Shadow - used in Col. 2:17; Heb. 8:5; 10:1 to denote the typical
relation of the Jewish to the Christian dispensation.
Shadrach - Aku's command, the Chaldean
name given to Hananiah, one of the Hebrew youths whom Nebuchadnezzar carried
captive to Babylon (Dan. 1:6, 7; 3:12-30). He and his two companions refused
to bow down before the image which Nebuchadnezzar had set up on the plains
of Dura. Their conduct filled the king with the greatest fury, and he
commanded them to be cast into the burning fiery furnace. Here, amid the
fiery flames, they were miraculously preserved from harm. Over them the
fire had no power, "neither was a hair of their head singed, neither had
the smell of fire passed on them." Thus Nebuchadnezzar learned the greatness
of the God of Israel. (See ABEDNEGO.)
Shalem - perfect, a place (probably the
village of Salim) some 2 miles east of Jacob's well. There is an abundant
supply of water, which may have been the reason for Jacob's settling at
this place (Gen. 33:18-20). The Revised Version translates this word, and
reads, "Jacob came in peace to the city of Shechem," thus not regarding
it as a proper name at all.
Shalim, Land of - land of foxes, a place
apparently to the north-west of Jerusalem (1 Sam. 9:4), perhaps in the neighbourhood
of Shaalabbin in Dan (Josh. 19:42).
Shalisha, Land of - probably the district
of Baal-shalisha (2 Kings 4:42), lying about 12 miles north of Lydda (1
Shallecheth, The gate of - i.e., "the gate
of casting out," hence supposed to be the refuse gate; one of the gates
of the house of the Lord, "by the causeway of the going up" i.e., the causeway
rising up from the Tyropoeon valley = valley of the cheesemakers (1 Chr.
Shallum - retribution. (1.) The son of Jabesh,
otherwise unknown. He "conspired against Zachariah, and smote him before
the people, and slew him, and reigned in his stead" (2 Kings 15:10). He
reigned only "a month of days in Samaria" (15:13, marg.). Menahem rose up
against Shallum and put him to death (2 Kings 15:14, 15, 17), and became
king in his stead.
(2.) Keeper of the temple vestments in the reign of Josiah (2 Kings
(3.) One of the posterity of Judah (1 Chr. 2:40, 41).
(4.) A descendant of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:25).
(5.) One of the line of the high priests (1 Chr. 6:13).
(6.) 1 Chr. 7:13.
(7.) A keeper of the gate in the reign of David (1 Chr. 9:17).
(8.) A Levite porter (1 Chr. 9:19, 31; Jer. 35:4).
(9.) An Ephraimite chief (2 Chr. 28:12).
(10.) The uncle of the prophet Jeremiah (Jer. 32:7).
(11.) A son of king Josiah (1 Chr. 3:15; Jer. 22:11), who was elected
to succeed his father on the throne, although he was two years younger
than his brother Eliakim. He assumed the crown under the name of Jehoahaz
(q.v.). He did not imitate the example of his father (2 Kings 23:32),
but was "a young lion, and it learned to catch the prey; it devoured men"
(Ezek. 19:3). His policy was anti-Egyptian therefore. Necho, at that time
at Riblah, sent an army against Jerusalem, which at once yielded, and
Jehoahaz was carried captive to the Egyptian camp, Eliakim being appointed
king in his stead. He remained a captive in Egypt till his death, and
was the first king of Judah that died in exile.
Shalman - an Assyrian king (Hos. 10:14),
identified with Shalmaneser II. (Sayce) or IV. (Lenormant), the successor
of Pul on the throne of Assyria (B.C. 728). He made war against Hoshea,
the king of Israel, whom he subdued and compelled to pay an annual tribute.
Hoshea, however, soon after rebelled against his Assyrian conquerer. Shalmaneser
again marched against Samaria, which, after a siege of three years, was
taken (2 Kings 17:3-5; 18:9) by Sargon (q.v.). A revolution meantime had
broken out in Assyria, and Shalmaneser was deposed. Sargon usurped the vacant
throne. Schrader thinks that this is probably the name of a king of Moab
mentioned on an inscription of Tiglath-pileser as Salamanu.
Shamgar - The Philistines from the maritime
plain had made incursions into the Hebrew upland for the purposes of plunder,
when one of this name, the son of Anath, otherwise unknown, headed a rising
for the purpose of freeing the land from this oppression. He repelled the
invasion, slaying 600 men with an "ox goad" (q.v.). The goad was a formidable
sharpointed instrument, sometimes ten feet long. He was probably contemporary
for a time with Deborah and Barak (Judg. 3:31; 5:6).
Shamir - a sharp thorn. (1.) One of the
sons of Michah (1 Chr. 24:24).
(2.) A town among the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:48); probably Somerah,
2 1/2 miles north-west of Debir.
(3.) The residence of Tola, one of the judges, on Mount Ephraim (Judg.
Shammah - desert. (1.) One of the "dukes"
of Edom (Gen. 36:13, 17).
(2.) One of the sons of Jesse (1 Sam. 16:9). He is also called Shimeah
(2 Sam. 13:3) and Shimma (1 Chr. 2:13).
(3.) One of David's three mighty men (2 Sam. 23:11, 12).
(4.) One of David's mighties (2 Sam. 23:25); called also Shammoth (1
Chr. 11:27) and Shamhuth (27:8).
Shammua - heard. (1.) One of the spies sent
out by Moses to search the land (Num. 13:4). He represented the tribe of
(2.) One of David's sons (1 Chr. 14:4; 3:5, "Shimea;" 2 Sam. 5:14).
(3.) A Levite under Nehemiah (11:17).
Shaphan - a coney, a scribe or secretary
of king Josiah (2 Kings 22:3-7). He consulted Huldah concerning the newly-discovered
copy of the law which was delivered to him by Hilkiah the priest (8-14).
His grandson Gedaliah was governor of Judea (25:22).
Shaphat - judge. (1.) One of the spies.
He represented the tribe of Simeon (Num. 13:5).
(2.) The father of Elisha (1 Kings 19:16-19).
(3.) One of David's chief herdsmen (1 Chr. 27:29).
Shapher - brightness, one of the stations
where Israel encamped in the wilderness (Num. 33:23, 24).
Sharaim - two gates (Josh. 15:36), more
correctly Shaaraim (1 Sam. 17:52), probably Tell Zakariya and Kefr Zakariya,
in the valley of Elah, 3 1/2 miles north-west of Socoh.
Sharezer - (god) protect the king!, a son
of Sennacherib, king of Assyria. He and his brother Adrammelech murdered
their father, and then fled into the land of Armenia (2 Kings 19:37).
Sharon, Saron - a plain, a level tract extending
from the Mediterranean to the hill country to the west of Jerusalem, about
30 miles long and from 8 to 15 miles broad, celebrated for its beauty and
fertility (1 Chr. 27:29; Isa. 33:9; 35:2; 65:10). The "rose of Sharon" is
celebrated (Cant. 2:1). It is called Lasharon (the article la being here
a part of the word) in Josh. 12:18.
Shaveh-Kiriathaim - plain of Kirja-thaim
where Chedorlaomer defeated the Emims, the original inhabitants (Gen. 14:5).
Now Kureiyat, north of Dibon, in the land of Moab.
Shaveh, Valley of - valley of the plain
the ancient name of the "king's dale" (q.v.), or Kidron, on the north side
of Jerusalem (Gen. 14:17).
Shavsha - ("Seraiah," 2 Sam. 8:17; "Shisha,"
1 Kings 4:3), one of David's secretaries (1 Chr. 18:16).
Shealtiel - asked for of God, father of
Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:2, 8; Neh. 12:1).
Shearing-house - (2 Kings 10:12, 14; marg.,
"house of shepherds binding sheep." R.V., "the shearing-house of the shepherds;"
marg., "house of gathering"), some place between Samaria and Jezreel, where
Jehu slew "two and forty men" of the royal family of Judah. The Heb. word
Beth-eked so rendered is supposed by some to be a proper name.
Shear-Jashub - a remnant shall escape or
return (i.e., to God), a symbolical name which the prophet Isaiah gave to
his son (Isa. 7:3), perhaps his eldest son.
Sheba - an oath, seven. (1.) Heb. shebha,
the son of Raamah (Gen. 10:7), whose descendants settled with those of Dedan
on the Persian Gulf.
(2.) Heb. id. A son of Joktan (Gen. 10:28), probably the founder of
(3.) Heb. id. A son of Jokshan, who was a son of Abraham by Keturah
(4.) Heb. id. A kingdom in Arabia Felix. Sheba, in fact, was Saba in
Southern Arabia, the Sabaeans of classical geography, who carried on the
trade in spices with the other peoples of the ancient world. They were
Semites, speaking one of the two main dialects of Himyaritic or South
Arabic. Sheba had become a monarchy before the days of Solomon. Its queen
brought him gold, spices, and precious stones (1 Kings 10:1-13). She is
called by our Lord the "queen of the south" (Matt. 12:42).
(5.) Heb. shebha', "seven" or "an oak." A town of Simeon (Josh. 19:2).
(6.) Heb. id. A "son of Bichri," of the family of Becher, the son of
Benjamin, and thus of the stem from which Saul was descended (2 Sam. 20:1-22).
When David was returning to Jerusalem after the defeat of Absalom, a strife
arose between the ten tribes and the tribe of Judah, because the latter
took the lead in bringing back the king. Sheba took advantage of this
state of things, and raised the standard of revolt, proclaiming, "We have
no part in David." With his followers he proceeded northward. David seeing
it necessary to check this revolt, ordered Abishai to take the gibborim,
"mighty men," and the body-guard and such troops as he could gather, and
pursue Sheba. Joab joined the expedition, and having treacherously put
Amasa to death, assumed the command of the army. Sheba took refuge in
Abel-Bethmaachah, a fortified town some miles north of Lake Merom. While
Joab was engaged in laying siege to this city, Sheba's head was, at the
instigation of a "wise woman" who had held a parley with him from the
city walls, thrown over the wall to the besiegers, and thus the revolt
came to an end.
Shebaniah - whom Jehovah hides, or has made
grow up. (1.) A Levite appointed to blow the trumpet before the ark of God
(1 Chr. 15:24).
(2.) Another Levite (Neh. 9:4, 5).
(3.) A priest (Neh. 10:12).
(4.) A Levite (Neh. 10:4).
Shebarim - breaks; ruins, a place near Ai
(Josh. 7:5; R.V. marg., "the quarries").
Shebna - tender youth, "treasurer" over
the house in the reign of Hezekiah, i.e., comptroller or governor of the
palace. On account of his pride he was ejected from his office, and Eliakim
was promoted to it (Isa. 22:15-25). He appears to have been the leader of
the party who favoured an alliance with Egypt against Assyria. It is conjectured
that "Shebna the scribe," who was one of those whom the king sent to confer
with the Assyrian ambassador (2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37; 19:2; Isa. 36:3, 11,
22; 37:2), was a different person.
Shebuel - captive of God. (1.) One of the
descendants of Gershom, who had charge of the temple treasures in the time
of David (1 Chr. 23:16; 26:24).
(2.) One of the sons of Heman; one of those whose duty it was to "lift
up the horn" in the temple service (1 Chr. 25:4, 5); called also Shubael
Shecaniah - one intimate with Jehovah. (1.)
A priest to whom the tenth lot came forth when David divided the priests
(1 Chr. 24:11).
(2.) One of the priests who were set "to give to their brethren by courses"
of the daily portion (2 Chr. 31:15).
Shechani'ah, id. (1.) A priest whose sons are mentioned in 1 Chr. 3:21,
(2.) Ezra 8:5.
(3.) Ezra 10:2-4.
(4.) The father of Shemaiah, who repaired the wall of Jerusalem (Neh.
(5.) The father-in-law of Tobiah (Neh. 6:18).
(6.) A priest who returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel (Neh.
12:3; marg., or Shebaniah).
Shechem - shoulder. (1.) The son of Hamor
the Hivite (Gen. 33:19; 34).
(2.) A descendant of Manasseh (Num. 26:31; Josh. 17:2).
(3.) A city in Samaria (Gen. 33:18), called also Sichem (12:6), Sychem
(Acts 7:16). It stood in the narrow sheltered valley between Ebal on the
north and Gerizim on the south, these mountains at their base being only
some 500 yards apart. Here Abraham pitched his tent and built his first
altar in the Promised Land, and received the first divine promise (Gen.
12:6, 7). Here also Jacob "bought a parcel of a field at the hands of
the children of Hamor" after his return from Mesopotamia, and settled
with his household, which he purged from idolatry by burying the teraphim
of his followers under an oak tree, which was afterwards called "the oak
of the sorcerer" (Gen. 33:19; 35:4; Judg. 9:37). (See MEONENIM.) Here
too, after a while, he dug a well, which bears his name to this day (John
4:5, 39-42). To Shechem Joshua gathered all Israel "before God," and delivered
to them his second parting address (Josh. 24:1-15). He "made a covenant
with the people that day" at the very place where, on first entering the
land, they had responded to the law from Ebal and Gerizim (Josh. 24:25),
the terms of which were recorded "in the book of the law of God", i.e.,
in the roll of the law of Moses; and in memory of this solemn transaction
a great stone was set up "under an oak" (comp. Gen. 28:18; 31:44-48; Ex.
24:4; Josh. 4:3, 8, 9), possibly the old "oak of Moreh," as a silent witness
of the transaction to all coming time.
Shechem became one of the cities of refuge, the central city of refuge
for Western Palestine (Josh. 20:7), and here the bones of Joseph were
buried (24:32). Rehoboam was appointed king in Shechem (1 Kings 12:1,
19), but Jeroboam afterwards took up his residence here. This city is
mentioned in connection with our Lord's conversation with the woman of
Samaria (John 4:5); and thus, remaining as it does to the present day,
it is one of the oldest cities of the world. It is the modern Nablus,
a contraction for Neapolis, the name given to it by Vespasian. It lies
about a mile and a half up the valley on its southern slope, and on the
north of Gerizim, which rises about 1,100 feet above it, and is about
34 miles north of Jerusalem. It contains about 10,000 inhabitants, of
whom about 160 are Samaritans and 100 Jews, the rest being Christians
The site of Shechem is said to be of unrivalled beauty. Stanley says
it is "the most beautiful, perhaps the only very beautiful, spot in Central
Gaza, near Shechem, only mentioned 1 Chr. 7:28, has entirely disappeared.
It was destroyed at the time of the Conquest, and its place was taken
by Shechem. (See SYCHAR.)
Shechinah - a Chaldee word meaning resting-place,
not found in Scripture, but used by the later Jews to designate the visible
symbol of God's presence in the tabernacle, and afterwards in Solomon's
temple. When the Lord led Israel out of Egypt, he went before them "in a
pillar of a cloud." This was the symbol of his presence with his people.
For references made to it during the wilderness wanderings, see Ex. 14:20;
40:34-38; Lev. 9:23, 24; Num. 14:10; 16:19, 42.
It is probable that after the entrance into Canaan this glory-cloud
settled in the tabernacle upon the ark of the covenant in the most holy
place. We have, however, no special reference to it till the consecration
of the temple by Solomon, when it filled the whole house with its glory,
so that the priests could not stand to minister (1 Kings 8:10-13; 2 Chr.
5:13, 14; 7:1-3). Probably it remained in the first temple in the holy
of holies as the symbol of Jehovah's presence so long as that temple stood.
It afterwards disappeared. (See CLOUD.)
Sheep - are of different varieties. Probably
the flocks of Abraham and Isaac were of the wild species found still in
the mountain regions of Persia and Kurdistan. After the Exodus, and as a
result of intercourse with surrounding nations, other species were no doubt
introduced into the herds of the people of Israel. They are frequently mentioned
in Scripture. The care of a shepherd over his flock is referred to as illustrating
God's care over his people (Ps. 23:1, 2; 74:1; 77:20; Isa. 40:11; 53:6;
John 10:1-5, 7-16).
"The sheep of Palestine are longer in the head than ours, and have tails
from 5 inches broad at the narrowest part to 15 inches at the widest,
the weight being in proportion, and ranging generally from 10 to 14 lbs.,
but sometimes extending to 30 lbs. The tails are indeed huge masses of
fat" (Geikie's Holy Land, etc.). The tail was no doubt the "rump" so frequently
referred to in the Levitical sacrifices (Ex. 29:22; Lev. 3:9; 7:3; 9:19).
Sheep-shearing was generally an occasion of great festivity (Gen. 31:19;
38:12, 13; 1 Sam. 25:4-8, 36; 2 Sam. 13:23-28).
Sheep-fold - a strong fenced enclosure
for the protection of the sheep gathered within it (Num. 32:24; 1 Chr.
17:7; Ps. 50:9; 78:70). In John 10:16 the Authorized Version renders by
"fold" two distinct Greek words, aule and poimne, the latter of which
properly means a "flock," and is so rendered in the Revised Version. (See
also Matt. 26:31; Luke 2:8; 1 Cor. 9:7.) (See FOLD.)
Sheep-gate - one of the gates of Jerusalem
mentioned by Nehemiah (3:1, 32; 12:39). It was in the eastern wall of the
Sheep-market - occurs only in John 5:2 (marg.,
also R.V., "sheep-gate"). The word so rendered is an adjective, and it is
uncertain whether the noun to be supplied should be "gate" or, following
the Vulgate Version, "pool."
Shekel - weight, the common standard both
of weight and value among the Hebrews. It is estimated at 220 English grains,
or a little more than half an ounce avoirdupois. The "shekel of the sanctuary"
(Ex. 30:13; Num. 3:47) was equal to twenty gerahs (Ezek. 45:12). There were
shekels of gold (1 Chr. 21:25), of silver (1 Sam. 9:8), of brass (17:5),
and of iron (7). When it became a coined piece of money, the shekel of gold
was equivalent to about 2 pound of our money. Six gold shekels, according
to the later Jewish system, were equal in value to fifty silver ones.
The temple contribution, with which the public sacrifices were bought
(Ex. 30:13; 2 Chr. 24:6), consisted of one common shekel, or a sanctuary
half-shekel, equal to two Attic drachmas. The coin, a stater (q.v.), which
Peter found in the fish's mouth paid this contribution for both him and
Christ (Matt. 17:24, 27). A zuza, or quarter of a shekel, was given by
Saul to Samuel (1 Sam. 9:8).
Shelah - petition. (1.) Judah's third son
(Gen. 38:2, 5, 11, 14).
(2.) A son of Arphaxad (1 Chr. 1:18).
Shelemiah - whom Jehovah repays. (1.) Ezra
(2.) The father of Hananiah (Neh. 3:30).
(3.) A priest in the time of Nehemiah (13:13).
(4.) Father of one of those who accused Jeremiah to Zedekiah (Jer. 37:3;
(5.) Father of a captain of the ward (Jer. 37:13).
(6.) Jer. 36:14.
Shem - a name; renown, the first mentioned
of the sons of Noah (Gen. 5:32; 6:10). He was probably the eldest of Noah's
sons. The words "brother of Japheth the elder" in Gen. 10:21 are more correctly
rendered "the elder brother of Japheth," as in the Revised Version. Shem's
name is generally mentioned first in the list of Noah's sons. He and his
wife were saved in the ark (7:13). Noah foretold his preeminence over Canaan
(9:23-27). He died at the age of six hundred years, having been for many
years contemporary with Abraham, according to the usual chronology. The
Israelitish nation sprang from him (Gen. 11:10-26; 1 Chr. 1:24-27).
Shema - rumour. (1.) A Reubenite (1 Chr.
(2.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:13).
(3.) One who stood by Ezra when he read the law (Neh. 8:4).
(4.) A town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:26); the same as Sheba (ver.
Shemaah - rumour, a Benjamite whose sons
"came to David to Ziklag" (1 Chr. 12:3).
Shemaiah - whom Jehovah heard. (1.) A prophet
in the reign of Rehoboam (1 Kings 12:22-24).
(2.) Neh. 3:29.
(3.) A Simeonite (1 Chr. 4:37).
(4.) A priest (Neh. 12:42).
(5.) A Levite (1 Chr. 9:16).
(6.) 1 Chr. 9:14; Neh. 11:15.
(7.) A Levite in the time of David, who with 200 of his brethren took
part in the bringing up of the ark from Obed-edom to Hebron (1 Chr. 15:8).
(8.) A Levite (1 Chr. 24:6).
(9.) The eldest son of Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4-8).
(10.) A Levite (2 Chr. 29:14).
(11.) A false prophet who hindered the rebuilding of Jerusalem (Neh.
(12.) A prince of Judah who assisted at the dedication of the wall of
Jerusalem (Neh. 12:34-36).
(13.) A false prophet who opposed Jeremiah (Jer. 29:24-32).
(14.) One of the Levites whom Jehoshaphat appointed to teach the law
(2 Chr. 17:8).
(15.) A Levite appointed to "distribute the oblations of the Lord" (2
(16.) A Levite (2 Chr. 35:9).
(17.) The father of Urijah the prophet (Jer. 26:20).
(18.) The father of a prince in the reign of Jehoiakim (Jer. 36:12).
Shemariah - whom Jehovah guards. (1.) One
who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:5).
(2.) Ezra 10:32, 41.
Shemeber - soaring on high, the king of
Zeboiim, who joined with the other kings in casting off the yoke of Chedorlaomer.
After having been reconquered by him, he was rescued by Abraham (Gen. 14:2).
Sheminith - eight; octave, a musical term,
supposed to denote the lowest note sung by men's voices (1 Chr. 15:21; Ps.
6; 12, title).
Shemiramoth - most high name. (1.) A Levite
in the reign of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 17:8).
(2.) A Levite in David's time (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).
Shemuel - heard of God. (1.) The son of
Ammihud. He represented Simeon in the division of the land (Num. 34:20).
(2.) Used for "Samuel" (1 Chr. 6:33, R.V.).
(3.) A prince of the tribe of Issachar (1 Chr. 7:2).
Shen - a tooth, probably some conspicuous
tooth-shaped rock or crag (1 Sam. 7:12), a place between which and Mizpeh
Samuel set up his "Ebenezer." In the Hebrew the word has the article prefixed,
"the Shen." The site is unknown.
Shenir - =Senir, (Deut. 3:9; Cant. 4:8),
the name given to Mount Hermon (q.v.) by the Sidonians.
Sheol - (Heb., "the all-demanding world"
= Gr. Hades, "the unknown region"), the invisible world of departed souls.
Shepham - a treeless place, Num. 34:10,
11: "The coast shall go down from Shepham to Riblah."
Shephatiah - judged of the Lord. (1.) A
son of David by Abital (2 Sam. 3:4).
(2.) A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:5).
(3.) A Simeonite prince in David's time (1 Chr. 27:16).
(4.) One of Jehoshaphat's sons (2 Chr. 21:2).
(5.) Ezra 2:4.
(6.) Ezra 2:57; Neh. 7:59.
(7.) One of the princes who urged the putting of Jeremiah to death (Jer.
Shepherd - a word naturally of frequent
occurence in Scripture. Sometimes the word "pastor" is used instead (Jer.
2:8; 3:15; 10:21; 12:10; 17:16). This word is used figuratively to represent
the relation of rulers to their subjects and of God to his people (Ps. 23:1;
80:1; Isa. 40:11; 44:28; Jer. 25:34, 35; Nahum 3:18; John 10:11, 14; Heb.
13:20; 1 Pet. 2:25; 5:4).
The duties of a shepherd in an unenclosed country like Palestine were
very onerous. "In early morning he led forth the flock from the fold,
marching at its head to the spot where they were to be pastured. Here
he watched them all day, taking care that none of the sheep strayed, and
if any for a time eluded his watch and wandered away from the rest, seeking
diligently till he found and brought it back. In those lands sheep require
to be supplied regularly with water, and the shepherd for this purpose
has to guide them either to some running stream or to wells dug in the
wilderness and furnished with troughs. At night he brought the flock home
to the fold, counting them as they passed under the rod at the door to
assure himself that none were missing. Nor did his labours always end
with sunset. Often he had to guard the fold through the dark hours from
the attack of wild beasts, or the wily attempts of the prowling thief
(see 1 Sam. 17:34).", Deane's David.
Sherebiah - flame of the Lord, a priest
whose name is prominent in connection with the work carried on by Ezra and
Nehemiah at Jerusalem (Ezra 8:17, 18, 24-30; Neh. 8:7; 9:4, 5; 10:12).
Sheresh - root, a descendant of Manasseh
(1 Chr. 7:16).
Sherezer - one of the messengers whom the
children of the Captivity sent to Jerusalem "to pray for them before the
Lord" (Zech. 7:2).
Sheriffs - (Dan. 3:2), Babylonian officers.
Sheshach - (Jer. 25:26), supposed to be
equivalent to Babel (Babylon), according to a secret (cabalistic) mode of
writing among the Jews of unknown antiquity, which consisted in substituting
the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet for the first, the last but one for
the second, and so on. Thus the letters sh, sh, ch become b, b, l, i.e.,
Babel. This is supposed to be confirmed by a reference to Jer. 51:41, where
Sheshach and Babylon are in parallel clauses. There seems to be no reason
to doubt that Babylon is here intended by this name. (See Streane's Jeremiah,
Sheshai - whitish, one of the sons of Anak
(Num. 13:22). When the Israelites obtained possession of the country the
sons of Anak were expelled and slain (Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:10).
Sheshbazzar - O sun-god, defend the lord!
(Ezra 1:8, 11), probably another name for Zerubbabel (q.v.), Ezra 2:2; Hag.
1:12, 14; Zech. 4:6, 10.
Sheth - tumult. (1.) "The children of Sheth"
(Num. 24:17); R.V., "the sons of tumult," which is probably the correct
rendering, as there is no evidence that this is a proper name here.
(2.) The antediluvian patriarch (1 Chr. 1:1).
Shethar - a star, a prince at the court
of Ahasuerus (Esther 1:14).
Shethar-boznai - star of splendour, a Persian
officer who vainly attempted to hinder the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra
5:3, 6; 6:6, 13).
Sheva - Heb. Shebher. (1.) The son of Caleb
(1 Chr. 2:49).
(2.) Heb. Sheva', one of David's scribes (2 Sam. 20:25).
Shewbread - Ex. 25:30 (R.V. marg., "presence
bread"); 1 Chr. 9:32 (marg., "bread of ordering"); Num. 4:7: called "hallowed
bread" (R.V., "holy bread") in 1 Sam. 21:1-6.
This bread consisted of twelve loaves made of the finest flour. They
were flat and thin, and were placed in two rows of six each on a table
in the holy place before the Lord. They were renewed every Sabbath (Lev.
24:5-9), and those that were removed to give place to the new ones were
to be eaten by the priests only in the holy place (see 1 Sam. 21:3-6;
comp. Matt. 12:3, 4).
The number of the loaves represented the twelve tribes of Israel, and
also the entire spiritual Israel, "the true Israel;" and the placing of
them on the table symbolized the entire consecration of Israel to the
Lord, and their acceptance of God as their God. The table for the bread
was made of acacia wood, 3 feet long, 18 inches broad, and 2 feet 3 inches
high. It was plated with pure gold. Two staves, plated with gold, passed
through golden rings, were used for carrying it.
Shibboleth - river, or an ear of corn. The
tribes living on the east of Jordan, separated from their brethren on the
west by the deep ravines and the rapid river, gradually came to adopt peculiar
customs, and from mixing largely with the Moabites, Ishmaelites, and Ammonites
to pronounce certain letters in such a manner as to distinguish them from
the other tribes. Thus when the Ephraimites from the west invaded Gilead,
and were defeated by the Gileadites under the leadership of Jephthah, and
tried to escape by the "passages of the Jordan," the Gileadites seized the
fords and would allow none to pass who could not pronounce "shibboleth"
with a strong aspirate. This the fugitives were unable to do. They said
"sibboleth," as the word was pronounced by the tribes on the west, and thus
they were detected (Judg. 12:1-6). Forty-two thousand were thus detected,
"Without reprieve, adjudged to death, For want of well-pronouncing shibboleth."
Shibmah - fragrance, a town of Reuben, east
of Jordan (Num. 32:38).
Shield - used in defensive warfare, varying
at different times and under different circumstances in size, form, and
material (1 Sam. 17:7; 2 Sam. 1:21; 1 Kings 10:17; 1 Chr. 12:8, 24, 34;
Isa. 22:6; Ezek. 39:9; Nahum 2:3).
Used figuratively of God and of earthly princes as the defenders of
their people (Gen. 15:1; Deut. 33:29; Ps. 33:20; 84:11). Faith is compared
to a shield (Eph. 6:16).
Shields were usually "anointed" (Isa. 21:5), in order to preserve them,
and at the same time make the missiles of the enemy glide off them more
Shiggaion - from the verb shagah, "to reel
about through drink," occurs in the title of Ps. 7. The plural form, shigionoth,
is found in Hab. 3:1. The word denotes a lyrical poem composed under strong
mental emotion; a song of impassioned imagination accompanied with suitable
music; a dithyrambic ode.
Shihon - overturning, a town of Issachar
Shihor - dark, (1 Chr. 13:5), the southwestern
boundary of Canaan, the Wady el-'Arish. (See SIHOR; NILE.)
Shihor-Libnath - black-white, a stream on
the borders of Asher, probably the modern Nahr Zerka, i.e., the "crocodile
brook," or "blue river", which rises in the Carmel range and enters the
Mediterranean a little to the north of Caesarea (Josh. 19:26). Crocodiles
are still found in the Zerka. Thomson suspects "that long ages ago some
Egyptians, accustomed to worship this ugly creature, settled here (viz.,
at Caesarea), and brought their gods with them. Once here they would not
easily be exterminated" (The Land and the Book).
Shilhim - aqueducts, a town in the south
of Judah (Josh. 15:32); called also Sharuhen and Shaaraim (19:6).
Shiloah, The waters of - =Siloah, (Neh.
3:15) and Siloam (q.v.)
Shiloh - generally understood as denoting
the Messiah, "the peaceful one," as the word signifies (Gen. 49:10). The
Vulgate Version translates the word, "he who is to be sent," in allusion
to the Messiah; the Revised Version, margin, "till he come to Shiloh;" and
the LXX., "until that which is his shall come to Shiloh." It is most simple
and natural to render the expression, as in the Authorized Version, "till
Shiloh come," interpreting it as a proper name (comp. Isa. 9:6).
Shiloh, a place of rest, a city of Ephraim, "on the north side of Bethel,"
from which it is distant 10 miles (Judg. 21:19); the modern Seilun (the
Arabic for Shiloh), a "mass of shapeless ruins." Here the tabernacle was
set up after the Conquest (Josh. 18:1-10), where it remained during all
the period of the judges till the ark fell into the hands of the Philistines.
"No spot in Central Palestine could be more secluded than this early sanctuary,
nothing more featureless than the landscape around; so featureless, indeed,
the landscape and so secluded the spot that from the time of St. Jerome
till its re-discovery by Dr. Robinson in 1838 the very site was forgotten
and unknown." It is referred to by Jeremiah (7:12, 14; 26:4-9) five hundred
years after its destruction.
Shilonite - Ahijah the prophet, whose home
was in Shiloh, is so designated (1 Kings 11:29; 15:29). The plural form
occurs (1 Chr. 9:5), denoting the descendants of Shelah, Judah's youngest
Shimea - the hearing prayer. (1.) One of
David's sons by Bathsheba (1 Chr. 3:5); called also Shammua (14:4).
(2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 6:30).
(3.) Another Levite of the family of Gershon (1 Chr. 6:39).
(4.) One of David's brothers (1 Sam. 16:9, marg.).
Shimeah - (1.) One of David's brothers (2
Sam. 13:3); same as Shimea (4).
(2.) A Benjamite, a descendant of Gibeon (1 Chr. 8:32); called also
Shimei - famous. (1.) A son of Gershon,
and grandson of Levi (Num. 3:18; 1 Chr. 6:17, 29); called Shimi in Ex. 6:17.
(2.) A Benjamite of the house of Saul, who stoned and cursed David when
he reached Bahurim in his flight from Jerusalem on the occasion of the
rebellion of Absalom (2 Sam. 16:5-13). After the defeat of Absalom he
"came cringing to the king, humbly suing for pardon, bringing with him
a thousand of his Benjamite tribesmen, and representing that he was heartily
sorry for his crime, and had hurried the first of all the house of Israel
to offer homage to the king" (19:16-23). David forgave him; but on his
death-bed he gave Solomon special instructions regarding Shimei, of whose
fidelity he seems to have been in doubt (1 Kings 2:8,9). He was put to
death at the command of Solomon, because he had violated his word by leaving
Jerusalem and going to Gath to recover two of his servants who had escaped
(3.) One of David's mighty men who refused to acknowledge Adonijah as
David's successor (1 Kings 1:8). He is probably the same person who is
called elsewhere (4:18) "the son of Elah."
(4.) A son of Pedaiah, the brother of Zerubbabel (1 Chr. 3:19).
(5.) A Simeonite (1 Chr. 4:26, 27).
(6.) A Reubenite (1 Chr. 5:4).
(7.) A Levite of the family of Gershon (1 Chr. 6:42).
(8.) A Ramathite who was "over the vineyards" of David (1 Chr. 27:27).
(9.) One of the sons of Heman, who assisted in the purification of the
temple (2 Chr. 29:14).
(10.) A Levite (2 Chr. 31:12, 13).
(11.) Another Levite (Ezra 10:23). "The family of Shimei" (Zech. 12:13;
R.V., "the family of the Shimeites") were the descendants of Shimei (1).
Shimeon - hearkening. Ezra 10:31.
Shimhi - famous, a Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:21).
Shimrath - guardian, a Benjamite, one of
Shimhi's sons (id.).
Shimri - watchman. (1.) A Simeonite (1 Chr.
(2.) The father of one of the "valiant men" of David's armies (1 Chr.
(3.) Assisted at the purification of the temple in the time of Hezekiah
(2 Chr. 29:13).
Shimrom - watchman, the fourth son of Issachar
(Gen. 46:13; 1 Chr. 7:1; R.V., correctly, "Shimron").
Shimron - watch-post, an ancient city of
the Canaanites; with its villages, allotted to Zebulun (Josh. 19:15); now
probably Semunieh, on the northern edge of the plain of Esdraelon, 5 miles
west of Nazareth.
Shimron-meron - the same, probably, as Shimron
Shimshai - the shining one, or sunny, the
secretary of Rehum the chancellor, who took part in opposing the rebuilding
of the temple after the Captivity (Ezra 4:8, 9, 17-23).
Shinab - cooling, the king of Adamah, in
the valley of Siddim, who with his confederates was conquered by Chedorlaomer
Shinar, The Land of - LXX. and Vulgate
"Senaar;" in the inscriptions, "Shumir;" probably identical with Babylonia
or Southern Mesopotamia, extending almost to the Persian Gulf. Here the
tower of Babel was built (Gen. 11:1-6), and the city of Babylon. The name
occurs later in Jewish history (Isa. 11:11; Zech. 5:11). Shinar was apparently
first peopled by Turanian tribes, who tilled the land and made bricks
and built cities. Then tribes of Semites invaded the land and settled
in it, and became its rulers. This was followed in course of time by an
Elamite invasion; from which the land was finally delivered by Khammurabi,
the son of Amarpel ("Amraphel, king of Shinar," Gen. 14:1), who became
the founder of the new empire of Chaldea. (See AMRAPHEL.)
Shiphmite - probably the designation of
Zabdi, who has charge of David's vineyards (1 Chr. 27:27).
Shiphrah - beauty, one of the Egyptian midwives
Shiphtan - judicial, an Ephraimite prince
at the time of the division of Canaan (Num. 34:24).
Ships - early used in foreign commerce by
the Phoenicians (Gen. 49:13). Moses (Deut. 28:68) and Job (9:26) make reference
to them, and Balaam speaks of the "ships of Chittim" (Num. 24:24). Solomon
constructed a navy at Ezion-geber by the assistance of Hiram's sailors (1
Kings 9:26-28; 2 Chr. 8:18). Afterwards, Jehoshaphat sought to provide himself
with a navy at the same port, but his ships appear to have been wrecked
before they set sail (1 Kings 22:48, 49; 2 Chr. 20:35-37).
In our Lord's time fishermen's boats on the Sea of Galilee were called
"ships." Much may be learned regarding the construction of ancient merchant
ships and navigation from the record in Acts 27, 28.
Shishak I - =Sheshonk I., king of Egypt.
His reign was one of great national success, and a record of his wars
and conquests adorns the portico of what are called the "Bubastite kings"
at Karnak, the ancient Thebes. Among these conquests is a record of that
of Judea. In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign Shishak came up against
the kingdom of Judah with a powerful army. He took the fenced cities and
came to Jerusalem. He pillaged the treasures of the temple and of the
royal palace, and carried away the shields of gold which Solomon had made
(1 Kings 11:40; 14:25; 2 Chr. 12:2). (See REHOBOAM.) This expedition of
the Egyptian king was undertaken at the instigation of Jeroboam for the
purpose of humbling Judah. Hostilities between the two kingdoms still
continued; but during Rehoboam's reign there was not again the intervention
of a third party.
Shittah-tree - (Isa. 41:19; R.V., "acacia
tree"). Shittah wood was employed in making the various parts of the tabernacle
in the wilderness, and must therefore have been indigenous in the desert
in which the Israelites wandered. It was the acacia or mimosa (Acacia Nilotica
and A. seyal). "The wild acacia (Mimosa Nilotica), under the name of sunt,
everywhere represents the seneh, or senna, of the burning bush. A slightly
different form of the tree, equally common under the name of seyal,
is the ancient 'shittah,' or, as more usually expressed in the plural form,
the 'shittim,' of which the tabernacle was made." Stanley's Sinai, etc.
(Ex. 25:10, 13, 23, 28).
Shittim - acacias, also called "Abel-shittim"
(Num. 33:49), a plain or valley in the land of Moab where the Israelites
were encamped after their two victories over Sihon and Og, at the close
of their desert wanderings, and from which Joshua sent forth two spies (q.v.)
"secretly" to "view" the land and Jericho (Josh. 2:1).
Shoa - opulent, the mountain district
lying to the north-east of Babylonia, anciently the land of the Guti,
or Kuti, the modern Kurdistan. The plain lying between these mountains
and the Tigris was called su-Edina, i.e., "the border of the plain." This
name was sometimes shortened into Suti and Su, and has been regarded as
= Shoa (Ezek. 23:23). Some think it denotes a place in Babylon. (See PEKOD.)
Shobab - apostate. (1.) One of David's sons
by Bathseheba (2 Sam. 5:14).
(2.) One of the sons of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:18), the son of Hezron.
Shobach - poured out, the "captain of the
host of Hadarezer" when he mustered his vassals and tributaries from beyond
"the river Euphrates" (2 Sam. 10:15-18); called also Shophach (1 Chr. 19:16).