Oreb - raven, a prince of Midian, who, being defeated by Gideon
and put to straits, was slain along with Zeeb (Judg. 7:20-25). Many of the
Midianites perished along with him (Ps. 83:9; Isa. 10:26).
Oreb, The rock of - the place where Gideon
slew Oreb after the defeat of the Midianites (Judg. 7:25; Isa. 10:26). It
was probably the place now called Orbo, on the east of Jordan, near Bethshean.
Oren - ash or pine, the son of Jerahmeel
(1 Chr. 2:25).
Organ - some kind of wind instrument, probably
a kind of Pan's pipes (Gen. 4:21; Job 21:12; Ps. 150:4), which consisted
of seven or eight reeds of unequal length.
Orion - Heb. Kesil; i.e., "the fool", the
name of a constellation (Job 9:9; 38:31; Amos 5:8) consisting of about eighty
stars. The Vulgate renders thus, but the LXX. renders by Hesperus, i.e.,
"the evening-star," Venus. The Orientals "appear to have conceived of this
constellation under the figure of an impious giant bound upon the sky."
This giant was, according to tradition, Nimrod, the type of the folly that
contends against God. In Isa. 13:10 the plural form of the Hebrew word is
Ornan - 1 Chr. 21:15. (See ARAUNAH.)
Orpah - forelock or fawn, a Moabitess, the
wife of Chilion (Ruth 1:4; 4:10). On the death of her husband she accompanied
Naomi, her mother-in-law, part of the way to Bethlehem, and then returned
Orphans - (Lam. 5:3), i.e., desolate and
without protectors. The word occurs only here. In John 14:18 the word there
rendered "comfortless" (R.V., "desolate;" marg., "orphans") properly means
"orphans." The same Greek word is rendered "fatherless" in James 1:27.
Osprey - Heb. 'ozniyyah, an unclean bird
according to the Mosaic law (Lev. 11:13; Deut. 14:12); the fish-eating eagle
(Pandion haliaetus); one of the lesser eagles. But the Hebrew word may be
taken to denote the short-toed eagle (Circaetus gallicus of Southern Europe),
one of the most abundant of the eagle tribe found in Palestine.
Ossifrage - Heb. peres = to "break" or "crush",
the lammer-geier, or bearded vulture, the largest of the whole vulture tribe.
It was an unclean bird (Lev. 11:13; Deut. 14:12). It is not a gregarious
bird, and is found but rarely in Palestine. "When the other vultures have
picked the flesh off any animal, he comes in at the end of the feast, and
swallows the bones, or breaks them, and swallows the pieces if he cannot
otherwise extract the marrow. The bones he cracks [hence the appropriateness
of the name ossifrage, i.e., "bone-breaker"] by letting them fall on a rock
from a great height. He does not, however, confine himself to these delicacies,
but whenever he has an opportunity will devour lambs, kids, or hares. These
he generally obtains by pushing them over cliffs, when he has watched his
opportunity; and he has been known to attack men while climbing rocks, and
dash them against the bottom. But tortoises and serpents are his ordinary
food...No doubt it was a lammer-geier that mistook the bald head of the
poet AEschylus for a stone, and dropped on it the tortoise which killed
him" (Tristram's Nat. Hist.).
Ostrich - (Lam. 4:3), the rendering
of Hebrew pl. enim; so called from its greediness and gluttony. The allusion
here is to the habit of the ostrich with reference to its eggs, which
is thus described: "The outer layer of eggs is generally so ill covered
that they are destroyed in quantities by jackals, wild-cats, etc., and
that the natives carry them away, only taking care not to leave the marks
of their footsteps, since, when the ostrich comes and finds that her nest
is discovered, she crushes the whole brood, and builds a nest elsewhere."
In Job 39:13 this word in the Authorized Version is the rendering of a
Hebrew word (notsah) which means "feathers," as in the Revised Version.
In the same verse the word "peacocks" of the Authorized Version is the
rendering of the Hebrew pl. renanim, properly meaning "ostriches," as
in the Revised Version. (See OWL .)
Othni - a lion of Jehovah, a son of Shemaiah,
and one of the temple porters in the time of David (1 Chr. 26:7). He was
a "mighty man of valour."
Othniel - lion of God, the first of the
judges. His wife Achsah was the daughter of Caleb (Josh. 15:16, 17; Judg.
1:13). He gained her hand as a reward for his bravery in leading a successful
expedition against Debir (q.v.). Some thirty years after the death of Joshua,
the Israelites fell under the subjection of Chushan-rishathaim (q.v.), the
king of Mesopotamia. He oppressed them for full eight years, when they "cried"
unto Jehovah, and Othniel was raised up to be their deliverer. He was the
younger brother of Caleb (Judg. 3:8, 9-11). He is the only judge mentioned
connected with the tribe of Judah. Under him the land had rest forty years.
Ouches - an Old English word denoting cavities
or sockets in which gems were set (Ex. 28:11).
Oven - Heb. tannur, (Hos. 7:4). In towns
there appear to have been public ovens. There was a street in Jerusalem
(Jer. 37:21) called "bakers' street" (the only case in which the name of
a street in Jerusalem is preserved). The words "tower of the furnaces" (Neh.
3:11; 12:38) is more properly "tower of the ovens" (Heb. tannurim). These
resemble the ovens in use among ourselves.
There were other private ovens of different kinds. Some were like large
jars made of earthenware or copper, which were heated inside with wood
(1 Kings 17:12; Isa. 44:15; Jer. 7:18) or grass (Matt. 6:30), and when
the fire had burned out, small pieces of dough were placed inside or spread
in thin layers on the outside, and were thus baked. (See FURNACE.)
Pits were also formed for the same purposes, and lined with cement.
These were used after the same manner.
Heated stones, or sand heated by a fire heaped over it, and also flat
irons pans, all served as ovens for the preparation of bread. (See Gen.
18:6; 1 Kings 19:6.)
Owl - (1.) Heb. bath-haya'anah, "daughter
of greediness" or of "shouting." In the list of unclean birds (Lev. 11:16;
Deut. 14:15); also mentioned in Job 30:29; Isa. 13:21; 34:13; 43:20; Jer.
50:39; Micah 1:8. In all these passages the Revised Version translates "ostrich"
(q.v.), which is the correct rendering.
(2.) Heb. yanshuph, rendered "great owl" in Lev. 11:17; Deut. 14:16,
and "owl" in Isa. 34:11. This is supposed to be the Egyptian eagle-owl
(Bubo ascalaphus), which takes the place of the eagle-owl (Bubo maximus)
found in Southern Europe. It is found frequenting the ruins of Egypt and
also of the Holy Land. "Its cry is a loud, prolonged, and very powerful
hoot. I know nothing which more vividly brought to my mind the sense of
desolation and loneliness than the re-echoing hoot of two or three of
these great owls as I stood at midnight among the ruined temples of Baalbek"
The LXX. and Vulgate render this word by "ibis", i.e., the Egyptian
(3.) Heb. kos, rendered "little owl" in Lev. 11:17; Deut. 14:16, and
"owl" in Ps. 102:6. The Arabs call this bird "the mother of ruins." It
is by far the most common of all the owls of Palestine. It is the Athene
persica, the bird of Minerva, the symbol of ancient Athens.
(4.) Heb. kippoz, the "great owl" (Isa. 34:15); Revised Version, "arrow-snake;"
LXX. and Vulgate, "hedgehog," reading in the text, kippod, instead of
kippoz. There is no reason to doubt the correctness of the rendering of
the Authorized Version. Tristram says: "The word [i.e., kippoz] is very
possibly an imitation of the cry of the scops owl (Scops giu), which is
very common among ruins, caves, and old walls of towns...It is a migrant,
returning to Palestine in spring."
(5.) Heb. lilith, "screech owl" (Isa. 34:14, marg. and R.V., "night
monster"). The Hebrew word is from a root signifying "night." Some species
of the owl is obviously intended by this word. It may be the hooting or
tawny owl (Syrnium aluco), which is common in Egypt and in many parts
of Palestine. This verse in Isaiah is "descriptive of utter and perpetual
desolation, of a land that should be full of ruins, and inhabited by the
animals that usually make such ruins their abode."
Ox - Heb. bakar, "cattle;" "neat cattle",
(Gen. 12:16; 34:28; Job 1:3, 14; 42:12, etc.); not to be muzzled when treading
the corn (Deut. 25:4). Referred to by our Lord in his reproof to the Pharisees
(Luke 13:15; 14:5).
Ox goad - mentioned only in Judg. 3:31,
the weapon with which Shamgar (q.v.) slew six hundred Philistines. "The
ploughman still carries his goad, a weapon apparently more fitted for
the hand of the soldier than the peaceful husbandman. The one I saw was
of the 'oak of Bashan,' and measured upwards of ten feet in length. At
one end was an iron spear, and at the other a piece of the same metal
flattened. One can well understand how a warrior might use such a weapon
with effect in the battle-field" (Porter's Syria, etc.). (See GOAD.)
Ozem - strong. (1.) One of David's brothers;
the sixth son of Jesse (1 Chr. 2:15).
(2.) A son of Jerahmeel (1 Chr. 2:25).
Ozias - son of Joram (Matt. 1:8); called
also Uzziah (2 Kings 15:32, 34).
Ozni - hearing, one of the sons of Gad;
also called Ezbon (Gen. 46:16; Num. 26:16).
Paarai - opening of the Lord, "the Arbite,"
one of David's heroes (2 Sam. 23:35); called also Naarai, 1 Chr. 11:37.
Padan - a plain, occurring only in Gen.
48:7, where it designates Padan-aram.
Padan-aram - the plain of Aram, or the plain
of the highlands, (Gen. 25:20; 28:2, 5-7; 31:18, etc.), commonly regarded
as the district of Mesopotamia (q.v.) lying around Haran.
Pagiel - God allots, a prince of the tribe
of Asher (Num. 1:13), in the wilderness.
Pahath-moab - governor of Moab, a person
whose descendants returned from the Captivity and assisted in rebuilding
Jerusalem (Ezra 2:6; 8:4; 10:30).
Paint - Jezebel "painted her face" (2 Kings
9:30); and the practice of painting the face and the eyes seems to have
been common (Jer. 4:30; Ezek. 23:40). An allusion to this practice is found
in the name of Job's daughter (42:14) Kerenhappuch (q.v.). Paintings in
the modern sense of the word were unknown to the ancient Jews.
Palace - Used now only of royal dwellings,
although originally meaning simply (as the Latin word palatium, from which
it is derived, shows) a building surrounded by a fence or a paling. In the
Authorized Version there are many different words so rendered, presenting
different ideas, such as that of citadel or lofty fortress or royal residence
(Neh. 1:1; Dan. 8:2). It is the name given to the temple fortress (Neh.
2:8) and to the temple itself (1 Chr. 29:1). It denotes also a spacious
building or a great house (Dan. 1:4; 4:4, 29: Esther 1:5; 7:7), and a fortified
place or an enclosure (Ezek. 25:4). Solomon's palace is described in 1 Kings
7:1-12 as a series of buildings rather than a single great structure. Thirteen
years were spent in their erection. This palace stood on the eastern hill,
adjoining the temple on the south.
In the New Testament it designates the official residence of Pilate
or that of the high priest (Matt. 26:3, 58, 69; Mark 14:54, 66; John 18:15).
In Phil. 1:13 this word is the rendering of the Greek praitorion, meaning
the praetorian cohorts at Rome (the life-guard of the Caesars). Paul was
continually chained to a soldier of that corps (Acts 28:16), and hence
his name and sufferings became known in all the praetorium. The "soldiers
that kept" him would, on relieving one another on guard, naturally spread
the tidings regarding him among their comrades. Some, however, regard
the praetroium (q.v.) as the barrack within the palace (the palatium)
of the Caesars in Rome where a detachment of these praetorian guards was
stationed, or as the camp of the guards placed outside the eastern walls
"In the chambers which were occupied as guard-rooms," says Dr. Manning,
"by the praetorian troops on duty in the palace, a number of rude caricatures
are found roughly scratched upon the walls, just such as may be seen upon
barrack walls in every part of the world. Amongst these is one of a human
figure nailed upon a cross. To add to the 'offence of the cross,' the
crucified one is represented with the head of an animal, probably that
of an ass. Before it stands the figure of a Roman legionary with one hand
upraised in the attitude of worship. Underneath is the rude, misspelt,
ungrammatical inscription, Alexamenos worships his god. It can scarcely
be doubted that we have here a contemporary caricature, executed by one
of the praetorian guard, ridiculing the faith of a Christian comrade."
Palestine - originally denoted only the
sea-coast of the land of Canaan inhabited by the Philistines (Ex. 15:14;
Isa. 14:29, 31; Joel 3:4), and in this sense exclusively the Hebrew name
Pelesheth (rendered "Philistia" in Ps. 60:8; 83:7; 87:4; 108:9) occurs in
the Old Testament.
Not till a late period in Jewish history was this name used to denote
"the land of the Hebrews" in general (Gen. 40:15). It is also called "the
holy land" (Zech. 2:12), the "land of Jehovah" (Hos. 9:3; Ps. 85:1), the
"land of promise" (Heb. 11:9), because promised to Abraham (Gen. 12:7;
24:7), the "land of Canaan" (Gen. 12:5), the "land of Israel" (1 Sam.
13:19), and the "land of Judah" (Isa. 19:17).
The territory promised as an inheritance to the seed of Abraham (Gen.
15:18-21; Num. 34:1-12) was bounded on the east by the river Euphrates,
on the west by the Mediterranean, on the north by the "entrance of Hamath,"
and on the south by the "river of Egypt." This extent of territory, about
60,000 square miles, was at length conquered by David, and was ruled over
also by his son Solomon (2 Sam. 8; 1 Chr. 18; 1 Kings 4:1, 21). This vast
empire was the Promised Land; but Palestine was only a part of it, terminating
in the north at the southern extremity of the Lebanon range, and in the
south in the wilderness of Paran, thus extending in all to about 144 miles
in length. Its average breadth was about 60 miles from the Mediterranean
on the west to beyond the Jordan. It has fittingly been designated "the
least of all lands." Western Palestine, on the south of Gaza, is only
about 40 miles in breadth from the Mediterranean to the Dead Sea, narrowing
gradually toward the north, where it is only 20 miles from the sea-coast
to the Jordan.
Palestine, "set in the midst" (Ezek. 5:5) of all other lands, is the
most remarkable country on the face of the earth. No single country of
such an extent has so great a variety of climate, and hence also of plant
and animal life. Moses describes it as "a good land, a land of brooks
of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills;
a land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates;
a land of oil olive, and honey; a land wherein thou shalt not eat bread
without scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing in it; a land whose
stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass" (Deut.
"In the time of Christ the country looked, in all probability, much
as now. The whole land consists of rounded limestone hills, fretted into
countless stony valleys, offering but rarely level tracts, of which Esdraelon
alone, below Nazareth, is large enough to be seen on the map. The original
woods had for ages disappeared, though the slopes were dotted, as now,
with figs, olives, and other fruit-trees where there was any soil. Permanent
streams were even then unknown, the passing rush of winter torrents being
all that was seen among the hills. The autumn and spring rains, caught
in deep cisterns hewn out like huge underground jars in the soft limestone,
with artificial mud-banked ponds still found near all villages, furnished
water. Hills now bare, or at best rough with stunted growth, were then
terraced, so as to grow vines, olives, and grain. To-day almost desolate,
the country then teemed with population. Wine-presses cut in the rocks,
endless terraces, and the ruins of old vineyard towers are now found amidst
solitudes overgrown for ages with thorns and thistles, or with wild shrubs
and poor gnarled scrub" (Geikie's Life of Christ).
From an early period the land was inhabited by the descendants of Canaan,
who retained possession of the whole land "from Sidon to Gaza" till the
time of the conquest by Joshua, when it was occupied by the twelve tribes.
Two tribes and a half had their allotments given them by Moses on the
east of the Jordan (Deut. 3:12-20; comp. Num. 1:17-46; Josh. 4:12-13).
The remaining tribes had their portion on the west of Jordan.
From the conquest till the time of Saul, about four hundred years, the
people were governed by judges. For a period of one hundred and twenty
years the kingdom retained its unity while it was ruled by Saul and David
and Solomon. On the death of Solomon, his son Rehoboam ascended the throne;
but his conduct was such that ten of the tribes revolted, and formed an
independent monarchy, called the kingdom of Israel, or the northern kingdom,
the capital of which was first Shechem and afterwards Samaria. This kingdom
was destroyed. The Israelites were carried captive by Shalmanezer, king
of Assyria, B.C. 722, after an independent existence of two hundred and
fifty-three years. The place of the captives carried away was supplied
by tribes brought from the east, and thus was formed the Samaritan nation
(2 Kings 17:24-29).
Nebuchadnezzar came up against the kingdom of the two tribes, the kingdom
of Judah, the capital of which was Jerusalem, one hundred and thirty-four
years after the overthrow of the kingdom of Israel. He overthrew the city,
plundered the temple, and carried the people into captivity to Babylon
(B.C. 587), where they remained seventy years. At the close of the period
of the Captivity, they returned to their own land, under the edict of
Cyrus (Ezra 1:1-4). They rebuilt the city and temple, and restored the
old Jewish commonwealth.
For a while after the Restoration the Jews were ruled by Zerubbabel,
Ezra, and Nehemiah, and afterwards by the high priests, assisted by the
Sanhedrin. After the death of Alexander the Great at Babylon (B.C. 323),
his vast empire was divided between his four generals. Egypt, Arabia,
Palestine, and Coele-Syria fell to the lot of Ptolemy Lagus. Ptolemy took
possession of Palestine in B.C. 320, and carried nearly one hundred thousand
of the inhabitants of Jerusalem into Egypt. He made Alexandria the capital
of his kingdom, and treated the Jews with consideration, confirming them
in the enjoyment of many privileges.
After suffering persecution at the hands of Ptolemy's successors, the
Jews threw off the Egyptian yoke, and became subject to Antiochus the
Great, the king of Syria. The cruelty and opression of the successors
of Antiochus at length led to the revolt under the Maccabees (B.C. 163),
when they threw off the Syrian yoke.
In the year B.C. 68, Palestine was reduced by Pompey the Great to a
Roman province. He laid the walls of the city in ruins, and massacred
some twelve thousand of the inhabitants. He left the temple, however,
unijured. About twenty-five years after this the Jews revolted and cast
off the Roman yoke. They were however, subdued by Herod the Great (q.v.).
The city and the temple were destroyed, and many of the inhabitants were
put to death. About B.C. 20, Herod proceeded to rebuild the city and restore
the ruined temple, which in about nine years and a half was so far completed
that the sacred services could be resumed in it (comp. John 2:20). He
was succeeded by his son Archelaus, who was deprived of his power, however,
by Augustus, A.D. 6, when Palestine became a Roman province, ruled by
Roman governors or procurators. Pontius Pilate was the fifth of these
procurators. He was appointed to his office A.D. 25.
Exclusive of Idumea, the kingdom of Herod the Great comprehended the
whole of the country originally divided among the twelve tribes, which
he divided into four provinces or districts. This division was recognized
so long as Palestine was under the Roman dominion. These four provinces
were, (1) Judea, the southern portion of the country; (2) Samaria, the
middle province, the northern boundary of which ran along the hills to
the south of the plain of Esdraelon; (3) Galilee, the northern province;
and (4) Peraea (a Greek name meaning the "opposite country"), the country
lying east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea. This province was subdivided
into these districts, (1) Peraea proper, lying between the rivers Arnon
and Jabbok; (2) Galaaditis (Gilead); (3) Batanaea; (4) Gaulonitis (Jaulan);
(5) Ituraea or Auranitis, the ancient Bashan; (6) Trachonitis; (7) Abilene;
(8) Decapolis, i.e., the region of the ten cities. The whole territory
of Palestine, including the portions alloted to the trans-Jordan tribes,
extended to about eleven thousand square miles. Recent exploration has
shown the territory on the west of Jordan alone to be six thousand square
miles in extent, the size of the principality of Wales.
Pallu - separated, the second son of Reuben
(1 Chr. 5:3); called Phallu, Gen. 46:9. He was the father of the Phalluites
(Ex. 6:14; Num. 26:5, 8).
Palmer-worm - (Heb. gazam). The English
word may denote either a caterpillar (as rendered by the LXX.), which wanders
like a palmer or pilgrim, or which travels like pilgrims in bands (Joel
1:4; 2:25), the wingless locusts, or the migratory locust in its larva state.
Palm tree - (Heb. tamar), the date-palm
characteristic of Palestine. It is described as "flourishing" (Ps. 92:12),
tall (Cant. 7:7), "upright" (Jer. 10:5). Its branches are a symbol of
victory (Rev. 7:9). "Rising with slender stem 40 or 50, at times even
80, feet aloft, its only branches, the feathery, snow-like, pale-green
fronds from 6 to 12 feet long, bending from its top, the palm attracts
the eye wherever it is seen." The whole land of Palestine was called by
the Greeks and Romans Phoenicia, i.e., "the land of palms." Tadmor in
the desert was called by the Greeks and Romans Palmyra, i.e., "the city
of palms." The finest specimens of this tree grew at Jericho (Deut. 34:3)
and Engedi and along the banks of the Jordan. Branches of the palm tree
were carried at the feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:40). At our Lord's triumphal
entrance into Jerusalem the crowds took palm branches, and went forth
to meet him, crying, "Hosanna: Blessed is the King of Israel that cometh
in the name of the Lord" (Matt. 21:8; John 12:13). (See DATE.)
Palm trees, The city of - the name given
to Jericho (q.v.), Deut. 34:3; Judg. 1:16; 3:13.
Palsy - a shorter form of "paralysis." Many
persons thus afflicted were cured by our Lord (Matt. 4:24; 8:5-13; 9:2-7;
Mark 2:3-11; Luke 7:2-10; John 5:5-7) and the apostles (Acts 8:7; 9:33,
Palti - deliverance from the Lord, one of
the spies representing the tribe of Benjamin (Num. 13:9).
Paltiel - deliverance of God, the prince
of Issachar who assisted "to divide the land by inheritance" (Num. 34:26).
Paltite - the designation of one of David's
heroes (2 Sam. 23:26); called also the Pelonite (1 Chr. 11:27).
Pamphylia - Paul and his company, loosing
from Paphos, sailed north-west and came to Perga, the capital of Pamphylia
(Acts 13:13, 14), a province about the middle of the southern sea-board
of Asia Minor. It lay between Lycia on the west and Cilicia on the east.
There were strangers from Pamphylia at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost
Pan - a vessel of metal or earthenware used
in culinary operations; a cooking-pan or frying-pan frequently referred
to in the Old Testament (Lev. 2:5; 6:21; Num. 11:8; 1 Sam. 2:14, etc.).
The "ash-pans" mentioned in Ex. 27:3 were made of copper, and were used
in connection with the altar of burnt-offering. The "iron pan" mentioned
in Ezek. 4:3 (marg., "flat plate " or "slice") was probably a mere plate
of iron used for baking. The "fire-pans" of Ex. 27:3 were fire-shovels
used for taking up coals. The same Hebrew word is rendered "snuff-dishes"
(25:38; 37:23) and "censers" (Lev. 10:1; 16:12; Num. 4:14, etc.). These
were probably simply metal vessels employed for carrying burning embers
from the brazen altar to the altar of incense.
The "frying-pan" mentioned in Lev. 2:7; 7:9 was a pot for boiling.
Pannag - (Ezek. 27:17; marg. R.V., "perhaps
a kind of confection") the Jews explain as the name of a kind of sweet pastry.
Others take it as the name of some place, identifying it with Pingi, on
the road between Damascus and Baalbec. "Pannaga" is the Sanscrit name of
an aromatic plant (comp. Gen. 43:11).
Paper - The expression in the Authorized
Version (Isa. 19:7), "the paper reeds by the brooks," is in the Revised
Version more correctly "the meadows by the Nile." The words undoubtedly
refer to a grassy place on the banks of the Nile fit for pasturage.
In 2 John 1:12 the word is used in its proper sense. The material so
referred to was manufactured from the papyrus, and hence its name. The
papyrus (Heb. gome) was a kind of bulrush (q.v.). It is mentioned by Job
(8:11) and Isaiah (35:7). It was used for many purposes. This plant (Papyrus
Nilotica) is now unknown in Egypt; no trace of it can be found. The unaccountable
disappearance of this plant from Egypt was foretold by Isaiah (19:6, 7)
as a part of the divine judgment on that land. The most extensive papyrus
growths now known are in the marshes at the northern end of the lake of
Paphos - the capital of the island of Cyprus,
and therefore the residence of the Roman governor. It was visited by Paul
and Barnabas on their first missionary tour (Acts 13:6). It is new Paphos
which is here meant. It lay on the west coast of the island, about 8 miles
north of old Paphos. Its modern name is Baffa.
Parable - (Gr. parabole), a placing beside;
a comparison; equivalent to the Heb. mashal, a similitude. In the Old Testament
this is used to denote (1) a proverb (1 Sam. 10:12; 24:13; 2 Chr. 7:20),
(2) a prophetic utterance (Num. 23:7; Ezek. 20:49), (3) an enigmatic saying
(Ps. 78:2; Prov. 1:6). In the New Testament, (1) a proverb (Mark 7:17; Luke
4:23), (2) a typical emblem (Heb. 9:9; 11:19), (3) a similitude or allegory
(Matt. 15:15; 24:32; Mark 3:23; Luke 5:36; 14:7); (4) ordinarily, in a more
restricted sense, a comparison of earthly with heavenly things, "an earthly
story with a heavenly meaning," as in the parables of our Lord.
Instruction by parables has been in use from the earliest times. A large
portion of our Lord's public teaching consisted of parables. He himself
explains his reasons for this in his answer to the inquiry of the disciples,
"Why speakest thou to them in parables?" (Matt. 13:13-15; Mark 4:11, 12;
Luke 8:9, 10). He followed in so doing the rule of the divine procedures,
as recorded in Matt. 13:13.
The parables uttered by our Lord are all recorded in the synoptical
(i.e., the first three) Gospels. The fourth Gospel contains no parable
properly so called, although the illustration of the good shepherd (John
10:1-16) has all the essential features of a parable. (See List of Parables
Paradise - a Persian word (pardes),
properly meaning a "pleasure-ground" or "park" or "king's garden." (See
EDEN.) It came in course of time to be used as a name for the world of
happiness and rest hereafter (Luke 23:43; 2 Cor. 12:4; Rev. 2:7). For
"garden" in Gen. 2:8 the LXX. has "paradise."
Parah - the heifer, a town in Benjamin (Josh.
18:23), supposed to be identical with the ruins called Far'ah, about 6 miles
north-east of Jerusalem, in the Wady Far'ah, which is a branch of the Wady
Paran - abounding in foliage, or abounding
in caverns, (Gen. 21:21), a desert tract forming the north-eastern division
of the peninsula of Sinai, lying between the 'Arabah on the east and the
wilderness of Shur on the west. It is intersected in a north-western direction
by the Wady el-'Arish. It bears the modern name of Badiet et-Tih, i.e.,
"the desert of the wanderings." This district, through which the children
of Israel wandered, lay three days' march from Sinai (Num. 10:12, 33). From
Kadesh, in this wilderness, spies (q.v.) were sent to spy the land (13:3,
26). Here, long afterwards, David found refuge from Saul (1 Sam. 25:1, 4).
Paran, Mount - probably the hilly region
or upland wilderness on the north of the desert of Paran forming the southern
boundary of the Promised Land (Deut. 33:2; Hab. 3:3).
Parbar - (1 Chr. 26:18), a place apparently
connected with the temple, probably a "suburb" (q.v.), as the word is rendered
in 2 Kings 23:11; a space between the temple wall and the wall of the court;
an open portico into which the chambers of the official persons opened (1
Parched ground - (Isa. 35:7), Heb. sharab,
a "mirage", a phenomenon caused by the refraction of the rays of the sun
on the glowing sands of the desert, causing them suddenly to assume the
appearance of a beautiful lake. It is called by the modern Arabs by the
same Hebrew name serab.
Parchment - a skin prepared for writing
on; so called from Pergamos (q.v.), where this was first done (2 Tim. 4:13).
Pardon - the forgiveness of sins granted
freely (Isa. 43:25), readily (Neh. 9:17; Ps. 86:5), abundantly (Isa. 55:7;
Rom. 5:20). Pardon is an act of a sovereign, in pure sovereignty, granting
simply a remission of the penalty due to sin, but securing neither honour
nor reward to the pardoned. Justification (q.v.), on the other hand, is
the act of a judge, and not of a sovereign, and includes pardon and, at
the same time, a title to all the rewards and blessings promised in the
covenant of life.
Parlour - (from the Fr. parler, "to speak")
denotes an "audience chamber," but that is not the import of the Hebrew
word so rendered. It corresponds to what the Turks call a kiosk, as in Judg.
3:20 (the "summer parlour"), or as in the margin of the Revised Version
("the upper chamber of cooling"), a small room built on the roof of the
house, with open windows to catch the breeze, and having a door communicating
with the outside by which persons seeking an audience may be admitted. While
Eglon was resting in such a parlour, Ehud, under pretence of having a message
from God to him, was admitted into his presence, and murderously plunged
his dagger into his body (21, 22).
The "inner parlours" in 1 Chr. 28:11 were the small rooms or chambers
which Solomon built all round two sides and one end of the temple (1 Kings
6:5), "side chambers;" or they may have been, as some think, the porch
and the holy place.
In 1 Sam. 9:22 the Revised Version reads "guest chamber," a chamber
at the high place specially used for sacrificial feasts.
Parmashta - strong-fisted, a son of Haman,
slain in Shushan (Esther 9:9).
Parmenas - constant, one of the seven "deacons"
Parshandatha - an interpreter of the law,
the eldest of Haman's sons, slain in Shushan (Esther 9:7).
Parthians - were present in Jerusalem at
Pentecost (Acts 2:9). Parthia lay on the east of Media and south of Hyrcania,
which separated it from the Caspian Sea. It corresponded with the western
half of the modern Khorasan, and now forms a part of Persia.
Partridge - (Heb. kore, i.e., "caller").
This bird, unlike our own partridge, is distinguished by "its ringing call-note,
which in early morning echoes from cliff to cliff amidst the barrenness
of the wilderness of Judea and the glens of the forest of Carmel" hence
its Hebrew name. This name occurs only twice in Scripture.
In 1 Sam. 26:20 "David alludes to the mode of chase practised now, as
of old, when the partridge, continuously chased, was at length, when fatigued,
knocked down by sticks thrown along the ground." It endeavours to save
itself "by running, in preference to flight, unless when suddenly started.
It is not an inhabitant of the plain or the corn-field, but of rocky hill-sides"
(Tristram's Nat. Hist.).
In Jer. 17:11 the prophet is illustrating the fact that riches unlawfully
acquired are precarious and short-lived. The exact nature of the illustration
cannot be precisely determined. Some interpret the words as meaning that
the covetous man will be as surely disappointed as the partridge which
gathers in eggs, not of her own laying, and is unable to hatch them; others
(Tristram), with more probability, as denoting that the man who enriches
himself by unjust means "will as surely be disappointed as the partridge
which commences to sit, but is speedily robbed of her hopes of a brood"
by her eggs being stolen away from her.
The commonest partridge in Palestine is the Caccabis saxatilis, the
Greek partridge. The partridge of the wilderness (Ammo-perdix heyi) is
a smaller species. Both are essentially mountain and rock birds, thus
differing from the English partridge, which loves cultivated fields.
Paruah - flourishing, the father of Jehoshaphat,
appointed to provide monthly supplies for Solomon from the tribe of Issachar
(1 Kings 4:17).
Parvaim - the name of a country from which
Solomon obtained gold for the temple (2 Chr. 3:6). Some have identified
it with Ophir, but it is uncertain whether it is even the name of a place.
It may simply, as some think, denote "Oriental regions."
Pasach - clearing, one of the sons of Japhlet,
of the tribe of Asher (1 Chr. 7:33).
Pas-dammim - the border of blood = Ephes-dammim
(q.v.), between Shochoh and Azekah (1 Sam. 17:1; 1 Chr. 11:13).
Pashur - release. (1.) The son of Immer
(probably the same as Amariah, Neh. 10:3; 12:2), the head of one of the
priestly courses, was "chief governor [Heb. paqid nagid, meaning "deputy
governor"] of the temple" (Jer. 20:1, 2). At this time the nagid,
or "governor," of the temple was Seraiah the high priest (1 Chr. 6:14),
and Pashur was his paqid, or "deputy." Enraged at the plainness with
which Jeremiah uttered his solemn warnings of coming judgements, because
of the abounding iniquity of the times, Pashur ordered the temple police
to seize him, and after inflicting on him corporal punishment (forty stripes
save one, Deut. 25:3; comp. 2 Cor. 11:24), to put him in the stocks in the
high gate of Benjamin, where he remained all night. On being set free in
the morning, Jeremiah went to Pashur (Jer. 20:3, 5), and announced to him
that God had changed his name to Magor-missabib, i.e., "terror on every
side." The punishment that fell upon him was probably remorse, when he saw
the ruin he had brought upon his country by advising a close alliance with
Egypt in opposition to the counsels of Jeremiah (20:4-6). He was carried
captive to Babylon, and died there.
(2.) A priest sent by king Zedekiah to Jeremiah to inquire of the Lord
(1 Chr. 24:9; Jer. 21:1; 38:1-6). He advised that the prophet should be
put to death.
(3.) The father of Gedaliah. He was probably the same as (1).
Passage - denotes in Josh. 22:11, as is
generally understood, the place where the children of Israel passed over
Jordan. The words "the passage of" are, however, more correctly rendered
"by the side of," or "at the other side of," thus designating the position
of the great altar erected by the eastern tribes on their return home. This
word also designates the fords of the Jordan to the south of the Sea of
Galilee (Judg. 12:5, 6), and a pass or rocky defile (1 Sam. 13:23; 14:4).
"Passages" in Jer. 22:20 is in the Revised Version more correctly "Abarim"
(q.v.), a proper name.
Passion - Only once found, in Acts 1:3,
meaning suffering, referring to the sufferings of our Lord.
Passover - the name given to the chief of
the three great historical annual festivals of the Jews. It was kept in
remembrance of the Lord's passing over the houses of the Israelites (Ex.
12:13) when the first born of all the Egyptians were destroyed. It is called
also the "feast of unleavened bread" (Ex. 23:15; Mark 14:1; Acts 12:3),
because during its celebration no leavened bread was to be eaten or even
kept in the household (Ex. 12:15). The word afterwards came to denote the
lamb that was slain at the feast (Mark 14:12-14; 1 Cor. 5:7).
A detailed account of the institution of this feast is given in Ex.
12 and 13. It was afterwards incorporated in the ceremonial law (Lev.
23:4-8) as one of the great festivals of the nation. In after times many
changes seem to have taken place as to the mode of its celebration as
compared with its first celebration (comp. Deut. 16:2, 5, 6; 2 Chr. 30:16;
Lev. 23:10-14; Num. 9:10, 11; 28:16-24). Again, the use of wine (Luke
22:17, 20), of sauce with the bitter herbs (John 13:26), and the service
of praise were introduced.
There is recorded only one celebration of this feast between the Exodus
and the entrance into Canaan, namely, that mentioned in Num. 9:5. (See
JOSIAH.) It was primarily a commemorative ordinance, reminding the children
of Israel of their deliverance out of Egypt; but it was, no doubt, also
a type of the great deliverance wrought by the Messiah for all his people
from the doom of death on account of sin, and from the bondage of sin
itself, a worse than Egyptian bondage (1 Cor. 5:7; John 1:29; 19:32-36;
1 Pet. 1:19; Gal. 4:4, 5). The appearance of Jerusalem on the occasion
of the Passover in the time of our Lord is thus fittingly described: "The
city itself and the neighbourhood became more and more crowded as the
feast approached, the narrow streets and dark arched bazaars showing the
same throng of men of all nations as when Jesus had first visited Jerusalem
as a boy. Even the temple offered a strange sight at this season, for
in parts of the outer courts a wide space was covered with pens for sheep,
goats, and cattle to be used for offerings. Sellers shouted the merits
of their beasts, sheep bleated, oxen lowed. Sellers of doves also had
a place set apart for them. Potters offered a choice from huge stacks
of clay dishes and ovens for roasting and eating the Passover lamb. Booths
for wine, oil, salt, and all else needed for sacrifices invited customers.
Persons going to and from the city shortened their journey by crossing
the temple grounds, often carrying burdens...Stalls to change foreign
money into the shekel of the temple, which alone could be paid to the
priests, were numerous, the whole confusion making the sanctuary like
a noisy market" (Geikie's Life of Christ).
Patara - a city on the south-west coast
of Lycia at which Paul landed on his return from his third missionary journey
(Acts 21:1, 2). Here he found a larger vessel, which was about to sail across
the open sea to the coast of Phoenicia. In this vessel he set forth, and
reached the city of Tyre in perhaps two or three days.
Pathros - the name generally given to Upper
Egypt (the Thebaid of the Greeks), as distinguished from Matsor, or Lower
Egypt (Isa. 11:11; Jer. 44:1, 15; Ezek. 30:14), the two forming Mizraim.
After the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, colonies of Jews settled
"in the country of Pathros" and other parts of Egypt.
Patmos - a small rocky and barren island,
one of the group called the "Sporades," in the AEgean Sea. It is mentioned
in Scripture only in Rev. 1:9. It was on this island, to which John was
banished by the emperor Domitian (A.D. 95), that he received from God
the wondrous revelation recorded in his book. This has naturally invested
it with the deepest interest for all time. It is now called Patmo. (See
Patriarch - a name employed in the New Testament
with reference to Abraham (Heb. 7:4), the sons of Jacob (Acts 7:8, 9), and
to David (2:29). This name is generally applied to the progenitors of families
or "heads of the fathers" (Josh. 14:1) mentioned in Scripture, and they
are spoken of as antediluvian (from Adam to Noah) and post-diluvian (from
Noah to Jacob) patriachs. But the expression "the patriarch," by way of
eminence, is applied to the twelve sons of Jacob, or to Abraham, Isaac,
"Patriachal longevity presents itself as one of the most striking of
the facts concerning mankind which the early history of the Book of Genesis
places before us...There is a large amount of consentient tradition to
the effect that the life of man was originally far more prolonged than
it is at present, extending to at least several hundred years. The Babylonians,
Egyptians, and Chinese exaggerated these hundreds into thousands. The
Greeks and Romans, with more moderation, limited human life within a thousand
or eight hundred years. The Hindus still farther shortened the term. Their
books taught that in the first age of the world man was free from diseases,
and lived ordinarily four hundred years; in the second age the term of
life was reduced from four hundred to three hundred; in the third it became
two hundred; in the fourth and last it was brought down to one hundred"
(Rawlinson's Historical Illustrations).
Patrobas - a Christian at Rome to whom Paul
sent salutations (Rom. 16:14).
Pau - (Gen. 36:39) or Pai (1 Chr. 1:50),
bleating, an Edomitish city ruled over by Hadar.
Paul - =Saul (q.v.) was born about the same
time as our Lord. His circumcision-name was Saul, and probably the name
Paul was also given to him in infancy "for use in the Gentile world," as
"Saul" would be his Hebrew home-name. He was a native of Tarsus, the capital
of Cilicia, a Roman province in the south-east of Asia Minor. That city
stood on the banks of the river Cydnus, which was navigable thus far; hence
it became a centre of extensive commercial traffic with many countries along
the shores of the Mediterranean, as well as with the countries of central
Asia Minor. It thus became a city distinguished for the wealth of its inhabitants.
Tarsus was also the seat of a famous university, higher in reputation
even than the universities of Athens and Alexandria, the only others that
then existed. Here Saul was born, and here he spent his youth, doubtless
enjoying the best education his native city could afford. His father was
of the straitest sect of the Jews, a Pharisee, of the tribe of Benjamin,
of pure and unmixed Jewish blood (Acts 23:6; Phil. 3:5). We learn nothing
regarding his mother; but there is reason to conclude that she was a pious
woman, and that, like-minded with her husband, she exercised all a mother
influence in moulding the character of her son, so that he could afterwards
speak of himself as being, from his youth up, "touching the righteousness
which is in the law, blameless" (Phil. 3:6).
We read of his sister and his sister's son (Acts 23:16), and of other
relatives (Rom. 16:7, 11, 12). Though a Jew, his father was a Roman citizen.
How he obtained this privilege we are not informed. "It might be bought,
or won by distinguished service to the state, or acquired in several other
ways; at all events, his son was freeborn. It was a valuable privilege,
and one that was to prove of great use to Paul, although not in the way
in which his father might have been expected to desire him to make use
of it." Perhaps the most natural career for the youth to follow was that
of a merchant. "But it was decided that...he should go to college and
become a rabbi, that is, a minister, a teacher, and a lawyer all in one."
According to Jewish custom, however, he learned a trade before entering
on the more direct preparation for the sacred profession. The trade he
acquired was the making of tents from goats' hair cloth, a trade which
was one of the commonest in Tarsus.
His preliminary education having been completed, Saul was sent, when
about thirteen years of age probably, to the great Jewish school of sacred
learning at Jerusalem as a student of the law. Here he became a pupil
of the celebrated rabbi Gamaliel, and here he spent many years in an elaborate
study of the Scriptures and of the many questions concerning them with
which the rabbis exercised themselves. During these years of diligent
study he lived "in all good conscience," unstained by the vices of that
After the period of his student-life expired, he probably left Jerusalem
for Tarsus, where he may have been engaged in connection with some synagogue
for some years. But we find him back again at Jerusalem very soon after
the death of our Lord. Here he now learned the particulars regarding the
crucifixion, and the rise of the new sect of the "Nazarenes."
For some two years after Pentecost, Christianity was quietly spreading
its influence in Jerusalem. At length Stephen, one of the seven deacons,
gave forth more public and aggressive testimony that Jesus was the Messiah,
and this led to much excitement among the Jews and much disputation in
their synagogues. Persecution arose against Stephen and the followers
of Christ generally, in which Saul of Tarsus took a prominent part. He
was at this time probably a member of the great Sanhedrin, and became
the active leader in the furious persecution by which the rulers then
sought to exterminate Christianity.
But the object of this persecution also failed. "They that were scattered
abroad went everywhere preaching the word." The anger of the persecutor
was thereby kindled into a fiercer flame. Hearing that fugitives had taken
refuge in Damascus, he obtained from the chief priest letters authorizing
him to proceed thither on his persecuting career. This was a long journey
of about 130 miles, which would occupy perhaps six days, during which,
with his few attendants, he steadily went onward, "breathing out threatenings
and slaughter." But the crisis of his life was at hand. He had reached
the last stage of his journey, and was within sight of Damascus. As he
and his companions rode on, suddenly at mid-day a brilliant light shone
round them, and Saul was laid prostrate in terror on the ground, a voice
sounding in his ears, "Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me?" The risen
Saviour was there, clothed in the vesture of his glorified humanity. In
answer to the anxious inquiry of the stricken persecutor, "Who art thou,
Lord?" he said, "I am Jesus whom thou persecutest" (Acts 9:5; 22:8; 26:15).
This was the moment of his conversion, the most solemn in all his life.
Blinded by the dazzling light (Acts 9:8), his companions led him into
the city, where, absorbed in deep thought for three days, he neither ate
nor drank (9:11). Ananias, a disciple living in Damascus, was informed
by a vision of the change that had happened to Saul, and was sent to him
to open his eyes and admit him by baptism into the Christian church (9:11-16).
The whole purpose of his life was now permanently changed.
Immediately after his conversion he retired into the solitudes of Arabia
(Gal. 1:17), perhaps of "Sinai in Arabia," for the purpose, probably,
of devout study and meditation on the marvellous revelation that had been
made to him. "A veil of thick darkness hangs over this visit to Arabia.
Of the scenes among which he moved, of the thoughts and occupations which
engaged him while there, of all the circumstances of a crisis which must
have shaped the whole tenor of his after-life, absolutely nothing is known.
'Immediately,' says St. Paul, 'I went away into Arabia.' The historian
passes over the incident [comp. Acts 9:23 and 1 Kings 11:38, 39]. It is
a mysterious pause, a moment of suspense, in the apostle's history, a
breathless calm, which ushers in the tumultuous storm of his active missionary
life." Coming back, after three years, to Damascus, he began to preach
the gospel "boldly in the name of Jesus" (Acts 9:27), but was soon obliged
to flee (9:25; 2 Cor. 11:33) from the Jews and betake himself to Jerusalem.
Here he tarried for three weeks, but was again forced to flee (Acts 9:28,
29) from persecution. He now returned to his native Tarsus (Gal. 1:21),
where, for probably about three years, we lose sight of him. The time
had not yet come for his entering on his great life-work of preaching
the gospel to the Gentiles.
At length the city of Antioch, the capital of Syria, became the scene
of great Christian activity. There the gospel gained a firm footing, and
the cause of Christ prospered. Barnabas (q.v.), who had been sent from
Jerusalem to superintend the work at Antioch, found it too much for him,
and remembering Saul, he set out to Tarsus to seek for him. He readily
responded to the call thus addressed to him, and came down to Antioch,
which for "a whole year" became the scene of his labours, which were crowned
with great success. The disciples now, for the first time, were called
"Christians" (Acts 11:26).
The church at Antioch now proposed to send out missionaries to the Gentiles,
and Saul and Barnabas, with John Mark as their attendant, were chosen
for this work. This was a great epoch in the history of the church. Now
the disciples began to give effect to the Master's command: "Go ye into
all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature."
The three missionaries went forth on the first missionary tour. They
sailed from Seleucia, the seaport of Antioch, across to Cyprus, some 80
miles to the south-west. Here at Paphos, Sergius Paulus, the Roman proconsul,
was converted, and now Saul took the lead, and was ever afterwards called
Paul. The missionaries now crossed to the mainland, and then proceeded
6 or 7 miles up the river Cestrus to Perga (Acts 13:13), where John Mark
deserted the work and returned to Jerusalem. The two then proceeded about
100 miles inland, passing through Pamphylia, Pisidia, and Lycaonia. The
towns mentioned in this tour are the Pisidian Antioch, where Paul delivered
his first address of which we have any record (13:16-51; comp. 10:30-43),
Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. They returned by the same route to see and
encourage the converts they had made, and ordain elders in every city
to watch over the churches which had been gathered. From Perga they sailed
direct for Antioch, from which they had set out.
After remaining "a long time", probably till A.D. 50 or 51, in Antioch,
a great controversy broke out in the church there regarding the relation
of the Gentiles to the Mosaic law. For the purpose of obtaining a settlement
of this question, Paul and Barnabas were sent as deputies to consult the
church at Jerusalem. The council or synod which was there held (Acts 15)
decided against the Judaizing party; and the deputies, accompanied by
Judas and Silas, returned to Antioch, bringing with them the decree of
After a short rest at Antioch, Paul said to Barnabas: "Let us go again
and visit our brethren in every city where we have preached the word of
the Lord, and see how they do." Mark proposed again to accompany them;
but Paul refused to allow him to go. Barnabas was resolved to take Mark,
and thus he and Paul had a sharp contention. They separated, and never
again met. Paul, however, afterwards speaks with honour of Barnabas, and
sends for Mark to come to him at Rome (Col. 4:10; 2 Tim. 4:11).
Paul took with him Silas, instead of Barnabas, and began his second
missionary journey about A.D. 51. This time he went by land, revisiting
the churches he had already founded in Asia. But he longed to enter into
"regions beyond," and still went forward through Phrygia and Galatia (16:6).
Contrary to his intention, he was constrained to linger in Galatia (q.v.),
on account of some bodily affliction (Gal. 4:13, 14). Bithynia, a populous
province on the shore of the Black Sea, lay now before him, and he wished
to enter it; but the way was shut, the Spirit in some manner guiding him
in another direction, till he came down to the shores of the AEgean and
arrived at Troas, on the north-western coast of Asia Minor (Acts 16:8).
Of this long journey from Antioch to Troas we have no account except some
references to it in his Epistle to the Galatians (4:13).
As he waited at Troas for indications of the will of God as to his future
movements, he saw, in the vision of the night, a man from the opposite
shores of Macedonia standing before him, and heard him cry, "Come over,
and help us" (Acts 16:9). Paul recognized in this vision a message from
the Lord, and the very next day set sail across the Hellespont, which
separated him from Europe, and carried the tidings of the gospel into
the Western world. In Macedonia, churches were planted in Philippi, Thessalonica,
and Berea. Leaving this province, Paul passed into Achaia, "the paradise
of genius and renown." He reached Athens, but quitted it after, probably,
a brief sojourn (17:17-31). The Athenians had received him with cold disdain,
and he never visited that city again. He passed over to Corinth, the seat
of the Roman government of Achaia, and remained there a year and a half,
labouring with much success. While at Corinth, he wrote his two epistles
to the church of Thessalonica, his earliest apostolic letters, and then
sailed for Syria, that he might be in time to keep the feast of Pentecost
at Jerusalem. He was accompanied by Aquila and Priscilla, whom he left
at Ephesus, at which he touched, after a voyage of thirteen or fifteen
days. He landed at Caesarea, and went up to Jerusalem, and having "saluted
the church" there, and kept the feast, he left for Antioch, where he abode
"some time" (Acts 18:20-23).
He then began his third missionary tour. He journeyed by land in the
"upper coasts" (the more eastern parts) of Asia Minor, and at length made
his way to Ephesus, where he tarried for no less than three years, engaged
in ceaseless Christian labour. "This city was at the time the Liverpool
of the Mediterranean. It possessed a splendid harbour, in which was concentrated
the traffic of the sea which was then the highway of the nations; and
as Liverpool has behind her the great towns of Lancashire, so had Ephesus
behind and around her such cities as those mentioned along with her in
the epistles to the churches in the book of Revelation, Smyrna, Pergamos,
Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea. It was a city of vast wealth,
and it was given over to every kind of pleasure, the fame of its theatres
and race-course being world-wide" (Stalker's Life of St. Paul). Here a
"great door and effectual" was opened to the apostle. His fellow-labourers
aided him in his work, carrying the gospel to Colosse and Laodicea and
other places which they could reach.
Very shortly before his departure from Ephesus, the apostle wrote his
First Epistle to the Corinthians (q.v.). The silversmiths, whose traffic
in the little images which they made was in danger (see DEMETRIUS), organized
a riot against Paul, and he left the city, and proceeded to Troas (2 Cor.
2:12), whence after some time he went to meet Titus in Macedonia. Here,
in consequence of the report Titus brought from Corinth, he wrote his
second epistle to that church. Having spent probably most of the summer
and autumn in Macedonia, visiting the churches there, specially the churches
of Philippi, Thessalonica, and Berea, probably penetrating into the interior,
to the shores of the Adriatic (Rom. 15:19), he then came into Greece,
where he abode three month, spending probably the greater part of this
time in Corinth (Acts 20:2). During his stay in this city he wrote his
Epistle to the Galatians, and also the great Epistle to the Romans. At
the end of the three months he left Achaia for Macedonia, thence crossed
into Asia Minor, and touching at Miletus, there addressed the Ephesian
presbyters, whom he had sent for to meet him (Acts 20:17), and then sailed
for Tyre, finally reaching Jerusalem, probably in the spring of A.D. 58.
While at Jerusalem, at the feast of Pentecost, he was almost murdered
by a Jewish mob in the temple. (See TEMPLE, HEROD'S.) Rescued from their
violence by the Roman commandant, he was conveyed as a prisoner to Caesarea,
where, from various causes, he was detained a prisoner for two years in
Herod's praetorium (Acts 23:35). "Paul was not kept in close confinement;
he had at least the range of the barracks in which he was detained. There
we can imagine him pacing the ramparts on the edge of the Mediterranean,
and gazing wistfully across the blue waters in the direction of Macedonia,
Achaia, and Ephesus, where his spiritual children were pining for him,
or perhaps encountering dangers in which they sorely needed his presence.
It was a mysterious providence which thus arrested his energies and condemned
the ardent worker to inactivity; yet we can now see the reason for it.
Paul was needing rest. After twenty years of incessant evangelization,
he required leisure to garner the harvest of experience...During these
two years he wrote nothing; it was a time of internal mental activity
and silent progress" (Stalker's Life of St. Paul).
At the end of these two years Felix (q.v.) was succeeded in the governorship
of Palestine by Porcius Festus, before whom the apostle was again heard.
But judging it right at this crisis to claim the privilege of a Roman
citizen, he appealed to the emperor (Acts 25:11). Such an appeal could
not be disregarded, and Paul was at once sent on to Rome under the charge
of one Julius, a centurion of the "Augustan cohort." After a long and
perilous voyage, he at length reached the imperial city in the early spring,
probably, of A.D. 61. Here he was permitted to occupy his own hired house,
under constant military custody. This privilege was accorded to him, no
doubt, because he was a Roman citizen, and as such could not be put into
prison without a trial. The soldiers who kept guard over Paul were of
course changed at frequent intervals, and thus he had the opportunity
of preaching the gospel to many of them during these "two whole years,"
and with the blessed result of spreading among the imperial guards, and
even in Caesar's household, an interest in the truth (Phil. 1:13). His
rooms were resorted to by many anxious inquirers, both Jews and Gentiles
(Acts 28:23, 30, 31), and thus his imprisonment "turned rather to the
furtherance of the gospel," and his "hired house" became the centre of
a gracious influence which spread over the whole city. According to a
Jewish tradition, it was situated on the borders of the modern Ghetto,
which has been the Jewish quarters in Rome from the time of Pompey to
the present day. During this period the apostle wrote his epistles to
the Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians, and to Philemon, and probably
also to the Hebrews.
This first imprisonment came at length to a close, Paul having been
acquitted, probably because no witnesses appeared against him. Once more
he set out on his missionary labours, probably visiting western and eastern
Europe and Asia Minor. During this period of freedom he wrote his First
Epistle to Timothy and his Epistle to Titus. The year of his release was
signalized by the burning of Rome, which Nero saw fit to attribute to
the Christians. A fierce persecution now broke out against the Christians.
Paul was siezed, and once more conveyed to Rome a prisoner. During this
imprisonment he probably wrote the Second Epistle to Timothy, the last
he ever wrote. "There can be little doubt that he appered again at Nero's
bar, and this time the charge did not break down. In all history there
is not a more startling illustration of the irony of human life than this
scene of Paul at the bar of Nero. On the judgment-seat, clad in the imperial
purple, sat a man who, in a bad world, had attained the eminence of being
the very worst and meanest being in it, a man stained with every crime,
a man whose whole being was so steeped in every nameable and unnameable
vice, that body and soul of him were, as some one said at the time, nothing
but a compound of mud and blood; and in the prisoner's dock stood the
best man the world possessed, his hair whitened with labours for the good
of men and the glory of God. The trial ended: Paul was condemned, and
delivered over to the executioner. He was led out of the city, with a
crowd of the lowest rabble at his heels. The fatal spot was reached; he
knelt beside the block; the headsman's axe gleamed in the sun and fell;
and the head of the apostle of the world rolled down in the dust" (probably
A.D. 66), four years before the fall of Jerusalem.
Pavement - It was the custom of the
Roman governors to erect their tribunals in open places, as the market-place,
the circus, or even the highway. Pilate caused his seat of judgment to
be set down in a place called "the Pavement" (John 19:13) i.e., a place
paved with a mosaic of coloured stones. It was probably a place thus prepared
in front of the "judgment hall." (See GABBATHA.)
Pavilion - a tent or tabernacle (2 Sam.
22:12; 1 Kings 20:12-16), or enclosure (Ps. 18:11; 27:5). In Jer. 43:10
it probably denotes the canopy suspended over the judgement-seat of the
Peace offerings - (Heb. shelamim), detailed
regulations regarding given in Lev. 3; 7:11-21, 29-34. They were of three
kinds, (1) eucharistic or thanksgiving offerings, expressive of gratitude
for blessings received; (2) in fulfilment of a vow, but expressive also
of thanks for benefits recieved; and (3) free-will offerings, something
spontaneously devoted to God.
Peacock - (Heb. tuk, apparently borrowed
from the Tamil tokei). This bird is indigenous to India. It was brought
to Solomon by his ships from Tarshish (1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chr. 9:21), which
in this case was probably a district on the Malabar coast of India, or in
Ceylon. The word so rendered in Job 39:13 literally means wild, tumultuous
crying, and properly denotes the female ostrich (q.v.).
Pearl - (Heb. gabish, Job 28:18; Gr. margarites,
Matt. 7:6; 13:46; Rev. 21:21). The pearl oyster is found in the Persian
Gulf and the Red Sea. Its shell is the "mother of pearl," which is of great
value for ornamental purposes (1 Tim. 2:9; Rev. 17:4). Each shell contains
eight or ten pearls of various sizes.
Peculiar - as used in the phrase "peculiar
people" in 1 Pet. 2:9, is derived from the Lat. peculium, and denotes, as
rendered in the Revised Version ("a people for God's own possession"), a
special possession or property. The church is the "property" of God, his
"purchased possession" (Eph. 1:14; R.V., "God's own possession").
Pedahel - redeemed of God, the son of Ammihud,
a prince of Naphtali (Num. 34:28).
Pedahzur - rock of redemption, the father
of Gamaliel and prince of Manasseh at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:10;
Pedaiah - redemption of the Lord. (1.) The
father of Zebudah, who was the wife of Josiah and mother of king Jehoiakim
(2 Kings 23:36).
(2.) The father of Zerubbabel (1 Chr. 3:17-19).
(3.). The father of Joel, ruler of the half-tribe of Manasseh (1 Chr.
(4.) Neh. 3:25.
(5.) A Levite (8:4).
(6.) A Benjamite (11:7).
(7.) A Levite (13:13).
Pekah - open-eyed, the son of Remaliah a
captain in the army of Pekahiah, king of Israel, whom he slew, with the
aid of a band of Gileadites, and succeeded (B.C. 758) on the throne (2 Kings
15:25). Seventeen years after this he entered into an alliance with Rezin,
king of Syria, and took part with him in besieging Jerusalem (2 Kings 15:37;
16:5). But Tiglath-pilser, who was in alliance with Ahaz, king of Judah,
came up against Pekah, and carried away captive many of the inhabitants
of his kingdom (2 Kings 15:29). This was the beginning of the "Captivity."
Soon after this Pekah was put to death by Hoshea, the son of Elah, who usurped
the throne (2 Kings 15:30; 16:1-9. Comp. Isa. 7:16; 8:4; 9:12). He is supposed
by some to have been the "shephard" mentioned in Zech. 11:16.
Pekahiah - the Lord opened his eyes, the
son and successor of Menahem on the throne of Israel. He was murdered in
the royal palace of Samaria by Pekah, one of the captains of his army (2
Kings 15:23-26), after a reign of two years (B.C. 761-759). He "did that
which was evil in the sight of the Lord."
Pekod - probably a place in Babylonia (Jer.
50:21; Ezek. 23:23). It is the opinion, however, of some that this word
signifies "visitation," "punishment," and allegorically "designates Babylon
as the city which was to be destroyed."
Pelaiah - distinguished of the Lord. (1.)
One of David's posterity (1 Chr. 3:24).
(2.) A Levite who expounded the law (Neh. 8:7).
Pelatiah - deliverance of the Lord. (1.)
A son of Hananiah and grandson of Zerubbabel (1 Chr. 3:21).
(2.) A captain of "the sons of Simeon" (4:42).
(3.) Neh. 10:22.
(4.) One of the twenty-five princes of the people against whom Ezekiel
prophesied on account of their wicked counsel (Ezek. 11:1-13).
Peleg - division, one of the sons of Eber;
so called because "in his days was the earth divided" (Gen. 10:25). Possibly
he may have lived at the time of the dispersion from Babel. But more probably
the reference is to the dispersion of the two races which sprang from Eber,
the one spreading towards Mesopotamia and Syria, and the other southward
Pelet - deliverance. (1.) A descendant of
Judah (1 Chr. 2:47).
(2.) A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
Peleth - swiftness. (1.) A Reubenite whose
son was one of the conspirators against Moses and Aaron (Num. 16:1).
(2.) One of the sons of Jonathan (1 Chr. 2:33).
Pelethites - mentioned always along with
the Cherethites, and only in the time of David. The word probably means
"runners" or "couriers," and may denote that while forming part of David's
bodyguard, they were also sometimes employed as couriers (2 Sam. 8:18; 20:7,
23;1 Kings 1:38, 44; 1 Chr. 18:17). Some, however, think that these are
the names simply of two Philistine tribes from which David selected his
body-guard. They are mentioned along with the Gittites (2 Sam. 15:18), another
body of foreign troops whom David gathered round him.
Pelicans - are frequently met with at the
waters of Merom and the Sea of Galilee. The pelican is ranked among unclean
birds (Lev. 11:18; Deut. 14:17). It is of an enormous size, being about
6 feet long, with wings stretching out over 12 feet. The Hebrew name (kaath,
i.e., "vomiter") of this bird is incorrectly rendered "cormorant" in the
Authorized Version of Isa. 34:11 and Zeph. 2:14, but correctly in the Revised
Version. It receives its Hebrew name from its habit of storing in its pouch
large quantities of fish, which it disgorges when it feeds its young. Two
species are found on the Syrian coast, the Pelicanus onocrotalus, or white
pelican, and the Pelicanus crispus, or Dalmatian pelican.
Penny - (Gr. denarion), a silver coin of
the value of about 7 1/2d. or 8d. of our present money. It is thus rendered
in the New Testament, and is more frequently mentioned than any other coin
(Matt. 18:28; 20:2, 9, 13; Mark 6:37; 14:5, etc.). It was the daily pay
of a Roman soldier in the time of Christ. In the reign of Edward III. an
English penny was a labourer's day's wages. This was the "tribute money"
with reference to which our Lord said, "Whose image and superscription is
this?" When they answered, "Caesar's," he replied, "Render therefore to
Caesar the things that are Caesar's; and to God the things that are God's"
(Matt. 22:19; Mark 12:15).
Pentateuch - the five-fold volume, consisting
of the first five books of the Old Testament. This word does not occur
in Scripture, nor is it certainly known when the roll was thus divided
into five portions Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. Probably
that was done by the LXX. translators. Some modern critics speak of a
Hexateuch, introducing the Book of Joshua as one of the group. But this
book is of an entirely different character from the other books, and has
a different author. It stands by itself as the first of a series of historical
books beginning with the entrance of the Israelites into Canaan. (See
The books composing the Pentateuch are properly but one book, the "Law
of Moses," the "Book of the Law of Moses," the "Book of Moses," or, as
the Jews designate it, the "Torah" or "Law." That in its present form
it "proceeds from a single author is proved by its plan and aim, according
to which its whole contents refer to the covenant concluded between Jehovah
and his people, by the instrumentality of Moses, in such a way that everything
before his time is perceived to be preparatory to this fact, and all the
rest to be the development of it. Nevertheless, this unity has not been
stamped upon it as a matter of necessity by the latest redactor: it has
been there from the beginning, and is visible in the first plan and in
the whole execution of the work.", Keil, Einl. i.d. A. T.
A certain school of critics have set themselves to reconstruct the books
of the Old Testament. By a process of "scientific study" they have discovered
that the so-called historical books of the Old Testament are not history
at all, but a miscellaneous collection of stories, the inventions of many
different writers, patched together by a variety of editors! As regards
the Pentateuch, they are not ashamed to attribute fraud, and even conspiracy,
to its authors, who sought to find acceptance to their work which was
composed partly in the age of Josiah, and partly in that of Ezra and Nehemiah,
by giving it out to be the work of Moses! This is not the place to enter
into the details of this controversy. We may say frankly, however, that
we have no faith in this "higher criticism." It degrades the books of
the Old Testament below the level of fallible human writings, and the
arguments on which its speculations are built are altogether untenable.
The evidences in favour of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch are
conclusive. We may thus state some of them briefly:
(1.) These books profess to have been written by Moses in the name of
God (Ex. 17:14; 24:3, 4, 7; 32:7-10, 30-34; 34:27; Lev. 26:46; 27:34;
Deut. 31:9, 24, 25).
(2.) This also is the uniform and persistent testimony of the Jews of
all sects in all ages and countries (comp. Josh. 8:31, 32; 1 Kings 2:3;
Jer. 7:22; Ezra 6:18; Neh. 8:1; Mal. 4:4; Matt. 22:24; Acts 15:21).
(3.) Our Lord plainly taught the Mosaic authorship of these books (Matt.
5:17, 18; 19:8; 22:31, 32; 23:2; Mark 10:9; 12:26; Luke 16:31; 20:37;
24:26, 27, 44; John 3:14; 5:45, 46, 47; 6:32, 49; 7:19, 22). In the face
of this fact, will any one venture to allege either that Christ was ignorant
of the composition of the Bible, or that, knowing the true state of the
case, he yet encouraged the people in the delusion they clung to?
(4.) From the time of Joshua down to the time of Ezra there is, in the
intermediate historical books, a constant reference to the Pentateuch
as the "Book of the Law of Moses." This is a point of much importance,
inasmuch as the critics deny that there is any such reference; and hence
they deny the historical character of the Pentateuch. As regards the Passover,
e.g., we find it frequently spoken of or alluded to in the historical
books following the Pentateuch, showing that the "Law of Moses" was then
certainly known. It was celebrated in the time of Joshua (Josh. 5:10,
cf. 4:19), Hezekiah (2 Chr. 30), Josiah (2 Kings 23; 2 Chr. 35), and Zerubbabel
(Ezra 6:19-22), and is referred to in such passages as 2 Kings 23:22;
2 Chr. 35:18; 1 Kings 9:25 ("three times in a year"); 2 Chr. 8:13. Similarly
we might show frequent references to the Feast of Tabernacles and other
Jewish institutions, although we do not admit that any valid argument
can be drawn from the silence of Scripture in such a case. An examination
of the following texts, 1 Kings 2:9; 2 Kings 14:6; 2 Chr. 23:18; 25:4;
34:14; Ezra 3:2; 7:6; Dan. 9:11, 13, will also plainly show that the "Law
of Moses" was known during all these centuries.
Granting that in the time of Moses there existed certain oral traditions
or written records and documents which he was divinely led to make use
of in his history, and that his writing was revised by inspired successors,
this will fully account for certain peculiarities of expression which
critics have called "anachronisms" and "contradictions," but in no way
militates against the doctrine that Moses was the original author of the
whole of the Pentateuch. It is not necessary for us to affirm that the
whole is an original composition; but we affirm that the evidences clearly
demonstrate that Moses was the author of those books which have come down
to us bearing his name. The Pentateuch is certainly the basis and necessary
preliminary of the whole of the Old Testament history and literature.
Pentecost - i.e., "fiftieth", found only
in the New Testament (Acts 2:1; 20:16; 1 Cor. 16:8). The festival so named
is first spoken of in Ex. 23:16 as "the feast of harvest," and again in
Ex. 34:22 as "the day of the firstfruits" (Num. 28:26). From the sixteenth
of the month of Nisan (the second day of the Passover), seven complete weeks,
i.e., forty-nine days, were to be reckoned, and this feast was held on the
fiftieth day. The manner in which it was to be kept is described in Lev.
23:15-19; Num. 28:27-29. Besides the sacrifices prescribed for the occasion,
every one was to bring to the Lord his "tribute of a free-will offering"
(Deut. 16:9-11). The purpose of this feast was to commemorate the completion
of the grain harvest. Its distinguishing feature was the offering of "two
leavened loaves" made from the new corn of the completed harvest, which,
with two lambs, were waved before the Lord as a thank offering.
The day of Pentecost is noted in the Christian Church as the day on
which the Spirit descended upon the apostles, and on which, under Peter's
preaching, so many thousands were converted in Jerusalem (Acts 2).
Penuel - face of God, a place not far from
Succoth, on the east of the Jordan and north of the river Jabbok. It is
also called "Peniel." Here Jacob wrestled (Gen. 32:24-32) "with a man" ("the
angel", Hos. 12:4. Jacob says of him, "I have seen God face to face") "till
the break of day."
A town was afterwards built there (Judg. 8:8; 1 Kings 12:25). The men
of this place refused to succour Gideon and his little army when they
were in pursuit of the Midianites (Judg. 8:1-21). On his return, Gideon
slew the men of this city and razed its lofty watch-tower to the ground.
Peor - opening. (1.) A mountain peak (Num.
23:28) to which Balak led Balaam as a last effort to induce him to pronounce
a curse upon Israel. When he looked on the tribes encamped in the acacia
groves below him, he could not refrain from giving utterance to a remarkable
benediction (24:1-9). Balak was more than ever enraged at Balaam, and bade
him flee for his life. But before he went he gave expression to that wonderful
prediction regarding the future of this mysterious people, whose "goodly
tents" were spread out before him, and the coming of a "Star" out of Jacob
and a "Sceptre" out of Israel (24:14-17).
(2.) A Moabite divinity, called also "Baal-peor" (Num. 25:3, 5, 18;
comp. Deut. 3:29).
Perazim, Mount - mount of breaches, only
in Isa. 28:21. It is the same as BAAL-PERAZIM (q.v.), where David gained
a victory over the Philistines (2 Sam. 5:20).
Peres - divided, one of the mysterious
words "written over against the candlestick upon the plaster of the wall"
of king Belshazzar's palace (Dan. 5:28). (See MENE.)
Perez - =Pharez, (q.v.), breach, the son
of Judah (Neh. 11:4). "The chief of all the captains of the host for the
first month" in the reign of David was taken from his family (1 Chr. 27:3).
Four hundred and sixty-eight of his "sons" came back from captivity with
Zerubbabel, who himself was one of them (1 Chr. 9:4; Neh. 11:6).
Perez-uzzah - the breach of Uzzah, a place
where God "burst forth upon Uzzah, so that he died," when he rashly "took
hold" of the ark (2 Sam. 6:6-8). It was not far from Kirjath-jearim (q.v.).