one,' i.e., of the Pharaoh. There are many instances
in the inscriptions of foreigners in Egypt receiving Egyptian names, and
rising to the highest offices of state."
By his wife Asenath, Joseph had two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim (Gen.
41:50). Joseph having obtained a promise from his brethren that when the
time should come that God would "bring them unto the land which he sware
to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob," they would carry up his bones out
of Egypt, at length died, at the age of one hundred and ten years; and
"they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin" (Gen. 50:26). This promise
was faithfully observed. Their descendants, long after, when the Exodus
came, carried the body about with them during their forty years' wanderings,
and at length buried it in Shechem, in the parcel of ground which Jacob
bought from the sons of Hamor (Josh. 24:32; comp. Gen. 33:19). With the
death of Joseph the patriarchal age of the history of Israel came to a
The Pharaoh of Joseph's elevation was probably Apepi, or Apopis, the
last of the Hyksos kings. Some, however, think that Joseph came to Egypt
in the reign of Thothmes III. (see PHARAOH), long after the expulsion
of the Hyksos.
The name Joseph denotes the two tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh in Deut.
33:13-17; the kingdom of Israel in Ezek. 37:16, 19, Amos 5:6; and the
whole covenant people of Israel in Ps. 81:4.
(2.) One of the sons of Asaph, head of the first division of sacred
musicians (1 Chr. 25:2, 9).
(3.) The son of Judah, and father of Semei (Luke 3:26). Other two of
the same name in the ancestry of Christ are also mentioned (3:24, 30).
(4.) The foster-father of our Lord (Matt. 1:16; Luke 3:23). He lived
at Nazareth in Galilee (Luke 2:4). He is called a "just man." He was by
trade a carpenter (Matt. 13:55). He is last mentioned in connection with
the journey to Jerusalem, when Jesus was twelve years old. It is probable
that he died before Jesus entered on his public ministry. This is concluded
from the fact that Mary only was present at the marriage feast in Cana
of Galilee. His name does not appear in connection with the scenes of
the crucifixion along with that of Mary (q.v.), John 19:25.
(5.) A native of Arimathea, probably the Ramah of the Old Testament
(1 Sam. 1:19), a man of wealth, and a member of the Sanhedrim (Matt. 27:57;
Luke 23:50), an "honourable counsellor, who waited for the kingdom of
God." As soon as he heard the tidings of Christ's death, he "went in boldly"
(lit. "having summoned courage, he went") "unto Pilate, and craved the
body of Jesus." Pilate having ascertained from the centurion that the
death had really taken place, granted Joseph's request, who immediately,
having purchased fine linen (Mark 15:46), proceeded to Golgotha to take
the body down from the cross. There, assisted by Nicodemus, he took down
the body and wrapped it in the fine linen, sprinkling it with the myrrh
and aloes which Nicodemus had brought (John 19:39), and then conveyed
the body to the new tomb hewn by Joseph himself out of a rock in his garden
hard by. There they laid it, in the presence of Mary Magdalene, Mary the
mother of Joses, and other women, and rolled a great stone to the entrance,
and departed (Luke 23:53, 55). This was done in haste, "for the Sabbath
was drawing on" (comp. Isa. 53:9).
(6.) Surnamed Barsabas (Acts 1:23); also called Justus. He was one of
those who "companied with the apostles all the time that the Lord Jesus
went out and in among them" (Acts 1:21), and was one of the candidates
for the place of Judas.
Joshua - Jehovah is his help, or Jehovah
the Saviour. The son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, the successor of Moses
as the leader of Israel. He is called Jehoshua in Num. 13:16 (A.V.), and
Jesus in Acts 7:45 and Heb. 4:8 (R.V., Joshua).
He was born in Egypt, and was probably of the age of Caleb, with whom
he is generally associated. He shared in all the events of the Exodus,
and held the place of commander of the host of the Israelites at their
great battle against the Amalekites in Rephidim (Ex. 17:8-16). He became
Moses' minister or servant, and accompanied him part of the way when he
ascended Mount Sinai to receive the two tables (Ex. 32:17). He was also
one of the twelve who were sent on by Moses to explore the land of Canaan
(Num. 13:16, 17), and only he and Caleb gave an encouraging report. Under
the direction of God, Moses, before his death, invested Joshua in a public
and solemn manner with authority over the people as his successor (Deut.
31:23). The people were encamped at Shittim when he assumed the command
(Josh. 1:1); and crossing the Jordan, they encamped at Gilgal, where,
having circumcised the people, he kept the Passover, and was visited by
the Captain of the Lord's host, who spoke to him encouraging words (1:1-9).
Now began the wars of conquest which Joshua carried on for many years,
the record of which is in the book which bears his name. Six nations and
thirty-one kings were conquered by him (Josh. 11:18-23; 12:24). Having
thus subdued the Canaanites, Joshua divided the land among the tribes,
Timnath-serah in Mount Ephraim being assigned to himself as his own inheritance.
(See SHILOH; PRIEST.)
His work being done, he died, at the age of one hundred and ten years,
twenty-five years after having crossed the Jordan. He was buried in his
own city of Timnath-serah (Josh. 24); and "the light of Israel for the
time faded away."
Joshua has been regarded as a type of Christ (Heb. 4:8) in the following
particulars: (1) In the name common to both; (2) Joshua brings the people
into the possession of the Promised Land, as Jesus brings his people to
the heavenly Canaan; and (3) as Joshua succeeded Moses, so the Gospel
succeeds the Law.
The character of Joshua is thus well sketched by Edersheim:, "Born a
slave in Egypt, he must have been about forty years old at the time of
the Exodus. Attached to the person of Moses, he led Israel in the first
decisive battle against Amalek (Ex. 17:9, 13), while Moses in the prayer
of faith held up to heaven the God-given 'rod.' It was no doubt on that
occasion that his name was changed from Oshea, 'help,' to Jehoshua, 'Jehovah
is help' (Num. 13:16). And this name is the key to his life and work.
Alike in bringing the people into Canaan, in his wars, and in the distribution
of the land among the tribes, from the miraculous crossing of Jordan and
taking of Jericho to his last address, he was the embodiment of his new
name, 'Jehovah is help.' To this outward calling his character also corresponded.
It is marked by singleness of purpose, directness, and decision...He sets
an object before him, and unswervingly follows it" (Bible Hist., iii.
Joshua, The Book of - contains a history
of the Israelites from the death of Moses to that of Joshua. It consists
of three parts: (1.) The history of the conquest of the land (1-12). (2.)
The allotment of the land to the different tribes, with the appointment
of cities of refuge, the provision for the Levites (13-22), and the dismissal
of the eastern tribes to their homes. This section has been compared to
the Domesday Book of the Norman conquest. (3.) The farewell addresses of
Joshua, with an account of his death (23, 24).
This book stands first in the second of the three sections, (1) the
Law, (2) the Prophets, (3) the "other writings" = Hagiographa, into which
the Jewish Church divided the Old Testament. There is every reason for
concluding that the uniform tradition of the Jews is correct when they
assign the authorship of the book to Joshua, all except the concluding
section; the last verses (24:29-33) were added by some other hand.
There are two difficulties connected with this book which have given
rise to much discussion, (1.) The miracle of the standing still of the
sun and moon on Gibeon. The record of it occurs in Joshua's impassioned
prayer of faith, as quoted (Josh. 10:12-15) from the "Book of Jasher"
(q.v.). There are many explanations given of these words. They need, however,
present no difficulty if we believe in the possibility of God's miraculous
interposition in behalf of his people. Whether it was caused by the refraction
of the light, or how, we know not.
(2.) Another difficulty arises out of the command given by God utterly
to exterminate the Canaanites. "Shall not the Judge of all the earth do
right?" It is enough that Joshua clearly knew that this was the will of
God, who employs his terrible agencies, famine, pestilence, and war, in
the righteous government of this world. The Canaanites had sunk into a
state of immorality and corruption so foul and degrading that they had
to be rooted out of the land with the edge of the sword. "The Israelites'
sword, in its bloodiest executions, wrought a work of mercy for all the
countries of the earth to the very end of the world."
This book resembles the Acts of the Apostles in the number and variety
of historical incidents it records, and in its many references to persons
and places; and as in the latter case the epistles of Paul (see Paley's
Horae Paul.) confirm its historical accuracy by their incidental allusions
and "undesigned coincidences," so in the former modern discoveries confirm
its historicity. The Amarna tablets (see ADONIZEDEC) are among the most
remarkable discoveries of the age. Dating from about B.C. 1480 down to
the time of Joshua, and consisting of official communications from Amorite,
Phoenician, and Philistine chiefs to the king of Egypt, they afford a
glimpse into the actual condition of Palestine prior to the Hebrew invasion,
and illustrate and confirm the history of the conquest. A letter, also
still extant, from a military officer, "master of the captains of Egypt,"
dating from near the end of the reign of Rameses II., gives a curious
account of a journey, probably official, which he undertook through Palestine
as far north as to Aleppo, and an insight into the social condition of
the country at that time. Among the things brought to light by this letter
and the Amarna tablets is the state of confusion and decay that had now
fallen on Egypt. The Egyptian garrisons that had held possession of Palestine
from the time of Thothmes III., some two hundred years before, had now
been withdrawn. The way was thus opened for the Hebrews. In the history
of the conquest there is no mention of Joshua having encountered any Egyptian
force. The tablets contain many appeals to the king of Egypt for help
against the inroads of the Hebrews, but no help seems ever to have been
sent. Is not this just such a state of things as might have been anticipated
as the result of the disaster of the Exodus? In many points, as shown
under various articles, the progress of the conquest is remarkably illustrated
by the tablets. The value of modern discoveries in their relation to Old
Testament history has been thus well described:
"The difficulty of establishing the charge of lack of historical credibility,
as against the testimony of the Old Testament, has of late years greatly
increased. The outcome of recent excavations and explorations is altogether
against it. As long as these books contained, in the main, the only known
accounts of the events they mention, there was some plausibility in the
theory that perhaps these accounts were written rather to teach moral
lessons than to preserve an exact knowledge of events. It was easy to
say in those times men had not the historic sense. But the recent discoveries
touch the events recorded in the Bible at very many different points in
many different generations, mentioning the same persons, countries, peoples,
events that are mentioned in the Bible, and showing beyond question that
these were strictly historic. The point is not that the discoveries confirm
the correctness of the Biblical statements, though that is commonly the
case, but that the discoveries show that the peoples of those ages had
the historic sense, and, specifically, that the Biblical narratives they
touch are narratives of actual occurrences."
Josiah - healed by Jehovah, or Jehovah will
support. The son of Amon, and his successor on the throne of Judah (2 Kings
22:1; 2 Chr. 34:1). His history is contained in 2 Kings 22, 23. He stands
foremost among all the kings of the line of David for unswerving loyalty
to Jehovah (23:25). He "did that which was right in the sight of the Lord,
and walked in all the way of David his father." He ascended the throne at
the early age of eight years, and it appears that not till eight years afterwards
did he begin "to seek after the God of David his father." At that age he
devoted himself to God. He distinguished himself by beginning a war of extermination
against the prevailing idolatry, which had practically been the state religion
for some seventy years (2 Chr. 34:3; comp. Jer. 25:3, 11, 29).
In the eighteenth year of his reign he proceeded to repair and beautify
the temple, which by time and violence had become sorely dilapidated (2
Kings 22:3, 5, 6; 23:23; 2 Chr. 34:11). While this work was being carried
on, Hilkiah, the high priest, discovered a roll, which was probably the
original copy of the law, the entire Pentateuch, written by Moses.
When this book was read to him, the king was alarmed by the things it
contained, and sent for Huldah, the "prophetess," for her counsel. She
spoke to him words of encouragement, telling him that he would be gathered
to his fathers in peace before the threatened days of judgment came. Josiah
immediately gathered the people together, and engaged them in a renewal
of their ancient national covenant with God. The Passover was then celebrated,
as in the days of his great predecessor, Hezekiah, with unusual magnificence.
Nevertheless, "the Lord turned not from the fierceness of his great wrath
wherewith his anger was kindled against Judah" (2 Kings 22:3-20; 23:21-27;
2 Chr. 35:1-19). During the progress of this great religious revolution
Jeremiah helped it on by his earnest exhortations.
Soon after this, Pharaoh-Necho II. (q.v.), king of Egypt, in an expedition
against the king of Assyria, with the view of gaining possession of Carchemish,
sought a passage through the territory of Judah for his army. This Josiah
refused to permit. He had probably entered into some new alliance with
the king of Assyria, and faithful to his word he sought to oppose the
progress of Necho.
The army of Judah went out and encountered that of Egypt at Megiddo,
on the verge of the plain of Esdraelon. Josiah went into the field in
disguise, and was fatally wounded by a random arrow. His attendants conveyed
him toward Jerusalem, but had only reached Hadadrimmon, a few miles south
of Megiddo, when he died (2 Kings 23:28, 30; comp. 2 Chr. 35:20-27), after
a reign of thirty-one years. He was buried with the greatest honours in
fulfilment of Huldah's prophecy (2 Kings 22:20; comp. Jer. 34:5). Jeremiah
composed a funeral elegy on this the best of the kings of Israel (Lam.
4:20; 2 Chr. 35:25). The outburst of national grief on account of his
death became proverbial (Zech. 12:11; comp. Rev. 16:16).
Jot - or Iota, the smallest letter of the
Greek alphabet, used metaphorically or proverbially for the smallest thing
(Matt. 5:18); or it may be = yod, which is the smallest of the Hebrew letters.
Jotham - Jehovah is perfect. (1.) The youngest
of Gideon's seventy sons. He escaped when the rest were put to death by
the order of Abimelech (Judg. 9:5). When "the citizens of Shechem and the
whole house of Millo" were gathered together "by the plain of the pillar"
(i.e., the stone set up by Joshua, 24:26; comp. Gen. 35:4) "that was in
Shechem, to make Abimelech king," from one of the heights of Mount Gerizim
he protested against their doing so in the earliest parable, that of the
bramble-king. His words then spoken were prophetic. There came a recoil
in the feelings of the people toward Abimelech, and then a terrible revenge,
in which many were slain and the city of Shechem was destroyed by Abimelech
(Judg. 9:45). Having delivered his warning, Jotham fled to Beer from the
vengeance of Abimelech (9:7-21).
(2.) The son and successor of Uzziah on the throne of Judah. As during
his last years Uzziah was excluded from public life on account of his
leprosy, his son, then twenty-five years of age, administered for seven
years the affairs of the kingdom in his father's stead (2 Chr. 26:21,
23; 27:1). After his father's death he became sole monarch, and reigned
for sixteen years (B.C. 759-743). He ruled in the fear of God, and his
reign was prosperous. He was contemporary with the prophets Isaiah, Hosea,
and Micah, by whose ministrations he profited. He was buried in the sepulchre
of the kings, greatly lamented by the people (2 Kings 15:38; 2 Chr. 27:7-9).
Journey - (1.) A day's journey in the East
is from 16 to 20 miles (Num. 11:31).
(2.) A Sabbath-day's journey is 2,000 paces or yards from the city walls
(Acts 1:12). According to Jewish tradition, it was the distance one might
travel without violating the law of Ex. 16:29. (See SABBATH.)
Jozabad - whom Jehovah bestows. (1.) One
of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:4).
(2.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh (1 Chr. 12:20).
Jozachar - Jehovah-remembered, one of the
two servants who assassinated Jehoash, the king of Judah, in Millo (2 Kings
12:21). He is called also Zabad (2 Chr. 24:26).
Jubal - jubilee, music, Lamech's second
son by Adah, of the line of Cain. He was the inventor of "the harp" (Heb.
kinnor, properly "lyre") and "the organ" (Heb. 'ugab, properly "mouth-organ"
or Pan's pipe), Gen. 4:21.
Jubilee - a joyful shout or clangour of
trumpets, the name of the great semi-centennial festival of the Hebrews.
It lasted for a year. During this year the land was to be fallow, and the
Israelites were only permitted to gather the spontaneous produce of the
fields (Lev. 25:11, 12). All landed property during that year reverted to
its original owner (13-34; 27:16-24), and all who were slaves were set free
(25:39-54), and all debts were remitted.
The return of the jubilee year was proclaimed by a blast of trumpets
which sounded throughout the land. There is no record in Scripture of
the actual observance of this festival, but there are numerous allusions
(Isa. 5:7, 8, 9, 10; 61:1, 2; Ezek. 7:12, 13; Neh. 5:1-19; 2 Chr. 36:21)
which place it beyond a doubt that it was observed.
The advantages of this institution were manifold. "1. It would prevent
the accumulation of land on the part of a few to the detriment of the
community at large. 2. It would render it impossible for any one to be
born to absolute poverty, since every one had his hereditary land. 3.
It would preclude those inequalities which are produced by extremes of
riches and poverty, and which make one man domineer over another. 4. It
would utterly do away with slavery. 5. It would afford a fresh opportunity
to those who were reduced by adverse circumstances to begin again their
career of industry in the patrimony which they had temporarily forfeited.
6. It would periodically rectify the disorders which crept into the state
in the course of time, preclude the division of the people into nobles
and plebeians, and preserve the theocracy inviolate."
Juda - (1.) The patriarch Judah, son of
Jacob (Luke 3:33; Heb. 7:14). In Luke 1:39; Heb. 7:14; Rev. 5:5; 7:5, the
word refers to the tribe of Judah.
(2.) The father of Simeon in Christ's maternal ancestry (Luke 3:30).
(3.) Son of Joanna, and father of Joseph in Christ's maternal ancestry
(26), probably identical with Abiud (Matt. 1:13), and with Obadiah (1
(4.) One of the Lord's "brethren" (Mark 6:3).
Judah - praise, the fourth son of Jacob
by Leah. The name originated in Leah's words of praise to the Lord on account
of his birth: "Now will I praise [Heb. odeh] Jehovah, and she called his
name Yehudah" (Gen. 29:35).
It was Judah that interposed in behalf of Joseph, so that his life was
spared (Gen. 37:26, 27). He took a lead in the affairs of the family,
and "prevailed above his brethren" (Gen. 43:3-10; 44:14, 16-34; 46:28;
1 Chr. 5:2).
Soon after the sale of Joseph to the Ishmaelites, Judah went to reside
at Adullam, where he married a woman of Canaan. (See ONAN; TAMAR.) After
the death of his wife Shuah, he returned to his father's house, and there
exercised much influence over the patriarch, taking a principal part in
the events which led to the whole family at length going down into Egypt.
We hear nothing more of him till he received his father's blessing (Gen.
Judah, Kingdom of - When the disruption
took place at Shechem, at first only the tribe of Judah followed the house
of David. But very soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined the tribe of
Judah, and Jerusalem became the capital of the new kingdom (Josh. 18:28),
which was called the kingdom of Judah. It was very small in extent, being
only about the size of the Scottish county of Perth.
For the first sixty years the kings of Judah aimed at re-establishing
their authority over the kingdom of the other ten tribes, so that there
was a state of perpetual war between them. For the next eighty years there
was no open war between them. For the most part they were in friendly
alliance, co-operating against their common enemies, especially against
Damascus. For about another century and a half Judah had a somewhat checkered
existence after the termination of the kingdom of Israel till its final
overthrow in the destruction of the temple (B.C. 588) by Nebuzar-adan,
who was captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard (2 Kings 25:8-21).
The kingdom maintained a separate existence for three hundred and eighty-nine
years. It occupied an area of 3,435 square miles. (See ISRAEL, KINGDOM
Judah, Tribe of - Judah and his three surviving
sons went down with Jacob into Egypt (Gen. 46:12; Ex. 1:2). At the time
of the Exodus, when we meet with the family of Judah again, they have increased
to the number of 74,000 males (Num. 1:26, 27). Its number increased in the
wilderness (26:22). Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, represented the tribe as
one of the spies (13:6; 34:19). This tribe marched at the van on the east
of the tabernacle (Num. 2:3-9; 10:14), its standard, as is supposed, being
a lion's whelp. Under Caleb, during the wars of conquest, they conquered
that portion of the country which was afterwards assigned to them as their
inheritance. This was the only case in which any tribe had its inheritance
thus determined (Josh. 14:6-15; 15:13-19).
The inheritance of the tribe of Judah was at first fully one-third of
the whole country west of Jordan, in all about 2,300 square miles (Josh.
15). But there was a second distribution, when Simeon received an allotment,
about 1,000 square miles, out of the portion of Judah (Josh. 19:9). That
which remained to Judah was still very large in proportion to the inheritance
of the other tribes. The boundaries of the territory are described in
This territory given to Judah was divided into four sections. (1.) The
south (Heb. negeb), the undulating pasture-ground between the hills and
the desert to the south (Josh. 15:21.) This extent of pasture-land became
famous as the favourite camping-ground of the old patriarchs. (2.) The
"valley" (15:33) or lowland (Heb. shephelah), a broad strip lying between
the central highlands and the Mediterranean. This tract was the garden
as well as the granary of the tribe. (3.) The "hill-country," or the mountains
of Judah, an elevated plateau stretching from below Hebron northward to
Jerusalem. "The towns and villages were generally perched on the tops
of hills or on rocky slopes. The resources of the soil were great. The
country was rich in corn, wine, oil, and fruit; and the daring shepherds
were able to lead their flocks far out over the neighbouring plains and
through the mountains." The number of towns in this district was thirty-eight
(Josh. 15:48-60). (4.) The "wilderness," the sunken district next the
Dead Sea (Josh. 15:61), "averaging 10 miles in breadth, a wild, barren,
uninhabitable region, fit only to afford scanty pasturage for sheep and
goats, and a secure home for leopards, bears, wild goats, and outlaws"
(1 Sam. 17:34; 22:1; Mark 1:13). It was divided into the "wilderness of
En-gedi" (1 Sam. 24:1), the "wilderness of Judah" (Judg. 1:16; Matt. 3:1),
between the Hebron mountain range and the Dead Sea, the "wilderness of
Maon" (1 Sam. 23:24). It contained only six cities.
Nine of the cities of Judah were assigned to the priests (Josh. 21:9-19).
Judah upon Jordan - The Authorized Version,
following the Vulgate, has this rendering in Josh. 19:34. It has been suggested
that, following the Masoretic punctuation, the expression should read thus,
"and Judah; the Jordan was toward the sun-rising." The sixty cities (Havoth-jair,
Num. 32:41) on the east of Jordan were reckoned as belonging to Judah, because
Jair, their founder, was a Manassite only on his mother's side, but on his
father's side of the tribe of Judah (1 Chr. 2:5, 21-23).
Judas - the Graecized form of Judah. (1.)
The patriarch (Matt. 1:2, 3).
(2.) Son of Simon (John 6:71; 13:2, 26), surnamed Iscariot, i.e., a
man of Kerioth (Josh. 15:25). His name is uniformly the last in the list
of the apostles, as given in the synoptic (i.e., the first three) Gospels.
The evil of his nature probably gradually unfolded itself till "Satan
entered into him" (John 13:27), and he betrayed our Lord (18:3). Afterwards
he owned his sin with "an exceeding bitter cry," and cast the money he
had received as the wages of his iniquity down on the floor of the sanctuary,
and "departed and went and hanged himself" (Matt. 27:5). He perished in
his guilt, and "went unto his own place" (Acts 1:25). The statement in
Acts 1:18 that he "fell headlong and burst asunder in the midst, and all
his bowels gushed out," is in no way contrary to that in Matt. 27:5. The
sucide first hanged himself, perhaps over the valley of Hinnom, "and the
rope giving way, or the branch to which he hung breaking, he fell down
headlong on his face, and was crushed and mangled on the rocky pavement
Why such a man was chosen to be an apostle we know not, but it is written
that "Jesus knew from the beginning who should betray him" (John 6:64).
Nor can any answer be satisfactorily given to the question as to the motives
that led Judas to betray his Master. "Of the motives that have been assigned
we need not care to fix on any one as that which simply led him on. Crime
is, for the most part, the result of a hundred motives rushing with bewildering
fury through the mind of the criminal."
(3.) A Jew of Damascus (Acts 9:11), to whose house Ananias was sent.
The street called "Straight" in which it was situated is identified with
the modern "street of bazaars," where is still pointed out the so-called
"house of Judas."
(4.) A Christian teacher, surnamed Barsabas. He was sent from Jerusalem
to Antioch along with Paul and Barnabas with the decision of the council
(Acts 15:22, 27, 32). He was a "prophet" and a "chief man among the brethren."
Jude - = Judas. Among the apostles there
were two who bore this name, (1) Judas (Jude 1:1; Matt. 13:55; John 14:22;
Acts 1:13), called also Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18); and
(2) Judas Iscariot (Matt. 10:4; Mark 3:19). He who is called "the brother
of James" (Luke 6:16), may be the same with the Judas surnamed Lebbaeus.
The only thing recorded regarding him is in John 14:22.
Judea - After the Captivity this name was
applied to the whole of the country west of the Jordan (Hag. 1:1, 14; 2:2).
But under the Romans, in the time of Christ, it denoted the southernmost
of the three divisions of Palestine (Matt. 2:1, 5; 3:1; 4:25), although
it was also sometimes used for Palestine generally (Acts 28:21).
The province of Judea, as distinguished from Galilee and Samaria, included
the territories of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, Dan, Simeon, and part
of Ephraim. Under the Romans it was a part of the province of Syria, and
was governed by a procurator.
Jude, Epistle of - The author was "Judas,
the brother of James" the Less (Jude 1:1), called also Lebbaeus (Matt. 10:3)
and Thaddaeus (Mark 3:18). The genuineness of this epistle was early questioned,
and doubts regarding it were revived at the time of the Reformation; but
the evidences in support of its claims are complete. It has all the marks
of having proceeded from the writer whose name it bears.
There is nothing very definite to determine the time and place at which
it was written. It was apparently written in the later period of the apostolic
age, for when it was written there were persons still alive who had heard
the apostles preach (ver. 17). It may thus have been written about A.D.
66 or 70, and apparently in Palestine.
The epistle is addressed to Christians in general (ver. 1), and its
design is to put them on their guard against the misleading efforts of
a certain class of errorists to which they were exposed. The style of
the epistle is that of an "impassioned invective, in the impetuous whirlwind
of which the writer is hurried along, collecting example after example
of divine vengeance on the ungodly; heaping epithet upon epithet, and
piling image upon image, and, as it were, labouring for words and images
strong enough to depict the polluted character of the licentious apostates
against whom he is warning the Church; returning again and again to the
subject, as though all language was insufficient to give an adequate idea
of their profligacy, and to express his burning hatred of their perversion
of the doctrines of the gospel."
The striking resemblance this epistle bears to 2 Peter suggests the
idea that the author of the one had seen the epistle of the other.
The doxology with which the epistle concludes is regarded as the finest
in the New Testament.
Judge - (Heb. shophet, pl. shophetim), properly
a magistrate or ruler, rather than one who judges in the sense of trying
a cause. This is the name given to those rulers who presided over the affairs
of the Israelites during the interval between the death of Joshua and the
accession of Saul (Judg. 2:18), a period of general anarchy and confusion.
"The office of judges or regents was held during life, but it was not hereditary,
neither could they appoint their successors. Their authority was limited
by the law alone, and in doubtful cases they were directed to consult the
divine King through the priest by Urim and Thummim (Num. 27:21). Their authority
extended only over those tribes by whom they had been elected or acknowledged.
There was no income attached to their office, and they bore no external
marks of dignity. The only cases of direct divine appointment are those
of Gideon and Samson, and the latter stood in the peculiar position of having
been from before his birth ordained 'to begin to deliver Israel.' Deborah
was called to deliver Israel, but was already a judge. Samuel was called
by the Lord to be a prophet but not a judge, which ensued from the high
gifts the people recognized as dwelling in him; and as to Eli, the office
of judge seems to have devolved naturally or rather ex officio upon him."
Of five of the judges, Tola (Judg. 10:1), Jair (3), Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon
(12:8-15), we have no record at all beyond the bare fact that they were
judges. Sacred history is not the history of individuals but of the kingdom
of God in its onward progress.
In Ex. 2:14 Moses is so styled. This fact may indicate that while for
revenue purposes the "taskmasters" were over the people, they were yet,
just as at a later time when under the Romans, governed by their own rulers.
Judges, Book of - is so called because it
contains the history of the deliverance and government of Israel by the
men who bore the title of the "judges." The book of Ruth originally formed
part of this book, but about A.D. 450 it was separated from it and placed
in the Hebrew scriptures immediately after the Song of Solomon.
The book contains, (1.) An introduction (1-3:6), connecting it with
the previous narrative in Joshua, as a "link in the chain of books." (2.)
The history of the thirteen judges (3:7-16:31) in the following order:
| FIRST PERIOD (3:7-ch. 5) | Years | I. Servitude under Chushan-rishathaim
of | Mesopotamia 8 | 1. OTHNIEL delivers Israel, rest 40 | II. Servitude
under Eglon of Moab: | Ammon, Amalek 18 | 2. EHUD'S deliverance, rest
80 | 3. SHAMGAR Unknown. | III. Servitude under Jabin of Hazor in | Canaan
20 | 4. DEBORAH and, | 5. BARAK 40 | (206) | | SECOND PERIOD (6-10:5)
| | IV. Servitude under Midian, Amalek, and | children of the east 7 |
6. GIDEON 40 | ABIMELECH, Gideon's son, reigns as | king over Israel 3
| 7. TOLA 23 | 8. JAIR 22 | (95) | | THIRD PERIOD (10:6-ch. 12) | | V.
Servitude under Ammonites with the | Philistines 18 | 9. JEPHTHAH 6 |
10. IBZAN 7 | 11. ELON 10 | 12. ABDON 8 | (49) | | FOURTH PERIOD (13-16)
| VI. Seritude under Philistines 40 | 13. SAMSON 20 | (60) | In all 410
Samson's exploits probably synchronize with the period immediately preceding
the national repentance and reformation under Samuel (1 Sam. 7:2-6).
After Samson came Eli, who was both high priest and judge. He directed
the civil and religious affairs of the people for forty years, at the
close of which the Philistines again invaded the land and oppressed it
for twenty years. Samuel was raised up to deliver the people from this
oppression, and he judged Israel for some twelve years, when the direction
of affairs fell into the hands of Saul, who was anointed king. If Eli
and Samuel are included, there were then fifteen judges. But the chronology
of this whole period is uncertain.
(3.) The historic section of the book is followed by an appendix (17-21),
which has no formal connection with that which goes before. It records
(a) the conquest (17, 18) of Laish by a portion of the tribe of Dan; and
(b) the almost total extinction of the tribe of Benjamin by the other
tribes, in consequence of their assisting the men of Gibeah (19-21). This
section properly belongs to the period only a few years after the death
of Joshua. It shows the religious and moral degeneracy of the people.
The author of this book was most probably Samuel. The internal evidence
both of the first sixteen chapters and of the appendix warrants this conclusion.
It was probably composed during Saul's reign, or at the very beginning
of David's. The words in 18:30,31, imply that it was written after the
taking of the ark by the Philistines, and after it was set up at Nob (1
Sam. 21). In David's reign the ark was at Gibeon (1 Chr. 16:39)
Judgment hall - Gr. praitorion (John 18:28,
33; 19:9; Matt. 27:27), "common hall." In all these passages the Revised
Version renders "palace." In Mark 15:16 the word is rendered "Praetorium"
(q.v.), which is a Latin word, meaning literally the residence of the praetor,
and then the governor's residence in general, though not a praetor. Throughout
the Gospels the word "praitorion" has this meaning (comp. Acts 23:35). Pilate's
official residence when he was in Jerusalem was probably a part of the fortress
The trial of our Lord was carried on in a room or office of the palace.
The "whole band" spoken of by Mark were gathered together in the palace
Judgment seat - (Matt. 27:19), a portable
tribunal (Gr. bema) which was placed according as the magistrate might
direct, and from which judgment was pronounced. In this case it was placed
on a tesselated pavement, probably in front of the procurator's residence.
Judgments of God - (1.) The secret decisions
of God's will (Ps. 110:5; 36:6). (2.) The revelations of his will (Ex. 21:1;
Deut. 6:20; Ps. 119:7-175). (3.) The infliction of punishment on the wicked
(Ex. 6:6; 12:12; Ezek. 25:11; Rev. 16:7), such as is mentioned in Gen. 7;
19:24,25; Judg. 1:6,7; Acts 5:1-10, etc.
Judgment, The final - the sentence that
will be passed on our actions at the last day (Matt. 25; Rom. 14:10, 11;
2 Cor. 5:10; 2 Thess. 1:7-10).
The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator. All judgment is committed to
him (Acts 17:31; John 5:22, 27; Rev. 1:7). "It pertains to him as mediator
to complete and publicly manifest the salvation of his people and the
overthrow of his enemies, together with the glorious righteousness of
his work in both respects."
The persons to be judged are, (1) the whole race of Adam without a single
exception (Matt. 25:31-46; 1 Cor. 15:51, 52; Rev. 20:11-15); and (2) the
fallen angels (2 Pet. 2:4; Jude 1:6).
The rule of judgment is the standard of God's law as revealed to men,
the heathen by the law as written on their hearts (Luke 12:47,48; Rom.
2:12-16); the Jew who "sinned in the law shall be judged by the law" (Rom.
2:12); the Christian enjoying the light of revelation, by the will of
God as made known to him (Matt. 11:20-24; John 3:19). Then the secrets
of all hearts will be brought to light (1 Cor. 4:5; Luke 8:17; 12:2,3)
to vindicate the justice of the sentence pronounced.
The time of the judgment will be after the resurrection (Heb. 9:27;
As the Scriptures represent the final judgment "as certain [Eccl. 11:9],
universal [2 Cor. 5:10], righteous [Rom. 2:5], decisive [1 Cor. 15:52],
and eternal as to its consequences [Heb. 6:2], let us be concerned for
the welfare of our immortal interests, flee to the refuge set before us,
improve our precious time, depend on the merits of the Redeemer, and adhere
to the dictates of the divine word, that we may be found of him in peace."
Judith - Jewess, the daughter of Beeri the
Hittite, and one of Esau's wives (Gen. 26:34), elsewhere called Aholibamah
Julia - a Christian woman at Rome to whom
Paul sent his salutations (Rom. 16:15), supposed to be the wife of Philologus.
Julius - the centurion of the Augustan cohort,
or the emperor's body-guard, in whose charge Paul was sent prisoner to Rome
(Acts 27:1, 3, 43). He entreated Paul "courteously," showing in many ways
a friendly regard for him.
Junia - (Rom. 16:7), a Christian at Rome
to whom Paul sends salutations along with Andronicus.
Juniper - (Heb. rothem), called by the Arabs
retem, and known as Spanish broom; ranked under the genus genista. It is
a desert shrub, and abounds in many parts of Palestine. In the account of
his journey from Akabah to Jerusalem, Dr. Robinson says: "This is the largest
and most conspicuous shrub of these deserts, growing thickly in the water-courses
and valleys. Our Arabs always selected the place of encampment, if possible,
in a spot where it grew, in order to be sheltered by it at night from the
wind; and during the day, when they often went on in advance of the camels,
we found them not unfrequently sitting or sleeping under a bush of retem
to shelter them from the sun. It was in this very desert, a day's journey
from Beersheba, that the prophet Elijah lay down and slept beneath the same
shrub" (1 Kings 19:4, 5). It afforded material for fuel, and also in cases
of extremity for human food (Ps. 120:4; Job 30:4). One of the encampments
in the wilderness of Paran is called Rithmah, i.e., "place of broom" (Num.
"The Bedawin of Sinai still burn this very plant into a charcoal which
throws out the most intense heat."
Jupiter - the principal deity of the ancient
Greeks and Romans. He was worshipped by them under various epithets. Barnabas
was identified with this god by the Lycaonians (Acts 14:12), because he
was of stately and commanding presence, as they supposed Jupiter to be.
There was a temple dedicated to this god outside the gates of Lystra (14:13).
Justice - is rendering to every one that
which is his due. It has been distinguished from equity in this respect,
that while justice means merely the doing what positive law demands, equity
means the doing of what is fair and right in every separate case.
Justice of God - that perfection of his
nature whereby he is infinitely righteous in himself and in all he does,
the righteousness of the divine nature exercised in his moral government.
At first God imposes righteous laws on his creatures and executes them righteously.
Justice is not an optional product of his will, but an unchangeable principle
of his very nature. His legislative justice is his requiring of his rational
creatures conformity in all respects to the moral law. His rectoral or distributive
justice is his dealing with his accountable creatures according to the requirements
of the law in rewarding or punishing them (Ps. 89:14). In remunerative justice
he distributes rewards (James 1:12; 2 Tim. 4:8); in vindictive or punitive
justice he inflicts punishment on account of transgression (2 Thess. 1:6).
He cannot, as being infinitely righteous, do otherwise than regard and hate
sin as intrinsically hateful and deserving of punishment. "He cannot deny
himself" (2 Tim. 2:13). His essential and eternal righteousness immutably
determines him to visit every sin as such with merited punishment.
Justification - a forensic term, opposed
to condemnation. As regards its nature, it is the judicial act of God, by
which he pardons all the sins of those who believe in Christ, and accounts,
accepts, and treats them as righteous in the eye of the law, i.e., as conformed
to all its demands. In addition to the pardon (q.v.) of sin, justification
declares that all the claims of the law are satisfied in respect of the
justified. It is the act of a judge and not of a sovereign. The law is not
relaxed or set aside, but is declared to be fulfilled in the strictest sense;
and so the person justified is declared to be entitled to all the advantages
and rewards arising from perfect obedience to the law (Rom. 5:1-10).
It proceeds on the imputing or crediting to the believer by God himself
of the perfect righteousness, active and passive, of his Representative
and Surety, Jesus Christ (Rom. 10:3-9). Justification is not the forgiveness
of a man without righteousness, but a declaration that he possesses a
righteousness which perfectly and for ever satisfies the law, namely,
Christ's righteousness (2 Cor. 5:21; Rom. 4:6-8).
The sole condition on which this righteousness is imputed or credited
to the believer is faith in or on the Lord Jesus Christ. Faith is called
a "condition," not because it possesses any merit, but only because it
is the instrument, the only instrument by which the soul appropriates
or apprehends Christ and his righteousness (Rom. 1:17; 3:25, 26; 4:20,
22; Phil. 3:8-11; Gal. 2:16).
The act of faith which thus secures our justification secures also at
the same time our sanctification (q.v.); and thus the doctrine of justification
by faith does not lead to licentiousness (Rom. 6:2-7). Good works, while
not the ground, are the certain consequence of justification (6:14; 7:6).
(See GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO.)
Justus - (1.) Another name for Joseph, surnamed
Barsabas. He and Matthias are mentioned only in Acts 1:23. "They must have
been among the earliest disciples of Jesus, and must have been faithful
to the end; they must have been well known and esteemed among the brethren.
What became of them afterwards, and what work they did, are entirely unknown"
(Lindsay's Acts of the Apostles).
(2.) A Jewish proselyte at Corinth, in whose house, next door to the
synagogue, Paul held meetings and preached after he left the synagogue
(3.) A Jewish Christian, called Jesus, Paul's only fellow-labourer at
Rome, where he wrote his Epistle to the Colossians (Col. 4:11).
Juttah - extended, a Levitical city
in the mountains or hill-country of Judah (Josh. 15:55; 21:16). Its modern
name is Yutta, a place about 5 1/2 miles south of Hebron. It is supposed
to have been the residence of Zacharias and Elisabeth, and the birthplace
of John the Baptist, and on this account is annually visited by thousands
of pilgrims belonging to the Greek Church (Luke 1:39). (See MARY.)
Kabzeel - gathering of God, a city in the
extreme south of Judah, near to Idumaea (Josh. 15:21), the birthplace of
Benaiah, one of David's chief warriors (2 Sam. 23:20; 1 Chr. 11:22). It
was called also Jekabzeel (Neh. 11:25), after the Captivity.
Kadesh - holy, or Kadesh-Barnea, sacred
desert of wandering, a place on the south-eastern border of Palestine,
about 165 miles from Horeb. It lay in the "wilderness" or "desert of Zin"
(Gen. 14:7; Num. 13:3-26; 14:29-33; 20:1; 27:14), on the border of Edom
(20:16). From this place, in compliance with the desire of the people,
Moses sent forth "twelve spies" to spy the land. After examining it in
all its districts, the spies brought back an evil report, Joshua and Caleb
alone giving a good report of the land (13:18-31). Influenced by the discouraging
report, the people abandoned all hope of entering into the Promised Land.
They remained a considerable time at Kadesh. (See HORMAH; KORAH.) Because
of their unbelief, they were condemned by God to wander for thirty-eight
years in the wilderness. They took their journey from Kadesh into the
deserts of Paran, "by way of the Red Sea" (Deut. 2:1). (One theory is
that during these thirty-eight years they remained in and about Kadesh.)
At the end of these years of wanderings, the tribes were a second time
gathered together at Kadesh. During their stay here at this time Miriam
died and was buried. Here the people murmured for want of water, as their
forefathers had done formerly at Rephidim; and Moses, irritated by their
chidings, "with his rod smote the rock twice," instead of "speaking to
the rock before their eyes," as the Lord had commanded him (comp. Num.
27:14; Deut. 9:23; Ps. 106:32, 33). Because of this act of his, in which
Aaron too was involved, neither of them was to be permitted to set foot
within the Promised Land (Num. 20:12, 24). The king of Edom would not
permit them to pass on through his territory, and therefore they commenced
an eastward march, and "came unto Mount Hor" (20:22).
This place has been identified with 'Ain el-Kadeis, about 12 miles east-south-east
of Beersheba. (See SPIES.)
Kadesh - the sacred city of the Hittites,
on the left bank of the Orontes, about 4 miles south of the Lake of Homs.
It is identified with the great mound Tell Neby Mendeh, some 50 to 100
feet high, and 400 yards long. On the ruins of the temple of Karnak, in
Egypt, has been found an inscription recording the capture of this city
by Rameses II. (See PHARAOH.) Here the sculptor "has chiselled in deep
work on the stone, with a bold execution of the several parts, the procession
of the warriors, the battle before Kadesh, the storming of the fortress,
the overthrow of the enemy, and the camp life of the Egyptians." (See
Kadmiel - before God; i.e., his servant,
one of the Levites who returned with Zerubbabel from the Captivity (Neh.
9:4; 10:9; 12:8).
Kadmonites - Orientals, the name of a Canaanitish
tribe which inhabited the north-eastern part of Palestine in the time of
Abraham (Gen. 15:19). Probably they were identical with the "children of
the east," who inhabited the country between Palestine and the Euphrates.
Kanah - reedy; brook of reeds. (1.) A stream
forming the boundary between Ephraim and Manasseh, from the Mediterranean
eastward to Tappuah (Josh. 16:8). It has been identified with the sedgy
streams that constitute the Wady Talaik, which enters the sea between Joppa
and Caesarea. Others identify it with the river' Aujeh.
(2.) A town in the north of Asher (Josh. 19:28). It has been identified
with 'Ain-Kana, a village on the brow of a valley some 7 miles south-east
of Tyre. About a mile north of this place are many colossal ruins strown
about. And in the side of a neighbouring ravine are figures of men, women,
and children cut in the face of the rock. These are supposed to be of
Kareah - bald, the father of Johanan and
Jonathan, who for a time were loyal to Gedaliah, the Babylonian governor
of Jerusalem (Jer. 40:8, 13, 15, 16).
Karkaa - a floor; bottom, a place between
Adar and Azmon, about midway between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea
Karkor - foundation, a place in the open
desert wastes on the east of Jordan (Judg. 8:10), not far beyond Succoth
and Penuel, to the south. Here Gideon overtook and routed a fugitive band
of Midianites under Zeba and Zalmunna, whom he took captive.
Kartah - city, a town in the tribe of Zebulun
assigned to the Levites of the family of Merari (Josh. 21:34). It is identical
with Kattath (19:15), and perhaps also with Kitron (Judg. 1:30).
Kartan - double city, a town of Naphali,
assigned to the Gershonite Levites, and one of the cities of refuge (Josh.
21:32). It was probably near the north-western shore of the Sea of Tiberias,
identical with the ruined village el-Katanah.
Kattath - (Josh. 19:15), a town of Asher,
has been identified with Kana el Jelil. (See CANA.)
Kedar - dark-skinned, the second son of
Ishmael (Gen. 25:13).
It is the name for the nomadic tribes of Arabs, the Bedouins generally
(Isa. 21:16; 42:11; 60:7; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:21), who dwelt in the north-west
of Arabia. They lived in black hair-tents (Cant. 1:5). To "dwell in the
tents of Kedar" was to be cut off from the worship of the true God (Ps.
120:5). The Kedarites suffered at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 49:28,
Kedemah - eastward, the last-named of the
sons of Ishmael (Gen. 25:15).
Kedemoth - beginnings; easternmost, a city
of Reuben, assigned to the Levites of the family of Merari (Josh. 13:18).
It lay not far north-east of Dibon-gad, east of the Dead Sea.
Kedesh - sanctuary. (1.) A place in the
extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:23). Probably the same as Kadesh-barnea
(2.) A city of Issachar (1 Chr. 6:72). Possibly Tell Abu Kadeis, near
(3.) A "fenced city" of Naphtali, one of the cities of refuge (Josh.
19:37; Judg. 4:6). It was assigned to the Gershonite Levites (Josh. 21:32).
It was originally a Canaanite royal city (Josh. 12:22), and was the residence
of Barak (Judg. 4:6); and here he and Deborah assembled the tribes of
Zebulun and Naphtali before the commencement of the conflict with Sisera
in the plain of Esdraelon, "for Jehovah among the mighty" (9, 10). In
the reign of Pekah it was taken by Tiglath-Pileser (2 Kings 15:29). It
was situated near the "plain" (rather "the oak") of Zaanaim, and has been
identified with the modern Kedes, on the hills fully four miles north-west
of Lake El Huleh.
It has been supposed by some that the Kedesh of the narrative, where
Barak assembled his troops, was not the place in Upper Galilee so named,
which was 30 miles distant from the plain of Esdraelon, but Kedish, on
the shore of the Sea of Galilee, 12 miles from Tabor.
Kedron - the valley, now quite narrow,
between the Mount of Olives and Mount Moriah. The upper part of it is
called the Valley of Jehoshaphat. The LXX., in 1 Kings 15:13, translate
"of the cedar." The word means "black," and may refer to the colour of
the water or the gloom of the ravine, or the black green of the cedars
which grew there. John 18:1, "Cedron," only here in New Testament. (See
Kehelathah - assembly, one of the stations
of the Israelites in the desert (Num. 33:22, 23).
Keilah - citadel, a city in the lowlands
of Judah (Josh. 15:44). David rescued it from the attack of the Philistines
(1 Sam. 23:1-8); but the inhabitants proving unfaithful to him, in that
they sought to deliver him up to Saul (13), he and his men "departed from
Keilah, and went whithersoever they could go." They fled to the hill Hareth,
about 3 miles to the east, and thence through Hebron to Ziph (q.v.). "And
David was in the wilderness of Ziph, in a wood" (1 Sam. 23:15). Here Jonathan
sought him out, "and strengthened his hand in God." This was the last interview
between David and Jonathan (23:16-18). It is the modern Khurbet Kila. Others
identify it with Khuweilfeh, between Beit Jibrin (Eleutheropolis) and Beersheba,
mentioned in the Amarna tablets.
Kelita - dwarf, a Levite who assisted Ezra
in expounding the law to the people (Neh. 8:7; 10:10).
Kemuel - helper of God, or assembly of God.
(1.) The third son of Nahor (Gen. 22:21).
(2.) Son of Shiphtan, appointed on behalf of the tribe of Ephraim to
partition the land of Canaan (Num. 34:24).
(3.) A Levite (1 Chr. 27:17).
Kenath - possession, a city of Gilead. It
was captured by Nobah, who called it by his own name (Num. 32:42). It has
been identified with Kunawat, on the slopes of Jebel Hauran (Mount Bashan),
60 miles east from the south end of the Sea of Galilee.
Kenaz - hunter. (1.) One of the sons of
Eliphaz, the son of Esau. He became the chief of an Edomitish tribe (Gen.
36:11, 15, 42).
(2.) Caleb's younger brother, and father of Othniel (Josh. 15:17), whose
family was of importance in Israel down to the time of David (1 Chr. 27:15).
Some think that Othniel (Judg. 1:13), and not Kenaz, was Caleb's brother.
(3.) Caleb's grandson (1 Chr. 4:15).
Kenites - smiths, the name of a tribe inhabiting
the desert lying between southern Palestine and the mountains of Sinai.
Jethro was of this tribe (Judg. 1:16). He is called a "Midianite" (Num.
10:29), and hence it is concluded that the Midianites and the Kenites were
the same tribe. They were wandering smiths, "the gipsies and travelling
tinkers of the old Oriental world. They formed an important guild in an
age when the art of metallurgy was confined to a few" (Sayce's Races, etc.).
They showed kindness to Israel in their journey through the wilderness.
They accompanied them in their march as far as Jericho (Judg. 1:16), and
then returned to their old haunts among the Amalekites, in the desert to
the south of Judah. They sustained afterwards friendly relations with the
Israelites when settled in Canaan (Judg. 4:11, 17-21; 1 Sam. 27:10; 30:29).
The Rechabites belonged to this tribe (1 Chr. 2:55) and in the days of Jeremiah
(35:7-10) are referred to as following their nomad habits. Saul bade them
depart from the Amalekites (1 Sam. 15:6) when, in obedience to the divine
commission, he was about to "smite Amalek." And his reason is, "for ye showed
kindness to all the children of Israel when they came up out of Egypt."
Thus "God is not unrighteous to forget the kindnesses shown to his people;
but they shall be remembered another day, at the farthest in the great day,
and recompensed in the resurrection of the just" (M. Henry's Commentary).
They are mentioned for the last time in Scripture in 1 Sam. 27:10; comp.
Kenizzite - (1.) The name of a tribe referred
to in the covenant God made with Abraham (Gen. 15:19). They are not mentioned
among the original inhabitants of Canaan (Ex. 3:8; Josh. 3:10), and probably
they inhabited some part of Arabia, in the confines of Syria.
(2.) A designation given to Caleb (R.V., Num. 32:12; A.V., Kenezite).
Kerchief - mentioned only Ezek. 13:18, 21,
as an article of apparel or ornament applied to the head of the idolatrous
women of Israel. The precise meaning of the word is uncertain. It appears
to have been a long loose shawl, such as Oriental women wrap themselves
in (Ruth 3:15; Isa. 3:22). Some think that it was a long veil or head-dress,
denoting by its form the position of those who wore it.
Keren-happuch - horn of the face-paint =
cosmetic-box, the name of Job's third daughter (Job. 42:14), born after
prosperity had returned to him.
Kerioth - cities. (1.) A town in the
south of Judah (Josh. 15:25). Judas the traitor was probably a native
of this place, and hence his name Iscariot. It has been identified with
the ruins of el-Kureitein, about 10 miles south of Hebron. (See HAZOR).
(2.) A city of Moab (Jer. 48:24, 41), called Kirioth (Amos 2:2).
Kesitah - (Gen. 33:19, R.V., marg.,
a Hebrew word, rendered, A.V., pl. "pieces of money," marg., "lambs;"
Josh. 24:32, "pieces of silver;" Job 42:11, "piece of money"). The kesitah
was probably a piece of money of a particular weight, cast in the form
of a lamb. The monuments of Egypt show that such weights were used. (See
Kettle - a large pot for cooking. The same
Hebrew word (dud, "boiling") is rendered also "pot" (Ps. 81:6), "caldron"
(2 Chr. 35:13), "basket" (Jer. 24:2). It was used for preparing the peace-offerings
(1 Sam. 2:13, 14).
Keturah - incense, the wife of Abraham,
whom he married probably after Sarah's death (Gen. 25:1-6), by whom he had
six sons, whom he sent away into the east country. Her nationality is unknown.
She is styled "Abraham's concubine" (1 Chr. 1:32). Through the offshoots
of the Keturah line Abraham became the "father of many nations."
Key - frequently mentioned in Scripture.
It is called in Hebrew maphteah, i.e., the opener (Judg. 3:25); and
in the Greek New Testament kleis, from its use in shutting (Matt.
16:19; Luke 11:52; Rev. 1:18, etc.). Figures of ancient Egyptian keys are
frequently found on the monuments, also of Assyrian locks and keys of wood,
and of a large size (comp. Isa. 22:22).
The word is used figuratively of power or authority or office (Isa.
22:22; Rev. 3:7; Rev. 1:8; comp. 9:1; 20:1; comp. also Matt. 16:19; 18:18).
The "key of knowledge" (Luke 11:52; comp. Matt. 23:13) is the means of
attaining the knowledge regarding the kingdom of God. The "power of the
keys" is a phrase in general use to denote the extent of ecclesiastical
Kezia - cassia, the name of Job's second
daughter (42:14), born after prosperity had returned to him.
Keziz - abrupt; cut off, a city of the tribe
of Benjamin (Josh. 18:21).
Kibroth-hattaavah - the graves of the longing
or of lust, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness. It
was probably in the Wady Murrah, and has been identified with the Erweis
el-Ebeirig, where the remains of an ancient encampment have been found,
about 30 miles north-east of Sinai, and exactly a day's journey from 'Ain
"Here began the troubles of the journey. First, complaints broke out
among the people, probably at the heat, the toil, and the privations of
the march; and then God at once punished them by lightning, which fell
on the hinder part of the camp, and killed many persons, but ceased at
the intercession of Moses (Num. 11:1, 2). Then a disgust fell on the multitude
at having nothing to eat but the manna day after day, no change, no flesh,
no fish, no high-flavoured vegetables, no luscious fruits...The people
loathed the 'light food,' and cried out to Moses, 'Give us flesh, give
us flesh, that we may eat.'" In this emergency Moses, in despair, cried
unto God. An answer came. God sent "a prodigious flight of quails, on
which the people satiated their gluttonous appetite for a full month.
Then punishment fell on them: they loathed the food which they had desired;
it bred disease in them; the divine anger aggravated the disease into
a plague, and a heavy mortality was the consequence. The dead were buried
without the camp; and in memory of man's sin and of the divine wrath this
name, Kibroth-hattaavah, the Graves of Lust, was given to the place of
their sepulchre" (Num. 11:34, 35; 33:16, 17; Deut. 9:22; comp. Ps. 78:30,
31)., Rawlinson's Moses, p. 175. From this encampment they journeyed in
a north-eastern direction to Hazeroth.
Kibzaim - two heaps, a city of Ephraim,
assigned to the Kohathite Levites, and appointed as a city of refuge (Josh.
21: 22). It is also called Jokmeam (1 Chr. 6:68).
Kid - the young of the goat. It was much
used for food (Gen. 27:9; 38:17; Judg. 6:19; 14:6). The Mosaic law forbade
to dress a kid in the milk of its dam, a law which is thrice repeated (Ex.
23:19; 34:26; Deut. 14:21). Among the various reasons assigned for this
law, that appears to be the most satisfactory which regards it as "a protest
against cruelty and outraging the order of nature." A kid cooked in its
mother's milk is "a gross, unwholesome dish, and calculated to kindle animal
and ferocious passions, and on this account Moses may have forbidden it.
Besides, it is even yet associated with immoderate feasting; and originally,
I suspect," says Dr. Thomson (Land and the Book), "was connected with idolatrous
Kidron - = Kedron = Cedron, turbid, the
winter torrent which flows through the Valley of Jehoshaphat, on the eastern
side of Jerusalem, between the city and the Mount of Olives. This valley
is known in Scripture only by the name "the brook Kidron." David crossed
this brook bare-foot and weeping, when fleeing from Absalom (2 Sam. 15:23,
30), and it was frequently crossed by our Lord in his journeyings to and
fro (John 18:1). Here Asa burned the obscene idols of his mother (1 Kings
15:13), and here Athaliah was executed (2 Kings 11:16). It afterwards became
the receptacle for all manner of impurities (2 Chr. 29:16; 30:14); and in
the time of Josiah this valley was the common cemetery of the city (2 Kings
23:6; comp. Jer. 26:23).
Through this mountain ravine no water runs, except after heavy rains
in the mountains round about Jerusalem. Its length from its head to en-Rogel
is 2 3/4 miles. Its precipitous, rocky banks are filled with ancient tombs,
especially the left bank opposite the temple area. The greatest desire
of the Jews is to be buried there, from the idea that the Kidron is the
"valley of Jehoshaphat" mentioned in Joel 3:2.
Below en-Rogel the Kidron has no historical or sacred interest. It runs
in a winding course through the wilderness of Judea to the north-western
shore of the Dead Sea. Its whole length, in a straight line, is only some
20 miles, but in this space its descent is about 3,912 feet. (See KEDRON.)
Recent excavations have brought to light the fact that the old bed of
the Kidron is about 40 feet lower than its present bed, and about 70 feet
nearer the sanctuary wall.
Kinah - an elegy, a city in the extreme
south of Judah (Josh. 15:22). It was probably not far from the Dead Sea,
in the Wady Fikreh.
Kine - (Heb. sing. parah, i.e., "fruitful"),
mentioned in Pharaoh's dream (Gen. 41: 18). Here the word denotes "buffaloes,"
which fed on the reeds and sedge by the river's brink.
King - is in Scripture very generally used
to denote one invested with authority, whether extensive or limited. There
were thirty-one kings in Canaan (Josh. 12:9, 24), whom Joshua subdued. Adonibezek
subdued seventy kings (Judg. 1:7). In the New Testament the Roman emperor
is spoken of as a king (1 Pet. 2:13, 17); and Herod Antipas, who was only
a tetrarch, is also called a king (Matt. 14:9; Mark 6:22).
This title is applied to God (1 Tim. 1:17), and to Christ, the Son of
God (1 Tim. 6:15, 16; Matt. 27:11). The people of God are also called
"kings" (Dan. 7:22, 27; Matt. 19:28; Rev. 1:6, etc.). Death is called
the "king of terrors" (Job 18:14).
Jehovah was the sole King of the Jewish nation (1 Sam. 8:7; Isa. 33:22).
But there came a time in the history of that people when a king was demanded,
that they might be like other nations (1 Sam. 8:5). The prophet Samuel
remonstrated with them, but the people cried out, "Nay, but we will have
a king over us." The misconduct of Samuel's sons was the immediate cause
of this demand.
The Hebrew kings did not rule in their own right, nor in name of the
people who had chosen them, but partly as servants and partly as representatives
of Jehovah, the true King of Israel (1 Sam. 10:1). The limits of the king's
power were prescribed (1 Sam. 10:25). The officers of his court were,
(1) the recorder or remembrancer (2 Sam. 8:16; 1 Kings 4:3); (2) the scribe
(2 Sam. 8:17; 20:25); (3) the officer over the house, the chief steward
(Isa. 22:15); (4) the "king's friend," a confidential companion (1 Kings
4:5); (5) the keeper of the wardrobe (2 Kings 22:14); (6) captain of the
bodyguard (2 Sam. 20:23); (7) officers over the king's treasures, etc.
(1 Chr. 27:25-31); (8) commander-in-chief of the army (1 Chr. 27:34);
(9) the royal counsellor (1 Chr. 27:32; 2 Sam. 16:20-23).
(For catalogue of kings of Israel and Judah see chronological table
Kingdom of God - (Matt. 6:33; Mark 1:14,
15; Luke 4:43) = "kingdom of Christ" (Matt. 13:41; 20:21) = "kingdom of
Christ and of God" (Eph. 5:5) = "kingdom of David" (Mark 11:10) = "the kingdom"
(Matt. 8:12; 13:19) = "kingdom of heaven" (Matt. 3:2; 4:17; 13:41), all
denote the same thing under different aspects, viz.: (1) Christ's mediatorial
authority, or his rule on the earth; (2) the blessings and advantages of
all kinds that flow from this rule; (3) the subjects of this kingdom taken
collectively, or the Church.
Kingly office of Christ - one of the three
special relations in which Christ stands to his people. Christ's office
as mediator comprehends three different functions, viz., those of a prophet,
priest, and king. These are not three distinct offices, but three functions
of the one office of mediator.
Christ is King and sovereign Head over his Church and over all things
to his Church (Eph. 1:22; 4:15; Col. 1:18; 2:19). He executes this mediatorial
kingship in his Church, and over his Church, and over all things in behalf
of his Church. This royalty differs from that which essentially belongs
to him as God, for it is given to him by the Father as the reward of his
obedience and sufferings (Phil. 2:6-11), and has as its especial object
the upbuilding and the glory of his redeemed Church. It attaches, moreover,
not to his divine nature as such, but to his person as God-man.
Christ's mediatorial kingdom may be regarded as comprehending, (1) his
kingdom of power, or his providential government of the universe; (2)
his kingdom of grace, which is wholly spiritual in its subjects and administration;
and (3) his kingdom of glory, which is the consummation of all his providential
and gracious administration.
Christ sustained and exercised the function of mediatorial King as well
as of Prophet and Priest, from the time of the fall of man, when he entered
on his mediatorial work; yet it may be said that he was publicly and formally
enthroned when he ascended up on high and sat down at the Father's right
hand (Ps. 2:6; Jer. 23:5; Isa. 9:6), after his work of humiliation and
suffering on earth was "finished."
King's dale - mentioned only in Gen. 14:17;
2 Sam. 18:18, the name given to "the valley of Shaveh," where the king of
Sodom met Abram.
Kings, The Books of - The two books of Kings
formed originally but one book in the Hebrew Scriptures. The present division
into two books was first made by the LXX., which now, with the Vulgate,
numbers them as the third and fourth books of Kings, the two books of Samuel
being the first and second books of Kings.
They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the accession
of Solomon till the subjugation of the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar and the
Babylonians (apparently a period of about four hundred and fifty-three
years). The books of Chronicles (q.v.) are more comprehensive in their
contents than those of Kings. The latter synchronize with 1 Chr. 28-2
Chr. 36:21. While in the Chronicles greater prominence is given to the
priestly or Levitical office, in the Kings greater prominence is given
to the kingly.
The authorship of these books is uncertain. There are some portions
of them and of Jeremiah that are almost identical, e.g., 2 Kings 24:18-25
and Jer. 52; 39:1-10; 40:7-41:10. There are also many undesigned coincidences
between Jeremiah and Kings (2 Kings 21-23 and Jer. 7:15; 15:4; 19:3, etc.),
and events recorded in Kings of which Jeremiah had personal knowledge.
These facts countenance in some degree the tradition that Jeremiah was
the author of the books of Kings. But the more probable supposition is
that Ezra, after the Captivity, compiled them from documents written perhaps
by David, Solomon, Nathan, Gad, and Iddo, and that he arranged them in
the order in which they now exist.
In the threefold division of the Scriptures by the Jews, these books
are ranked among the "Prophets." They are frequently quoted or alluded
to by our Lord and his apostles (Matt. 6:29; 12:42; Luke 4:25, 26; 10:4;
comp. 2 Kings 4:29; Mark 1:6; comp. 2 Kings 1:8; Matt. 3:4, etc.).
The sources of the narrative are referred to (1) "the book of the acts
of Solomon" (1 Kings 11:41); (2) the "book of the chronicles of the kings
of Judah" (14:29; 15:7, 23, etc.); (3) the "book of the chronicles of
the kings of Israel" (14:19; 15:31; 16:14, 20, 27, etc.).
The date of its composition was some time between B.C. 561, the date
of the last chapter (2 Kings 25), when Jehoiachin was released from captivity
by Evil-merodach, and B.C. 538, the date of the decree of deliverance
Kinsman - Heb. goel, from root meaning to
redeem. The goel among the Hebrews was the nearest male blood relation alive.
Certain important obligations devolved upon him toward his next of kin.
(1.) If any one from poverty was unable to redeem his inheritance, it was
the duty of the kinsman to redeem it (Lev. 25:25,28; Ruth 3:9, 12). He was
also required to redeem his relation who had sold himself into slavery (Lev.
God is the Goel of his people because he redeems them (Ex. 6:6; Isa.
43:1; 41:14; 44:6, 22; 48:20; Ps. 103:4; Job 19:25, etc.).
(2.) The goel also was the avenger (q.v.) of blood (Num. 35:21) in the
case of the murder of the next of kin.
Kir - a wall or fortress, a place to which
Tiglath-pileser carried the Syrians captive after he had taken the city
of Damascus (2 Kings 16:9; Amos 1:5; 9:7). Isaiah (22:6), who also was contemporary
with these events, mentions it along with Elam. Some have supposed that
Kir is a variant of Cush (Susiana), on the south of Elam.
Kir-haraseth - built fortress, a city
and fortress of Moab, the modern Kerak, a small town on the brow of a
steep hill about 6 miles from Rabbath-Moab and 10 miles from the Dead
Sea; called also Kir-haresh, Kir-hareseth, Kir-heres (Isa. 16:7, 11; Jer.
48:31, 36). After the death of Ahab, Mesha, king of Moab (see MOABITE
STONE), threw off allegiance to the king of Israel, and fought successfully
for the independence of his kingdom. After this Jehoram, king of Israel,
in seeking to regain his supremacy over Moab, entered into an alliance
with Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, and with the king of Edom. The three
kings led their armies against Mesha, who was driven back to seek refuge
in Kir-haraseth. The Moabites were driven to despair. Mesha then took
his eldest son, who would have reigned in his stead, and offered him as
a burnt-offering on the wall of the fortress in the sight of the allied
armies. "There was great indignation against Israel: and they departed
from him, and returned to their own land." The invaders evacuated the
land of Moab, and Mesha achieved the independence of his country (2 Kings
Kirjath - city, a city belonging to Benjamin
(Josh. 18:28), the modern Kuriet el-'Enab, i.e., "city of grapes", about
7 1/2 miles west-north-west of Jerusalem.
Kirjathaim - two cities; a double city.
(1.) A city of refuge in Naphtali (1 Chr. 6:76).
(2.) A town on the east of Jordan (Gen. 14:5; Deut. 2:9, 10). It was
assigned to the tribe of Reuben (Num. 32:37). In the time of Ezekiel (25:9)
it was one of the four cities which formed the "glory of Moab" (comp.
Jer. 48:1, 23). It has been identified with el-Kureiyat, 11 miles south-west
of Medeba, on the south slope of Jebel Attarus, the ancient Ataroth.