Lions - the most powerful of all carnivorous animals. Although not
now found in Palestine, they must have been in ancient times very numerous
there. They had their lairs in the forests (Jer. 5:6; 12:8; Amos 3:4), in
the caves of the mountains (Cant. 4:8; Nah. 2:12), and in the canebrakes
on the banks of the Jordan (Jer. 49:19; 50:44; Zech. 11:3).
No fewer than at least six different words are used in the Old Testament
for the lion. (1.) Gor (i.e., a "suckling"), the lion's whelp (Gen.
49:9; Jer. 51:38, etc.). (2.) Kephir (i.e., "shaggy"), the young
lion (Judg. 14:5; Job 4:10; Ps. 91:13; 104:21), a term which is also used
figuratively of cruel enemies (Ps. 34:10; 35:17; 58:6; Jer. 2:15). (3.)
'Ari (i.e., the "puller" in pieces), denoting the lion in general,
without reference to age or sex (Num. 23:24; 2 Sam. 17:10, etc.). (4.)
Shahal (the "roarer"), the mature lion (Job 4:10; Ps. 91:13; Prov.
26:13; Hos. 5:14). (5.) Laish, so called from its strength and
bravery (Job 4:11; Prov. 30:30; Isa. 30:6). The capital of Northern Dan
received its name from this word. (6.) Labi, from a root meaning
"to roar," a grown lion or lioness (Gen. 49:9; Num. 23:24; 24:9; Ezek.
19:2; Nah. 2:11).
The lion of Palestine was properly of the Asiatic variety, distinguished
from the African variety, which is larger. Yet it not only attacked flocks
in the presence of the shepherd, but also laid waste towns and villages
(2 Kings 17:25, 26) and devoured men (1 Kings 13:24, 25). Shepherds sometimes,
single-handed, encountered lions and slew them (1 Sam. 17:34, 35; Amos
3:12). Samson seized a young lion with his hands and "rent him as he would
have rent a kid" (Judg. 14:5, 6). The strength (Judg. 14:18), courage
(2 Sam. 17:10), and ferocity (Gen. 49:9) of the lion were proverbial.
Lip - besides its literal sense (Isa. 37:29,
etc.), is used in the original (saphah) metaphorically for an edge or border,
as of a cup (1 Kings 7:26), a garment (Ex. 28:32), a curtain (26:4), the
sea (Gen. 22:17), the Jordan (2 Kings 2:13). To "open the lips" is to begin
to speak (Job 11:5); to "refrain the lips" is to keep silence (Ps. 40:9;
1 Pet. 3:10). The "fruit of the lips" (Heb. 13:15) is praise, and the "calves
of the lips" thank-offerings (Hos. 14:2). To "shoot out the lip" is to manifest
scorn and defiance (Ps. 22:7). Many similar forms of expression are found
Litter - (Heb. tsab, as being lightly and
gently borne), a sedan or palanquin for the conveyance of persons of rank
(Isa. 66:20). In Num. 7:3, the words "covered wagons" are more literally
"carts of the litter kind." There they denote large and commodious vehicles
drawn by oxen, and fitted for transporting the furniture of the temple.
Liver - (Heb. kabhed, "heavy;" hence the
liver, as being the heaviest of the viscera, Ex. 29:13, 22; Lev. 3:4, 1,
10, 15) was burnt upon the altar, and not used as sacrificial food. In Ezek.
21:21 there is allusion, in the statement that the king of Babylon "looked
upon the liver," to one of the most ancient of all modes of divination.
The first recorded instance of divination (q.v.) is that of the teraphim
of Laban. By the teraphim the LXX. and Josephus understood "the liver of
goats." By the "caul above the liver," in Lev. 4:9; 7:4, etc., some understand
the great lobe of the liver itself.
Living creatures - as represented by Ezekiel
(1-10) and John (Rev. 4, etc.), are the cherubim. They are distinguished
from angels (Rev. 15:7); they join the elders in the "new song" (5:8, 9);
they warn of danger from divine justice (Isa. 6:3-5), and deliver the commission
to those who execute it (Ezek. 10:2, 7); they associate with the elders
in their sympathy with the hundred and forty-four thousand who sing the
new song (Rev. 14:3), and with the Church in the overthrow of her enemies
They are supposed to represent mercy, as distinguished from justice,
mercy in its various instrumentalities, and especially as connected with
the throne of God, the "throne of grace."
Lizard - Only in Lev. 11:30, as rendering
of Hebrew letaah, so called from its "hiding." Supposed to be the
Lacerta gecko or fan-foot lizard, from the toes of which poison exudes.
Lo-ammi - not my people, a symbolical name
given by God's command to Hosea's second son in token of Jehovah's rejection
of his people (Hos. 1:9, 10), his treatment of them as a foreign people.
This Hebrew word is rendered by "not my people" in ver. 10; 2:23.
Loan - The Mosaic law required that when
an Israelite needed to borrow, what he asked was to be freely lent to him,
and no interest was to be charged, although interest might be taken of a
foreigner (Ex. 22:25; Deut. 23:19, 20; Lev. 25:35-38). At the end of seven
years all debts were remitted. Of a foreigner the loan might, however, be
exacted. At a later period of the Hebrew commonwealth, when commerce increased,
the practice of exacting usury or interest on loans, and of suretiship in
the commercial sense, grew up. Yet the exaction of it from a Hebrew was
regarded as discreditable (Ps. 15:5; Prov. 6:1, 4; 11:15; 17:18; 20:16;
27:13; Jer. 15:10).
Limitations are prescribed by the law to the taking of a pledge from
the borrower. The outer garment in which a man slept at night, if taken
in pledge, was to be returned before sunset (Ex. 22:26, 27; Deut. 24:12,
13). A widow's garment (Deut. 24:17) and a millstone (6) could not be
taken. A creditor could not enter the house to reclaim a pledge, but must
remain outside till the borrower brought it (10, 11). The Hebrew debtor
could not be retained in bondage longer than the seventh year, or at farthest
the year of jubilee (Ex. 21:2; Lev. 25:39, 42), but foreign sojourners
were to be "bondmen for ever" (Lev. 25:44-54).
Lock - The Hebrews usually secured their
doors by bars of wood or iron (Isa. 45:2; 1 Kings 4:3). These were the
locks originally used, and were opened and shut by large keys applied
through an opening in the outside (Judg. 3:24). (See KEY.)
Lock of hair (Judg. 16:13, 19; Ezek. 8:3; Num. 6:5, etc.).
Locust - There are ten Hebrew words used
in Scripture to signify locust. In the New Testament locusts are mentioned
as forming part of the food of John the Baptist (Matt. 3:4; Mark 1:6). By
the Mosaic law they were reckoned "clean," so that he could lawfully eat
them. The name also occurs in Rev. 9:3, 7, in allusion to this Oriental
Locusts belong to the class of Orthoptera, i.e., straight-winged. They
are of many species. The ordinary Syrian locust resembles the grasshopper,
but is larger and more destructive. "The legs and thighs of these insects
are so powerful that they can leap to a height of two hundred times the
length of their bodies. When so raised they spread their wings and fly
so close together as to appear like one compact moving mass." Locusts
are prepared as food in various ways. Sometimes they are pounded, and
then mixed with flour and water, and baked into cakes; "sometimes boiled,
roasted, or stewed in butter, and then eaten." They were eaten in a preserved
state by the ancient Assyrians.
The devastations they make in Eastern lands are often very appalling.
The invasions of locusts are the heaviest calamites that can befall a
country. "Their numbers exceed computation: the hebrews called them 'the
countless,' and the Arabs knew them as 'the darkeners of the sun.' Unable
to guide their own flight, though capable of crossing large spaces, they
are at the mercy of the wind, which bears them as blind instruments of
Providence to the doomed region given over to them for the time. Innumerable
as the drops of water or the sands of the seashore, their flight obscures
the sun and casts a thick shadow on the earth (Ex. 10:15; Judg. 6:5; 7:12;
Jer. 46:23; Joel 2:10). It seems indeed as if a great aerial mountain,
many miles in breadth, were advancing with a slow, unresting progress.
Woe to the countries beneath them if the wind fall and let them alight!
They descend unnumbered as flakes of snow and hide the ground. It may
be 'like the garden of Eden before them, but behind them is a desolate
wilderness. At their approach the people are in anguish; all faces lose
their colour' (Joel 2:6). No walls can stop them; no ditches arrest them;
fires kindled in their path are forthwith extinguished by the myriads
of their dead, and the countless armies march on (Joel 2:8, 9). If a door
or a window be open, they enter and destroy everything of wood in the
house. Every terrace, court, and inner chamber is filled with them in
a moment. Such an awful visitation swept over Egypt (Ex. 10:1-19), consuming
before it every green thing, and stripping the trees, till the land was
bared of all signs of vegetation. A strong north-west wind from the Mediterranean
swept the locusts into the Red Sea.", Geikie's Hours, etc., ii., 149.
Lo-debar - no pasture, (2 Sam. 17:27), a
town in Gilead not far from Mahanaim, north of the Jabbok (9:4, 5). It is
probably identical with Debir (Josh. 13:26).
Lodge - a shed for a watchman in a garden
(Isa. 1:8). The Hebrew name melunah is rendered "cottage" (q.v.)
in Isa. 24:20. It also denotes a hammock or hanging-bed.
Log - the smallest measure for liquids used
by the Hebrews (Lev. 14:10, 12, 15, 21, 24), called in the Vulgate sextarius.
It is the Hebrew unit of measure of capacity, and is equal to the contents
of six ordinary hen's eggs=the twelfth part of a him, or nearly a pint.
Lois - the maternal grandmother of Timothy.
She is commended by Paul for her faith (2 Tim. 1:5).
Loop - a knotted "eye" of cord, corresponding
to the "taches" or knobs in the edges of the curtains of the tabernacle,
for joining them into a continuous circuit, fifty to a curtain (Ex. 26:4,
5, 10, 11).
Lord - There are various Hebrew and Greek
words so rendered.
(1.) Heb. Jehovah, has been rendered in the English Bible LORD, printed
in small capitals. This is the proper name of the God of the Hebrews.
The form "Jehovah" is retained only in Ex. 6:3; Ps. 83:18; Isa. 12:2;
26:4, both in the Authorized and the Revised Version.
(2.) Heb. 'adon, means one possessed of absolute control. It denotes
a master, as of slaves (Gen. 24:14, 27), or a ruler of his subjects (45:8),
or a husband, as lord of his wife (18:12).
The old plural form of this Hebrew word is 'adonai. From a superstitious
reverence for the name "Jehovah," the Jews, in reading their Scriptures,
whenever that name occurred, always pronounced it 'Adonai.
(3.) Greek kurios, a supreme master, etc. In the LXX. this is invariably
used for "Jehovah" and "'Adonai."
(4.) Heb. ba'al, a master, as having domination. This word is applied
to human relations, as that of husband, to persons skilled in some art
or profession, and to heathen deities. "The men of Shechem," literally
"the baals of Shechem" (Judg. 9:2, 3). These were the Israelite inhabitants
who had reduced the Canaanites to a condition of vassalage (Josh. 16:10;
(5.) Heb. seren, applied exclusively to the "lords of the Philistines"
(Judg. 3:3). The LXX. render it by satrapies. At this period the Philistines
were not, as at a later period (1 Sam. 21:10), under a kingly government.
(See Josh. 13:3; 1 Sam. 6:18.) There were five such lordships, viz., Gath,
Ashdod, Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ekron.
Lord's day - only once, in Rev. 1:10,
was in the early Christian ages used to denote the first day of the week,
which commemorated the Lord's resurrection. There is every reason to conclude
that John thus used the name. (See SABBATH.)
Lord's Prayer - the name given to the only
form of prayer Christ taught his disciples (Matt. 6:9-13). The closing doxology
of the prayer is omitted by Luke (11:2-4), also in the R.V. of Matt. 6:13.
This prayer contains no allusion to the atonement of Christ, nor to the
offices of the Holy Spirit. "All Christian prayer is based on the Lord's
Prayer, but its spirit is also guided by that of His prayer in Gethsemane
and of the prayer recorded John 17. The Lord's Prayer is the comprehensive
type of the simplest and most universal prayer."
Lord's Supper - (1 Cor. 11:20), called also
"the Lord's table" (10:21), "communion," "cup of blessing" (10:16), and
"breaking of bread" (Acts 2:42).
In the early Church it was called also "eucharist," or giving of thanks
(comp. Matt. 26:27), and generally by the Latin Church "mass," a name
derived from the formula of dismission, Ite, missa est, i.e., "Go, it
The account of the institution of this ordinance is given in Matt. 26:26-29,
Mark 14:22-25, Luke 22:19, 20, and 1 Cor. 11:24-26. It is not mentioned
It was designed, (1.) To commemorate the death of Christ: "This do in
remembrance of me." (2.) To signify, seal, and apply to believers all
the benefits of the new covenant. In this ordinance Christ ratifies his
promises to his people, and they on their part solemnly consecrate themselves
to him and to his entire service. (3.) To be a badge of the Christian
profession. (4.) To indicate and to promote the communion of believers
with Christ. (5.) To represent the mutual communion of believers with
The elements used to represent Christ's body and blood are bread and
wine. The kind of bread, whether leavened or unleavened, is not specified.
Christ used unleavened bread simply because it was at that moment on the
paschal table. Wine, and no other liquid, is to be used (Matt. 26:26-29).
Believers "feed" on Christ's body and blood, (1) not with the mouth in
any manner, but (2) by the soul alone, and (3) by faith, which is the
mouth or hand of the soul. This they do (4) by the power of the Holy Ghost.
This "feeding" on Christ, however, takes place not in the Lord's Supper
alone, but whenever faith in him is exercised.
This is a permanent ordinance in the Church of Christ, and is to be
observed "till he come" again.
Lo-ruhamah - not pitied, the name of the
prophet Hosea's first daughter, a type of Jehovah's temporary rejection
of his people (Hos. 1:6; 2:23).
Lot - (Heb. goral, a "pebble"), a small
stone used in casting lots (Num. 33:54; Jonah 1:7). The lot was always resorted
to by the Hebrews with strictest reference to the interposition of God,
and as a method of ascertaining the divine will (Prov. 16:33), and in serious
cases of doubt (Esther 3:7). Thus the lot was used at the division of the
land of Canaan among the serveral tribes (Num. 26:55; 34:13), at the detection
of Achan (Josh. 7:14, 18), the election of Saul to be king (1 Sam. 10:20,
21), the distribution of the priestly offices of the temple service (1 Chr.
24:3, 5, 19; Luke 1:9), and over the two goats at the feast of Atonement
(Lev. 16:8). Matthias, who was "numbered with the eleven" (Acts 1:24-26),
was chosen by lot.
This word also denotes a portion or an inheritance (Josh. 15:1; Ps.
125:3; Isa. 17:4), and a destiny, as assigned by God (Ps. 16:5; Dan. 12:13).
Lot, (Heb. lot), a covering; veil, the son of Haran, and nephew of Abraham
(Gen. 11:27). On the death of his father, he was left in charge of his
grandfather Terah (31), after whose death he accompanied his uncle Abraham
into Canaan (12:5), thence into Egypt (10), and back again to Canaan (13:1).
After this he separated from him and settled in Sodom (13:5-13). There
his righteous soul was "vexed" from day to day (2 Pet. 2:7), and he had
great cause to regret this act. Not many years after the separation he
was taken captive by Chedorlaomer, and was rescued by Abraham (Gen. 14).
At length, when the judgment of God descended on the guilty cities of
the plain (Gen. 19:1-20), Lot was miraculously delivered. When fleeing
from the doomed city his wife "looked back from behind him, and became
a pillar of salt." There is to this day a peculiar crag at the south end
of the Dead Sea, near Kumran, which the Arabs call Bint Sheik Lot, i.e.,
Lot's wife. It is "a tall, isolated needle of rock, which really does
bear a curious resemblance to an Arab woman with a child upon her shoulder."
From the words of warning in Luke 17:32, "Remember Lot's wife," it would
seem as if she had gone back, or tarried so long behind in the desire
to save some of her goods, that she became involved in the destruction
which fell on the city, and became a stiffened corpse, fixed for a time
in the saline incrustations. She became "a pillar of salt", i.e., as some
think, of asphalt. (See SALT.)
Lot and his daughters sought refuge first in Zoar, and then, fearing
to remain there longer, retired to a cave in the neighbouring mountains
(Gen. 19:30). Lot has recently been connected with the people called on
the Egyptian monuments Rotanu or Lotanu, who is supposed to have been
the hero of the Edomite tribe Lotan.
Lotan - coverer, one of the sons of Seir,
the Horite (Gen. 36:20, 29).
Love - This word seems to require explanation
only in the case of its use by our Lord in his interview with "Simon, the
son of Jonas," after his resurrection (John 21:16, 17). When our Lord says,
"Lovest thou me?" he uses the Greek word agapas; and when Simon answers,
he uses the Greek word philo, i.e., "I love." This is the usage in
the first and second questions put by our Lord; but in the third our Lord
uses Simon's word. The distinction between these two Greek words is thus
fitly described by Trench:, "Agapan has more of judgment and deliberate
choice; philein has more of attachment and peculiar personal affection.
Thus the 'Lovest thou' (Gr. agapas) on the lips of the Lord seems to Peter
at this moment too cold a word, as though his Lord were keeping him at a
distance, or at least not inviting him to draw near, as in the passionate
yearning of his heart he desired now to do. Therefore he puts by the word
and substitutes his own stronger 'I love' (Gr. philo) in its room. A second
time he does the same. And now he has conquered; for when the Lord demands
a third time whether he loves him, he does it in the word which alone will
satisfy Peter ('Lovest thou,' Gr. phileis), which alone claims from him
that personal attachment and affection with which indeed he knows that his
heart is full."
In 1 Cor. 13 the apostle sets forth the excellency of love, as the word
"charity" there is rendered in the Revised Version.
Lubims - the inhabitants of a thirsty or
scorched land; the Lybians, an African nation under tribute to Egypt (2
Chr. 12:3; 16:8). Their territory was apparently near Egypt. They were probably
the Mizraite Lehabim.
Lucas - a friend and companion of Paul during
his imprisonment at Rome; Luke (q.v.), the beloved physician (Philemon 1:24;
Lucifer - brilliant star, a title given
to the king of Babylon (Isa. 14:12) to denote his glory.
Lucius - of Cyrene, a Christian teacher
at Antioch (Acts 13:1), and Paul's kinsman (Rom. 16:21). His name is Latin,
but his birthplace seems to indicate that he was one of the Jews of Cyrene,
in North Africa.
Lucre - from the Lat. lucrum, "gain." 1
Tim. 3:3, "not given to filthy lucre." Some MSS. have not the word so rendered,
and the expression has been omitted in the Revised Version.
Lud - (1.) The fourth son of Shem (Gen.
10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17), ancestor of the Lydians probably.
(2.) One of the Hamitic tribes descended from Mizraim (Gen. 10:13),
a people of Africa (Ezek. 27:10; 30:5), on the west of Egypt. The people
called Lud were noted archers (Isa. 66:19; comp. Jer. 46:9).
Ludim - probably the same as Lud (2) (comp.
Gen. 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11). They are associated (Jer. 46:9) with African nations
as mercenaries of the king of Egypt.
Luhith - made of boards, a Moabitish place
between Zoar and Horonaim (Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:5).
Luke - the evangelist, was a Gentile. The
date and circumstances of his conversion are unknown. According to his own
statement (Luke 1:2), he was not an "eye-witness and minister of the word
from the beginning." It is probable that he was a physician in Troas, and
was there converted by Paul, to whom he attached himself. He accompanied
him to Philippi, but did not there share his imprisonment, nor did he accompany
him further after his release in his missionary journey at this time (Acts
17:1). On Paul's third visit to Philippi (20:5, 6) we again meet with Luke,
who probably had spent all the intervening time in that city, a period of
seven or eight years. From this time Luke was Paul's constant companion
during his journey to Jerusalem (20:6-21:18). He again disappears from view
during Paul's imprisonment at Jerusalem and Caesarea, and only reappears
when Paul sets out for Rome (27:1), whither he accompanies him (28:2, 12-16),
and where he remains with him till the close of his first imprisonment (Philemon
1:24; Col. 4:14). The last notice of the "beloved physician" is in 2 Tim.
There are many passages in Paul's epistles, as well as in the writings
of Luke, which show the extent and accuracy of his medical knowledge.
Luke, Gospel according to - was written
by Luke. He does not claim to have been an eye-witness of our Lord's ministry,
but to have gone to the best sources of information within his reach, and
to have written an orderly narrative of the facts (Luke 1:1-4). The authors
of the first three Gospels, the synoptics, wrote independently of each other.
Each wrote his independent narrative under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.
Each writer has some things, both in matter and style, peculiar to himself,
yet all the three have much in common. Luke's Gospel has been called "the
Gospel of the nations, full of mercy and hope, assured to the world by
the love of a suffering Saviour;" "the Gospel of the saintly life;" "the
Gospel for the Greeks; the Gospel of the future; the Gospel of progressive
Christianity, of the universality and gratuitousness of the gospel; the
historic Gospel; the Gospel of Jesus as the good Physician and the Saviour
of mankind;" the "Gospel of the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood
of man;" "the Gospel of womanhood;" "the Gospel of the outcast, of the
Samaritan, the publican, the harlot, and the prodigal;" "the Gospel of
tolerance." The main characteristic of this Gospel, as Farrar (Cambridge
Bible, Luke, Introd.) remarks, is fitly expressed in the motto, "Who went
about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil" (Acts
10:38; comp. Luke 4:18). Luke wrote for the "Hellenic world." This Gospel
is indeed "rich and precious."
"Out of a total of 1151 verses, Luke has 389 in common with Matthew
and Mark, 176 in common with Matthew alone, 41 in common with Mark alone,
leaving 544 peculiar to himself. In many instances all three use identical
language." (See MATTHEW; MARK; GOSPELS.)
There are seventeen of our Lord's parables peculiar to this Gospel.
(See List of Parables in Appendix.) Luke also records seven of our Lord's
miracles which are omitted by Matthew and Mark. (See List of Miracles
in Appendix.) The synoptical Gospels are related to each other after the
following scheme. If the contents of each Gospel be represented by 100,
then when compared this result is obtained:
Mark has 7 peculiarities, 93 coincidences. Matthew 42 peculiarities,
58 coincidences. Luke 59 peculiarities, 41 coincidences.
That is, thirteen-fourteenths of Mark, four-sevenths of Matthew, and
two-fifths of Luke are taken up in describing the same things in very
Luke's style is more finished and classical than that of Matthew and
Mark. There is less in it of the Hebrew idiom. He uses a few Latin words
(Luke 12:6; 7:41; 8:30; 11:33; 19:20), but no Syriac or Hebrew words except
sikera, an exciting drink of the nature of wine, but not made of grapes
(from Heb. shakar, "he is intoxicated", Lev. 10:9), probably palm wine.
This Gospel contains twenty-eight distinct references to the Old Testament.
The date of its composition is uncertain. It must have been written
before the Acts, the date of the composition of which is generally fixed
at about 63 or 64 A.D. This Gospel was written, therefore, probably about
60 or 63, when Luke may have been at Caesarea in attendance on Paul, who
was then a prisoner. Others have conjectured that it was written at Rome
during Paul's imprisonment there. But on this point no positive certainty
can be attained.
It is commonly supposed that Luke wrote under the direction, if not
at the dictation of Paul. Many words and phrases are common to both; e.g.,
Luke 4:22; with Col. 4:6. Luke 4:32; with 1 Cor. 2:4. Luke 6:36; with
2 Cor. 1:3. Luke 6:39; with Rom. 2:19. Luke 9:56; with 2 Cor. 10:8. Luke
10:8; with 1 Cor. 10:27. Luke 11:41; with Titus 1:15. Luke 18:1; with
2 Thess. 1:11. Luke 21:36; with Eph. 6:18. Luke 22:19, 20; with 1 Cor.
11:23-29. Luke 24:46; with Acts 17:3. Luke 24:34; with 1 Cor. 15:5.
Lunatic - probably the same as epileptic,
the symptoms of which disease were supposed to be more aggravated as the
moon increased. In Matt. 4:24 "lunatics" are distinguished from demoniacs.
In 17:15 the name "lunatic" is applied to one who is declared to have
been possessed. (See DAEMONIAC.)
Lust - sinful longing; the inward sin which
leads to the falling away from God (Rom. 1:21). "Lust, the origin of sin,
has its place in the heart, not of necessity, but because it is the centre
of all moral forces and impulses and of spiritual activity." In Mark 4:19
"lusts" are objects of desire.
Luz - a nut-bearing tree, the almond.
(1.) The ancient name of a royal Canaanitish city near the site of Bethel
(Gen. 28:19; 35:6), on the border of Benjamin (Josh. 18:13). Here Jacob
halted, and had a prophetic vision. (See BETHEL.)
(2.) A place in the land of the Hittites, founded (Judg. 1:26) by "a
man who came forth out of the city of Luz." It is identified with Luweiziyeh,
4 miles north-west of Banias.
Lycaonia - an inland province of Asia Minor,
on the west of Cappadocia and the south of Galatia. It was a Roman province,
and its chief towns were Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. The "speech of Lycaonia"
(Acts 14:11) was probably the ancient Assyrian language, or perhaps, as
others think, a corrupt Greek intermingled with Syriac words. Paul preached
in this region, and revisited it (Acts 16:1-6; 18:23; 19:1).
Lycia - a wolf, a province in the south-west
of Asia Minor, opposite the island of Rhodes. It forms part of the region
now called Tekeh. It was a province of the Roman empire when visited by
Paul (Acts 21:1; 27:5). Two of its towns are mentioned, Patara (21:1, 2)
and Myra (27:5).
Lydda - a town in the tribe of Ephraim,
mentioned only in the New Testament (Acts 9:32, 35, 38) as the scene of
Peter's miracle in healing the paralytic AEneas. It lay about 9 miles east
of Joppa, on the road from the sea-port to Jerusalem. In the Old Testament
(1 Chr. 8:12) it is called Lod. It was burned by the Romans, but was afterwards
rebuilt, and was known by the name of Diospolis. Its modern name is Ludd.
The so-called patron saint of England, St. George, is said to have been
Lydia - (1.) Ezek. 30:5 (Heb. Lud), a province
in the west of Asia Minor, which derived its name from the fourth son of
Shem (Gen. 10:22). It was bounded on the east by the greater Phrygia, and
on the west by Ionia and the AEgean Sea.
(2.) A woman of Thyatira, a "seller of purple," who dwelt in Philippi
(Acts 16:14, 15). She was not a Jewess but a proselyte. The Lord opened
her heart as she heard the gospel from the lips of Paul (16:13). She thus
became the first in Europe who embraced Christianity. She was a person
apparently of considerable wealth, for she could afford to give a home
to Paul and his companions. (See THYATIRA.)
Lysanias - tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1),
on the eastern slope of Anti-Lebanon, near the city of Damascus.
Lysias, Claudius - the chief captain
(chiliarch) who commanded the Roman troops in Jerusalem, and sent Paul
under guard to the procurator Felix at Caesarea (Acts 21:31-38; 22:24-30).
His letter to his superior officer is an interesting specimen of Roman
military correspondence (23:26-30). He obtained his Roman citizenship
by purchase, and was therefore probably a Greek. (See CLAUDIUS.)
Lystra - a town of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor,
in a wild district and among a rude population. Here Paul preached the gospel
after he had been driven by persecution from Iconium (Acts 14:2-7). Here
also he healed a lame man (8), and thus so impressed the ignorant and superstitious
people that they took him for Mercury, because he was the "chief speaker,"
and his companion Barnabas for Jupiter, probably in consequence of his stately,
venerable appearance; and were proceeding to offer sacrifices to them (13),
when Paul earnestly addressed them and turned their attention to the true
source of all blessings. But soon after, through the influence of the Jews
from Antioch in Pisidia and Iconium, they stoned Paul and left him for dead
(14:19). On recovering, Paul left for Derbe; but soon returned again, through
Lystra, encouraging the disciples there to steadfastness. He in all likelihood
visited this city again on his third missionary tour (Acts 18:23). Timothy,
who was probably born here (2 Tim. 3:10, 11), was no doubt one of those
who were on this occasion witnesses of Paul's persecution and his courage
Maachah - oppression, a small Syrian kingdom
near Geshur, east of the Hauran, the district of Batanea (Josh. 13:13; 2
Sam. 10:6,8; 1 Chr. 19:7).
(2.) A daughter of Talmai, king of the old native population of Geshur.
She became one of David's wives, and was the mother of Absalom (2 Sam.
(3.) The father of Hanan, who was one of David's body-guard (1 Chr.
(4.) The daughter of Abishalom (called Absalom, 2 Chr. 11:20-22), the
third wife of Rehoboam, and mother of Abijam (1 Kings 15:2). She is called
"Michaiah the daughter of Uriel," who was the husband of Absalom's daughter
Tamar (2 Chr. 13:2). Her son Abijah or Abijam was heir to the throne.
(5.) The father of Achish, the king of Gath (1 Kings 2:39), called also
Maoch (1 Sam. 27:2).
Maaleh-acrabbim - ascent of the scorpions;
i.e., "scorpion-hill", a pass on the south-eastern border of Palestine
(Num. 34:4; Josh. 15:3). It is identified with the pass of Sufah, entering
Palestine from the great Wady el-Fikreh, south of the Dead Sea. (See AKRABBIM.)
Maarath - desolation, a place in the mountains
of Judah (Josh. 15:59), probably the modern village Beit Ummar, 6 miles
north of Hebron.
Maaseiah - the work of Jehovah. (1.) One
of the Levites whom David appointed as porter for the ark (1 Chr. 15:18,
(2.) One of the "captains of hundreds" associated with Jehoiada in restoring
king Jehoash to the throne (2 Chr. 23:1).
(3.) The "king's son," probably one of the sons of king Ahaz, killed
by Zichri in the invasion of Judah by Pekah, king of Israel (2 Chr. 28:7).
(4.) One who was sent by king Josiah to repair the temple (2 Chr. 34:8).
He was governor (Heb. sar, rendered elsewhere in the Authorized Version
"prince," "chief captain," chief ruler") of Jerusalem.
(5.) The father of the priest Zephaniah (Jer. 21:1; 37:3).
(6.) The father of the false prophet Zedekiah (Jer. 29:21).
Maase'iah, refuge is Jehovah, a priest, the father of Neriah (Jer. 32:12;
Maasiai - work of Jehovah, one of the priests
resident at Jerusalem at the Captivity (1 Chr. 9:12).
Maath - small, a person named in our Lord's
ancestry (Luke 3:26).
Maaziah - strength or consolation of Jehovah.
(1.) The head of the twenty-fourth priestly course (1 Chr. 24:18) in David's
(2.) A priest (Neh. 10:8).
Maccabees - This word does not occur in
Scripture. It was the name given to the leaders of the national party among
the Jews who suffered in the persecution under Antiochus Epiphanes, who
succeeded to the Syrian throne B.C. 175. It is supposed to have been derived
from the Hebrew word (makkabah) meaning "hammer," as suggestive of the heroism
and power of this Jewish family, who are, however, more properly called
Asmoneans or Hasmonaeans, the origin of which is much disputed.
After the expulsion of Antiochus Epiphanes from Egypt by the Romans,
he gave vent to his indignation on the Jews, great numbers of whom he
mercilessly put to death in Jerusalem. He oppressed them in every way,
and tried to abolish altogether the Jewish worship. Mattathias, an aged
priest, then residing at Modin, a city to the west of Jerusalem, became
now the courageous leader of the national party; and having fled to the
mountains, rallied round him a large band of men prepared to fight and
die for their country and for their religion, which was now violently
suppressed. In 1 Macc. 2:60 is recorded his dying counsels to his sons
with reference to the war they were now to carry on. His son Judas, "the
Maccabee," succeeded him (B.C. 166) as the leader in directing the war
of independence, which was carried on with great heroism on the part of
the Jews, and was terminated in the defeat of the Syrians.
Maccabees, Books of the - There were originally
five books of the Maccabees. The first contains a history of the war of
independence, commencing (B.C. 175) in a series of patriotic struggles against
the tyranny of Antiochus Epiphanes, and terminating B.C. 135. It became
part of the Vulgate Version of the Bible, and was thus retained among the
The second gives a history of the Maccabees' struggle from B.C. 176
to B.C. 161. Its object is to encourage and admonish the Jews to be faithful
to the religion of their fathers.
The third does not hold a place in the Apocrypha, but is read in the
Greek Church. Its design is to comfort the Alexandrian Jews in their persecution.
Its writer was evidently an Alexandrian Jew.
The fourth was found in the Library of Lyons, but was afterwards burned.
The fifth contains a history of the Jews from B.C. 184 to B.C. 86. It
is a compilation made by a Jew after the destruction of Jerusalem, from
ancient memoirs, to which he had access. It need scarcely be added that
none of these books has any divine authority.
Macedonia - in New Testament times, was
a Roman province lying north of Greece. It was governed by a propraetor
with the title of proconsul. Paul was summoned by the vision of the "man
of Macedonia" to preach the gospel there (Acts 16:9). Frequent allusion
is made to this event (18:5; 19:21; Rom. 15:26; 2 Cor. 1:16; 11:9; Phil.
4:15). The history of Paul's first journey through Macedonia is given in
detail in Acts 16:10-17:15. At the close of this journey he returned from
Corinth to Syria. He again passed through this country (20:1-6), although
the details of the route are not given. After many years he probably visited
it for a third time (Phil. 2:24; 1 Tim. 1:3). The first convert made by
Paul in Europe was (Acts 16:13-15) Lydia (q.v.), a "seller of purple," residing
in Philippi, the chief city of the eastern division of Macedonia.
Machaerus - the Black Fortress, was built
by Herod the Great in the gorge of Callirhoe, one of the wadies 9 miles
east of the Dead Sea, as a frontier rampart against Arab marauders. John
the Baptist was probably cast into the prison connected with this castle
by Herod Antipas, whom he had reproved for his adulterous marriage with
Herodias. Here Herod "made a supper" on his birthday. He was at this time
marching against Aretas, king of Perea, to whose daughter he had been married.
During the revelry of the banquet held in the border fortress, to please
Salome, who danced before him, he sent an executioner, who beheaded John,
and "brought his head in a charger, and gave it to the damsel" (Mark 6:14-29).
This castle stood "starkly bold and clear" 3,860 feet above the Dead Sea,
and 2,546 above the Mediterranean. Its ruins, now called M'khaur, are still
visible on the northern end of Jebel Attarus.
Machbanai - clad with a mantle, or bond
of the Lord, one of the Gadite heroes who joined David in the wilderness
(1 Chr. 12:13).
Machir - sold. (1.) Manasseh's oldest son
(Josh. 17:1), or probably his only son (see 1 Chr. 7:14, 15; comp. Num.
26:29-33; Josh. 13:31). His descendants are referred to under the name of
Machirites, being the offspring of Gilead (Num. 26:29). They settled in
land taken from the Amorites (Num. 32:39, 40; Deut. 3:15) by a special enactment
(Num. 36:1-3; Josh. 17:3, 4). He is once mentioned as the representative
of the tribe of Manasseh east of Jordan (Judg. 5:14).
(2.) A descendant of the preceding, residing at Lo-debar, where he maintained
Jonathan's son Mephibosheth till he was taken under the care of David
(2 Sam. 9:4), and where he afterwards gave shelter to David himself when
he was a fugitive (17:27).
Machpelah - portion; double cave, the cave
which Abraham bought, together with the field in which it stood, from Ephron
the Hittite, for a family burying-place (Gen. 23). It is one of those Bible
localities about the identification of which there can be no doubt. It was
on the slope of a hill on the east of Hebron, "before Mamre." Here were
laid the bodies of Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Leah
(Gen. 23:19; 25:9; 49:31; 50:13). Over the cave an ancient Christian church
was erected, probably in the time of Justinian, the Roman emperor. This
church has been converted into a Mohammedan mosque. The whole is surrounded
by the el-Haram i.e., "the sacred enclosure," about 200 feet long, 115 broad,
and of an average height of about 50. This building, from the immense size
of some of its stones, and the manner in which they are fitted together,
is supposed by some to have been erected in the days of David or of Solomon,
while others ascribe it to the time of Herod. It is looked upon as the most
ancient and finest relic of Jewish architecture.
On the floor of the mosque are erected six large cenotaphs as monuments
to the dead who are buried in the cave beneath. Between the cenotaphs
of Isaac and Rebekah there is a circular opening in the floor into the
cavern below, the cave of Machpelah. Here it may be that the body of Jacob,
which was embalmed in Egypt, is still preserved (much older embalmed bodies
have recently been found in the cave of Deir el-Bahari in Egypt, see PHARAOH),
though those of the others there buried may have long ago mouldered into
dust. The interior of the mosque was visited by the Prince of Wales in
1862 by a special favour of the Mohammedan authorities. An interesting
account of this visit is given in Dean Stanley's Lectures on the Jewish
Church. It was also visited in 1866 by the Marquis of Bute, and in 1869
by the late Emperor (Frederick) of Germany, then the Crown Prince of Prussia.
In 1881 it was visited by the two sons of the Prince of Wales, accompanied
by Sir C. Wilson and others. (See Palestine Quarterly Statement, October
Madai - middle land, the third "son" of
Japheth (Gen. 10:2), the name by which the Medes are known on the Assyrian
Madmannah - dunghill, the modern el-Minyay,
15 miles south-south-west of Gaza (Josh. 15:31; 1 Chr. 2:49), in the south
of Judah. The Pal. Mem., however, suggest Umm Deimneh, 12 miles north-east
of Beersheba, as the site.
Madmen - ibid., a Moabite town threatened
with the sword of the Babylonians (Jer. 48:2).
Madmenah - ibid., a town in Benjamin, not
far from Jerusalem, towards the north (Isa. 10:31). The same Hebrew word
occurs in Isa. 25:10, where it is rendered "dunghill." This verse has, however,
been interpreted as meaning "that Moab will be trodden down by Jehovah as
teben [broken straw] is trodden to fragments on the threshing-floors of
Madness - This word is used in its proper
sense in Deut. 28:34, John 10:20, 1 Cor. 14:23. It also denotes a reckless
state of mind arising from various causes, as over-study (Eccl. 1:17; 2:12),
blind rage (Luke 6:11), or a depraved temper (Eccl. 7:25; 9:3; 2 Pet. 2:16).
David feigned madness (1 Sam. 21:13) at Gath because he "was sore afraid
Madon - strife, a Canaanitish city in the
north of Palestine (Josh. 11:1; 12:19), whose king was slain by Joshua;
perhaps the ruin Madin, near Hattin, some 5 miles west of Tiberias.
Magdala - a tower, a town in Galilee, mentioned
only in Matt. 15:39. In the parallel passage in Mark 8:10 this place is
called Dalmanutha. It was the birthplace of Mary called the Magdalen, or
Mary Magdalene. It was on the west shore of the Lake of Tiberias, and is
now probably the small obscure village called el-Mejdel, about 3 miles north-west
of Tiberias. In the Talmud this city is called "the city of colour," and
a particular district of it was called "the tower of dyers." The indigo
plant was much cultivated here.
Magdalene - a surname derived from Magdala,
the place of her nativity, given to one of the Marys of the Gospels to
distinguish her from the other Marys (Matt. 27:56, 61; 28:1, etc.). A
mistaken notion has prevailed that this Mary was a woman of bad character,
that she was the woman who is emphatically called "a sinner" (Luke 7:36-50).
Magic - The Jews seem early to have consulted
the teraphim (q.v.) for oracular answers (Judg. 18:5, 6; Zech. 10:2). There
is a remarkable illustration of this divining by teraphim in Ezek. 21:19-22.
We read also of the divining cup of Joseph (Gen. 44:5). The magicians of
Egypt are frequently referred to in the history of the Exodus. Magic was
an inherent part of the ancient Egyptian religion, and entered largely into
their daily life.
All magical arts were distinctly prohibited under penalty of death in
the Mosaic law. The Jews were commanded not to learn the "abomination"
of the people of the Promised Land (Lev. 19:31; Deut. 18:9-14). The history
of Saul's consulting the witch of Endor (1 Sam. 28:3-20) gives no warrant
for attributing supernatural power to magicians. From the first the witch
is here only a bystander. The practice of magic lingered among the people
till after the Captivity, when they gradually abandoned it.
It is not much referred to in the New Testament. The Magi mentioned
in Matt. 2:1-12 were not magicians in the ordinary sense of the word.
They belonged to a religious caste, the followers of Zoroaster, the astrologers
of the East. Simon, a magician, was found by Philip at Samaria (Acts 8:9-24);
and Paul and Barnabas encountered Elymas, a Jewish sorcerer, at Paphos
(13:6-12). At Ephesus there was a great destruction of magical books (Acts
Magicians - Heb. hartumim, (dan. 1:20) were
sacred scribes who acted as interpreters of omens, or "revealers of secret
Magistrate - a public civil officer invested
with authority. The Hebrew shophetim, or judges, were magistrates having
authority in the land (Deut. 1:16, 17). In Judg. 18:7 the word "magistrate"
(A.V.) is rendered in the Revised Version "possessing authority", i.e.,
having power to do them harm by invasion. In the time of Ezra (9:2) and
Nehemiah (2:16; 4:14; 13:11) the Jewish magistrates were called seganim,
properly meaning "nobles." In the New Testament the Greek word archon,
rendered "magistrate" (Luke 12:58; Titus 3:1), means one first in power,
and hence a prince, as in Matt. 20:25, 1 Cor. 2:6, 8. This term is used
of the Messiah, "Prince of the kings of the earth" (Rev. 1:5). In Acts 16:20,
22, 35, 36, 38, the Greek term strategos, rendered "magistrate,"
properly signifies the leader of an army, a general, one having military
authority. The strategoi were the duumviri, the two praetors appointed
to preside over the administration of justice in the colonies of the Romans.
They were attended by the sergeants (properly lictors or "rod bearers").
Magog - region of Gog, the second of the
"sons" of Japheth (Gen. 10:2; 1 Chr. 1:5). In Ezekiel (38:2; 39:6) it is
the name of a nation, probably some Scythian or Tartar tribe descended from
Japheth. They are described as skilled horsemen, and expert in the use of
the bow. The Latin father Jerome says that this word denotes "Scythian nations,
fierce and innumerable, who live beyond the Caucasus and the Lake Maeotis,
and near the Caspian Sea, and spread out even onward to India." Perhaps
the name "represents the Assyrian Mat Gugi, or 'country of Gugu,' the Gyges
of the Greeks" (Sayce's Races, etc.).
Magor-missabib - fear on every side, (Jer.
20:3), a symbolical name given to the priest Pashur, expressive of the fate
announced by the prophet as about to come upon him. Pashur was to be carried
to Babylon, and there die.
Mahalaleel - praise of God. (1.) The son
of Cainan, of the line of Seth (Gen. 5:12-17); called Maleleel (Luke 3:37).
(2.) Neh. 11:4, a descendant of Perez.
Mahalath - a lute; lyre. (1.) The daughter
of Ishmael, and third wife of Esau (Gen. 28:9); called also Bashemath (Gen.
(2.) The daughter of Jerimoth, who was one of David's sons. She was
one of Rehoboam's wives (2 Chr. 11:18).
Mahalath Leannoth Maschil - This word leannoth
seems to point to some kind of instrument unknown (Ps. 88, title). The whole
phrase has by others been rendered, "On the sickness of affliction: a lesson;"
or, "Concerning afflictive sickness: a didactic psalm."
Mahalath Maschil - in the title of Ps. 53,
denoting that this was a didactic psalm, to be sung to the accompaniment
of the lute or guitar. Others regard this word "mahalath" as the name simply
of an old air to which the psalm was to be sung. Others, again, take the
word as meaning "sickness," and regard it as alluding to the contents of
Mahanaim - two camps, a place near the Jabbok,
beyond Jordan, where Jacob was met by the "angels of God," and where he
divided his retinue into "two hosts" on his return from Padan-aram (Gen.
32:2). This name was afterwards given to the town which was built at that
place. It was the southern boundary of Bashan (Josh. 13:26, 30), and became
a city of the Levites (21:38). Here Saul's son Ishbosheth reigned (2 Sam.
2:8, 12), while David reigned at Hebron. Here also, after a troubled reign,
Ishbosheth was murdered by two of his own bodyguard (2 Sam. 4:5-7), who
brought his head to David at Hebron, but were, instead of being rewarded,
put to death by him for their cold-blooded murder. Many years after this,
when he fled from Jerusalem on the rebellion of his son Absalom, David made
Mahanaim, where Barzillai entertained him, his headquarters, and here he
mustered his forces which were led against the army that had gathered around
Absalom. It was while sitting at the gate of this town that tidings of the
great and decisive battle between the two hosts and of the death of his
son Absalom reached him, when he gave way to the most violent grief (2 Sam.
The only other reference to Mahanaim is as a station of one of Solomon's
purveyors (1 Kings 4:14). It has been identified with the modern Mukhumah,
a ruin found in a depressed plain called el-Bukie'a, "the little vale,"
near Penuel, south of the Jabbok, and north-east of es-Salt.
Mahaneh-dan - Judg. 18:12 = "camp of Dan"
13:25 (R.V., "Mahaneh-dan"), a place behind (i.e., west of) Kirjath-jearim,
where the six hundred Danites from Zorah and Eshtaol encamped on their way
to capture the city of Laish, which they rebuilt and called "Dan, after
the name of their father" (18:11-31). The Palestine Explorers point to a
ruin called 'Erma, situated about 3 miles from the great corn valley on
the east of Samson's home.
Mahath - grasping. (1.) A Kohathite Levite,
father of Elkanah (1 Chr. 6:35).
(2.) Another Kohathite Levite, of the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:12).
Mahazioth - visions, a Kohathite Levite,
chief of the twenty-third course of musicians (1 Chr. 25:4, 30).
Maher-shalal-hash-baz - plunder speedeth;
spoil hasteth, (Isa. 8:1-3; comp. Zeph. 1:14), a name Isaiah was commanded
first to write in large characters on a tablet, and afterwards to give as
a symbolical name to a son that was to be born to him (Isa. 8:1, 3), as
denoting the sudden attack on Damascus and Syria by the Assyrian army.
Mahlah - disease, one of the five daughters
of Zelophehad (Num. 27:1-11) who had their father's inheritance, the law
of inheritance having been altered in their favour.
Mahlon - sickly, the elder of Elimelech
the Bethlehemite's two sons by Naomi. He married Ruth and died childless
(Ruth 1:2, 5; 4:9, 10), in the land of Moab.
Mahol - dance, the father of four sons (1
Kings 4:31) who were inferior in wisdom only to Solomon.
Mail, Coat of - "a corselet of scales,"
a cuirass formed of pieces of metal overlapping each other, like fish-scales
(1 Sam. 17:5); also (38) a corselet or garment thus encased.
Main-sail - (Gr. artemon), answering to
the modern "mizzen-sail," as some suppose. Others understand the "jib,"
near the prow, or the "fore-sail," as likely to be most useful in bringing
a ship's head to the wind in the circumstances described (Acts 27:40).
Makheloth - assemblies, a station of the
Israelites in the desert (Num. 33:25, 26).
Makkedah - herdsman's place, one of
the royal cities of the Canaanites (Josh. 12:16), near which was a cave
where the five kings who had confederated against Israel sought refuge
(10:10-29). They were put to death by Joshua, who afterwards suspended
their bodies upon five trees. It has been identified with the modern village
called Sumeil, standing on a low hill about 7 miles to the north-west
of Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrin), where are ancient remains and a great
cave. The Palestine Exploration surveyors have, however, identified it
with el-Mughar, or "the caves," 3 miles from Jabneh and 2 1/2 southwest
of Ekron, because, they say, "at this site only of all possible sites
for Makkedah in the Palestine plain do caves still exist." (See ADONI-ZEDEC.)
Maktesh - mortar, a place in or near Jerusalem
inhabited by silver merchants (Zeph. 1:11). It has been conjectured that
it was the "Phoenician quarter" of the city, where the traders of that nation
resided, after the Oriental custom.
Malachi - messenger or angel, the last of
the minor prophets, and the writer of the last book of the Old Testament
canon (Mal. 4:4, 5, 6). Nothing is known of him beyond what is contained
in his book of prophecies. Some have supposed that the name is simply a
title descriptive of his character as a messenger of Jehovah, and not a
proper name. There is reason, however, to conclude that Malachi was the
ordinary name of the prophet.
He was contemporary with Nehemiah (comp. Mal. 2:8 with Neh. 13:15; Mal.
2:10-16 with Neh. 13:23). No allusion is made to him by Ezra, and he does
not mention the restoration of the temple, and hence it is inferred that
he prophesied after Haggai and Zechariah, and when the temple services
were still in existence (Mal. 1:10; 3:1, 10). It is probable that he delivered
his prophecies about B.C. 420, after the second return of Nehemiah from
Persia (Neh. 13:6), or possibly before his return.
Malachi, Prophecies of - The contents of
the book are comprised in four chapters. In the Hebrew text the third and
fourth chapters (of the A.V.) form but one. The whole consists of three
sections, preceded by an introduction (Mal. 1:1-5), in which the prophet
reminds Israel of Jehovah's love to them. The first section (1:6-2:9) contains
a stern rebuke addressed to the priests who had despised the name of Jehovah,
and been leaders in a departure from his worship and from the covenant,
and for their partiality in administering the law. In the second (2:9-16)
the people are rebuked for their intermarriages with idolatrous heathen.
In the third (2:17-4:6) he addresses the people as a whole, and warns them
of the coming of the God of judgment, preceded by the advent of the Messiah.
This book is frequently referred to in the New Testament (Matt. 11:10;
17:12; Mark 1:2; 9:11, 12; Luke 1:17; Rom. 9:13).
Malcam - (2 Sam. 12:30, Heb., R.V., "their
king;" Jer. 49:1, 3, R.V.; Zeph. 1:5), the national idol of the Ammonites.
When Rabbah was taken by David, the crown of this idol was among the spoils.
The weight is said to have been "a talent of gold" (above 100 lbs.). The
expression probably denotes its value rather than its weight. It was adorned
with precious stones.
Malchiah - Jehovah's king. (1.) The head
of the fifth division of the priests in the time of David (1 Chr. 24:9).
(2.) A priest, the father of Pashur (1 Chr. 9:12; Jer. 38:1).
(3.) One of the priests appointed as musicians to celebrate the completion
of the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:42).
(4.) A priest who stood by Ezra when he "read in the book of the law
of God" (Neh. 8:4).
(5.) Neh. 3:11.
(6.) Neh. 3:31.
(7.) Neh. 3:14.
Malchi-shua - king of help, one of the four
sons of Saul (1 Chr. 8:33). He perished along with his father in the battle
of Gilboa (1 Sam. 31:2).
Malchus - reigning, the personal servant
or slave of the high priest Caiaphas. He is mentioned only by John. Peter
cut off his right ear in the garden of Gethsemane (John 18:10). But our
Lord cured it with a touch (Matt. 26:51; Mark 14:47; Luke 22:51). This was
the last miracle of bodily cure wrought by our Lord. It is not mentioned
Mallothi - my fulness, a Kohathite Levite,
one of the sons of Heman the Levite (1 Chr. 25:4), and chief of the nineteenth
division of the temple musicians (26).
Mallows - occurs only in Job 30:4 (R.V.,
"saltwort"). The word so rendered (malluah, from melah, "salt") most probably
denotes the Atriplex halimus of Linnaeus, a species of sea purslane found
on the shores of the Dead Sea, as also of the Mediterranean, and in salt
marshes. It is a tall shrubby orach, growing to the height sometimes of
10 feet. Its buds and leaves, with those of other saline plants, are eaten
by the poor in Palestine.
Malluch - reigned over, or reigning. (1.)
A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 6:44).
(2.) A priest who returned from Babylon (Neh. 12:2).
(3.) Ezra 10:29. (4.) Ezra 10:32
Mammon - a Chaldee or Syriac word meaning
"wealth" or "riches" (Luke 16:9-11); also, by personification, the god of
riches (Matt. 6:24; Luke 16:9-11).
Mamre - manliness. (1.) An Amoritish chief
in alliance with Abraham (Gen. 14:13, 24).
(2.) The name of the place in the neighbourhood of Hebron (q.v.) where
Abraham dwelt (Gen. 23:17, 19; 35:27); called also in Authorized Version
(13:18) the "plain of Mamre," but in Revised Version more correctly "the
oaks [marg., 'terebinths'] of Mamre." The name probably denotes the "oak
grove" or the "wood of Mamre," thus designated after Abraham's ally.
This "grove" must have been within sight of or "facing" Machpelah (q.v.).
The site of Mamre has been identified with Ballatet Selta, i.e., "the
oak of rest", where there is a tree called "Abraham's oak," about a mile
and a half west of Hebron. Others identify it with er-Rameh, 2 miles north
Man - (1.) Heb. 'Adam, used as the proper
name of the first man. The name is derived from a word meaning "to be red,"
and thus the first man was called Adam because he was formed from the red
earth. It is also the generic name of the human race (Gen. 1:26, 27; 5:2;
8:21; Deut. 8:3). Its equivalents are the Latin homo and the Greek anthropos
(Matt. 5:13, 16). It denotes also man in opposition to woman (Gen. 3:12;
(2.) Heb. 'ish, like the Latin vir and Greek aner, denotes properly
a man in opposition to a woman (1 Sam. 17:33; Matt. 14:21); a husband
(Gen. 3:16; Hos. 2:16); man with reference to excellent mental qualities.
(3.) Heb. 'enosh, man as mortal, transient, perishable (2 Chr. 14:11;
Isa. 8:1; Job 15:14; Ps. 8:4; 9:19, 20; 103:15). It is applied to women
(4.) Heb. geber, man with reference to his strength, as distinguished
from women (Deut. 22:5) and from children (Ex. 12:37); a husband (Prov.
(5.) Heb. methim, men as mortal (Isa. 41:14), and as opposed to women
and children (Deut. 3:6; Job 11:3; Isa. 3:25).
Man was created by the immediate hand of God, and is generically different
from all other creatures (Gen. 1:26, 27; 2:7). His complex nature is composed
of two elements, two distinct substances, viz., body and soul (Gen. 2:7;
Eccl. 12:7; 2 Cor. 5:1-8).
The words translated "spirit" and "soul," in 1 Thess. 5:23, Heb. 4:12,
are habitually used interchangeably (Matt. 10:28; 16:26; 1 Pet. 1:22).
The "spirit" (Gr. pneuma) is the soul as rational; the "soul" (Gr. psuche)
is the same, considered as the animating and vital principle of the body.
Man was created in the likeness of God as to the perfection of his nature,
in knowledge (Col. 3:10), righteousness, and holiness (Eph. 4:24), and
as having dominion over all the inferior creatures (Gen. 1:28). He had
in his original state God's law written on his heart, and had power to
obey it, and yet was capable of disobeying, being left to the freedom
of his own will. He was created with holy dispositions, prompting him
to holy actions; but he was fallible, and did fall from his integrity
(3:1-6). (See FALL.)
Manaen - consoler, a Christian teacher at
Antioch. Nothing else is known of him beyond what is stated in Acts 13:1,
where he is spoken of as having been brought up with (Gr. syntrophos; rendered
in R.V. "foster brother" of) Herod, i.e., Herod Antipas, the tetrach, who,
with his brother Archelaus, was educated at Rome.