Stachys - spike; an ear of corn, a convert at Rome whom Paul salutes
Stacte - (Heb. nataph), one of the components
of the perfume which was offered on the golden altar (Ex. 30:34; R.V. marg.,
"opobalsamum"). The Hebrew word is from a root meaning "to distil," and
it has been by some interpreted as distilled myrrh. Others regard it as
the gum of the storax tree, or rather shrub, the Styrax officinale. "The
Syrians value this gum highly, and use it medicinally as an emulcent in
pectoral complaints, and also in perfumery."
Stargazers - (Isa. 47:13), those who pretend
to tell what will occur by looking upon the stars. The Chaldean astrologers
"divined by the rising and setting, the motions, aspects, colour, degree
of light, etc., of the stars."
Star, Morning - a name figuratively given
to Christ (Rev. 22:16; comp. 2 Pet. 1:19). When Christ promises that he
will give the "morning star" to his faithful ones, he "promises that he
will give to them himself, that he will give to them himself, that he will
impart to them his own glory and a share in his own royal dominion; for
the star is evermore the symbol of royalty (Matt. 2:2), being therefore
linked with the sceptre (Num. 24:17). All the glory of the world shall end
in being the glory of the Church." Trench's Comm.
Stars - The eleven stars (Gen. 37:9);
the seven (Amos 5:8); wandering (Jude 1:13); seen in the east at the birth
of Christ, probably some luminous meteors miraculously formed for this
specific purpose (Matt. 2:2-10); stars worshipped (Deut. 4:19; 2 Kings
17:16; 21:3; Jer. 19:13); spoken of symbolically (Num. 24:17; Rev. 1:16,
20; 12:1). (See ASTROLOGERS.)
Stater - Greek word rendered "piece
of money" (Matt. 17:27, A.V.; and "shekel" in R.V.). It was equal to two
didrachmas ("tribute money," 17:24), or four drachmas, and to about 2s.
6d. of our money. (See SHEKEL.)
Stealing - See THEFT.
Steel - The "bow of steel" in (A.V.) 2 Sam.
22:35; Job 20:24; Ps. 18:34 is in the Revised Version "bow of brass" (Heb.
kesheth-nehushah). In Jer. 15:12 the same word is used, and is also rendered
in the Revised Version "brass." But more correctly it is copper (q.v.),
as brass in the ordinary sense of the word (an alloy of copper and zinc)
was not known to the ancients.
Stephanas - crown, a member of the church
at Corinth, whose family were among those the apostle had baptized (1 Cor.
1:16; 16:15, 17). He has been supposed by some to have been the "jailer
of Philippi" (comp. Acts 16:33). The First Epistle to the Corinthians was
written from Philippi some six years after the jailer's conversion, and
he was with the apostle there at that time.
Stephen - one of the seven deacons, who
became a preacher of the gospel. He was the first Christian martyr. His
personal character and history are recorded in Acts 6. "He fell asleep"
with a prayer for his persecutors on his lips (7:60). Devout men carried
him to his grave (8:2).
It was at the feet of the young Pharisee, Saul of Tarsus, that those
who stoned him laid their clothes (comp. Deut. 17:5-7) before they began
their cruel work. The scene which Saul then witnessed and the words he
heard appear to have made a deep and lasting impression on his mind (Acts
The speech of Stephen before the Jewish ruler is the first apology for
the universalism of the gospel as a message to the Gentiles as well as
the Jews. It is the longest speech contained in the Acts, a place of prominence
being given to it as a defence.
Stoics - a sect of Greek philosophers at
Athens, so called from the Greek word stoa i.e., a "porch" or "portico,"
where they have been called "the Pharisees of Greek paganism." The founder
of the Stoics was Zeno, who flourished about B.C. 300. He taught his disciples
that a man's happiness consisted in bringing himself into harmony with the
course of the universe. They were trained to bear evils with indifference,
and so to be independent of externals. Materialism, pantheism, fatalism,
and pride were the leading features of this philosophy.
Stomacher - (Isa. 3:24), an article of female
attire, probably some sort of girdle around the breast.
Stone - Stones were commonly used for
buildings, also as memorials of important events (Gen. 28:18; Josh. 24:26,
27; 1 Sam. 7:12, etc.). They were gathered out of cultivated fields (Isa.
5:2; comp. 2 Kings 3:19). This word is also used figuratively of believers
(1 Pet. 2:4, 5), and of the Messiah (Ps. 118:22; Isa. 28:16; Matt. 21:42;
Acts 4:11, etc.). In Dan. 2:45 it refers also to the Messiah. He is there
described as "cut out of the mountain." (See ROCK.)
A "heart of stone" denotes great insensibility (1 Sam. 25:37).
Stones were set up to commemorate remarkable events, as by Jacob at
Bethel (Gen. 28:18), at Padan-aram (35:4), and on the occasion of parting
with Laban (31:45-47); by Joshua at the place on the banks of the Jordan
where the people first "lodged" after crossing the river (Josh. 6:8),
and also in "the midst of Jordan," where he erected another set of twelve
stones (4:1-9); and by Samuel at "Ebenezer" (1 Sam. 7:12).
Stones, Precious - Frequently referred to
(1 Kings 10:2; 2 Chr. 3:6; 9:10; Rev. 18:16; 21:19). There are about twenty
different names of such stones in the Bible. They are figuratively introduced
to denote value, beauty, durability (Cant. 5:14; Isa 54:11, 12; Lam. 4:7).
Stoning - a form of punishment (Lev. 20:2;
24:14; Deut. 13:10; 17:5; 22:21) prescribed for certain offences. Of Achan
(Josh. 7:25), Naboth (1 Kings 21), Stephen (Acts 7:59), Paul (Acts 14:19;
2 Cor. 11:25).
Stork - Heb. hasidah, meaning "kindness,"
indicating thus the character of the bird, which is noted for its affection
for its young. It is in the list of birds forbidden to be eaten by the Levitical
law (Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18). It is like the crane, but larger in size.
Two species are found in Palestine, the white, which are dispersed in pairs
over the whole country; and the black, which live in marshy places and in
great flocks. They migrate to Palestine periodically (about the 22nd of
March). Jeremiah alludes to this (Jer. 8:7). At the appointed time they
return with unerring sagacity to their old haunts, and re-occupy their old
nests. "There is a well-authenticated account of the devotion of a stork
which, at the burning of the town of Delft, after repeated and unsuccessful
attempts to carry off her young, chose rather to remain and perish with
them than leave them to their fate. Well might the Romans call it the pia
In Job 39:13 (A.V.), instead of the expression "or wings and feathers
unto the ostrich" (marg., "the feathers of the stork and ostrich"), the
Revised Version has "are her pinions and feathers kindly" (marg., instead
of "kindly," reads "like the stork's"). The object of this somewhat obscure
verse seems to be to point out a contrast between the stork, as distinguished
for her affection for her young, and the ostrich, as distinguished for
Zechariah (5:9) alludes to the beauty and power of the stork's wings.
Strain at - Simply a misprint for "strain
out" (Matt. 23:24).
Stranger - This word generally denotes a
person from a foreign land residing in Palestine. Such persons enjoyed many
privileges in common with the Jews, but still were separate from them. The
relation of the Jews to strangers was regulated by special laws (Deut. 23:3;
24:14-21; 25:5; 26:10-13). A special signification is also sometimes attached
to this word. In Gen. 23:4 it denotes one resident in a foreign land; Ex.
23:9, one who is not a Jew; Num. 3:10, one who is not of the family of Aaron;
Ps. 69:8, an alien or an unknown person. The Jews were allowed to purchase
strangers as slaves (Lev. 25:44, 45), and to take usury from them (Deut.
Straw - Used in brick-making (Ex. 5:7-18).
Used figuratively in Job 41:27; Isa. 11:7; 25:10; 65:25.
Stream of Egypt - (Isa. 27:12), the Wady
el-'Arish, called also "the river of Egypt," R.V., "brook of Egypt" (Num.
34:5; Josh. 15:4; 2 Kings 24:7). It is the natural boundary of Egypt. Occasionally
in winter, when heavy rains have fallen among the mountains inland, it becomes
a turbulent rushing torrent. The present boundary between Egypt and Palestine
is about midway between el-'Arish and Gaza.
Street - The street called "Straight" at
Damascus (Acts 9:11) is "a long broad street, running from east to west,
about a mile in length, and forming the principal thoroughfare in the city."
In Oriental towns streets are usually narrow and irregular and filthy (Ps.
18:42; Isa. 10:6). "It is remarkable," says Porter, "that all the important
cities of Palestine and Syria Samaria, Caesarea, Gerasa, Bozrah, Damascus,
Palmyra, had their 'straight streets' running through the centre of the
city, and lined with stately rows of columns. The most perfect now remaining
are those of Palmyra and Gerasa, where long ranges of the columns still
stand.", Through Samaria, etc.
Stripes - as a punishment were not to exceed
forty (Deut. 25:1-3), and hence arose the custom of limiting them to thirty-nine
(2 Cor. 11:24). Paul claimed the privilege of a Roman citizen in regard
to the infliction of stripes (Acts 16:37, 38; 22:25-29). Our Lord was beaten
with stripes (Matt. 27:26).
Subscriptions - The subscriptions to Paul's
epistles are no part of the original. In their present form they are ascribed
to Euthalius, a bishop of the fifth century. Some of them are obviously
Suburbs - the immediate vicinity of a city
or town (Num. 35:3, 7; Ezek. 45:2). In 2 Kings 23:11 the Hebrew word there
used (parvarim) occurs nowhere else. The Revised Version renders it "precincts."
The singular form of this Hebrew word (parvar) is supposed by some to be
the same as Parbar (q.v.), which occurs twice in 1 Chr. 26:18.
Succoth - booths. (1.) The first encampment
of the Israelites after leaving Ramesses (Ex. 12:37); the civil name of
(2.) A city on the east of Jordan, identified with Tell Dar'ala, a high
mound, a mass of debris, in the plain north of Jabbok and about one mile
from it (Josh. 13:27). Here Jacob (Gen. 32:17, 30; 33:17), on his return
from Padan-aram after his interview with Esau, built a house for himself
and made booths for his cattle. The princes of this city churlishly refused
to afford help to Gideon and his 300 men when "faint yet pursuing" they
followed one of the bands of the fugitive Midianites after the great victory
at Gilboa. After overtaking and routing this band at Karkor, Gideon on
his return visited the rulers of the city with severe punishment. "He
took the elders of the city, and thorns of the wilderness and briers,
and with them he taught the men of Succoth" (Judg. 8:13-16). At this place
were erected the foundries for casting the metal-work for the temple (1
Succoth-benoth - tents of daughters, supposed
to be the name of a Babylonian deity, the goddess Zir-banit, the wife of
Merodach, worshipped by the colonists in Samaria (2 Kings 17:30).
Sukkiims - dwellers in tents, (Vulg. and
LXX., "troglodites;" i.e., cave-dwellers in the hills along the Red Sea).
Shiskak's army, with which he marched against Jerusalem, was composed partly
of this tribe (2 Chr. 12:3).
Sun - (Heb. shemesh), first mentioned along
with the moon as the two great luminaries of heaven (Gen. 1:14-18). By their
motions and influence they were intended to mark and divide times and seasons.
The worship of the sun was one of the oldest forms of false religion (Job
31:26,27), and was common among the Egyptians and Chaldeans and other pagan
nations. The Jews were warned against this form of idolatry (Deut. 4:19;
17:3; comp. 2 Kings 23:11; Jer. 19:13).
Suph - (Deut. 1:1, R.V.; marg., "some ancient
versions have the Red Sea," as in the A.V.). Some identify it with Suphah
(Num. 21:14, marg., A.V.) as probably the name of a place. Others identify
it with es-Sufah = Maaleh-acrabbim (Josh. 15:3), and others again with Zuph
(1 Sam. 9:5). It is most probable, however, that, in accordance with the
ancient versions, this word is to be regarded as simply an abbreviation
of Yam-suph, i.e., the "Red Sea."
Suphah - (Num. 21:14, marg.; also R.V.),
a place at the south-eastern corner of the Dead Sea, the Ghor es-Safieh.
This name is found in an ode quoted from the "Book of the Wars of the Lord,"
probably a collection of odes commemorating the triumphs of God's people
(comp. 21:14, 17, 18, 27-30).
Supper - the principal meal of the day
among the Jews. It was partaken of in the early part of the evening (Mark
6:21; John 12:2; 1 Cor. 11:21). (See LORD'S SUPPER.)
Surety - one who becomes responsible for
another. Christ is the surety of the better covenant (Heb. 7:22). In him
we have the assurance that all its provisions will be fully and faithfully
carried out. Solomon warns against incautiously becoming security for another
(Prov. 6:1-5; 11:15; 17:18; 20:16).
Susanchites - the inhabitants of Shushan,
who joined the other adversaries of the Jews in the attempt to prevent the
rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 4:9).
Susanna - lily, with other pious women,
ministered to Jesus (Luke 8:3).
Susi - the father of Gaddi, who was one
of the twelve spies (Num. 13:11).
Swallow - (1.) Heb. sis (Isa. 38:14; Jer.
8:7), the Arabic for the swift, which "is a regular migrant, returning in
myriads every spring, and so suddenly that while one day not a swift can
be seen in the country, on the next they have overspread the whole land,
and fill the air with their shrill cry." The swift (cypselus) is ordinarily
classed with the swallow, which it resembles in its flight, habits, and
(2.) Heb. deror, i.e., "the bird of freedom" (Ps. 84:3; Prov. 26:2),
properly rendered swallow, distinguished for its swiftness of flight,
its love of freedom, and the impossibility of retaining it in captivity.
In Isa. 38:14 and Jer. 8:7 the word thus rendered ('augr) properly means
"crane" (as in the R.V.).
Swan - mentioned in the list of unclean
birds (Lev. 11:18; Deut. 14:16), is sometimes met with in the Jordan and
the Sea of Galilee.
Swelling - of Jordan (Jer. 12:5), literally
the "pride" of Jordan (as in R.V.), i.e., the luxuriant thickets of tamarisks,
poplars, reeds, etc., which were the lair of lions and other beasts of prey.
The reference is not to the overflowing of the river banks. (Comp. 49:19;
50:44; Zech. 11:3).
Swine - (Heb. hazir), regarded as the most
unclean and the most abhorred of all animals (Lev. 11:7; Isa. 65:4; 66:3,
17; Luke 15:15, 16). A herd of swine were drowned in the Sea of Galilee
(Luke 8:32, 33). Spoken of figuratively in Matt. 7:6 (see Prov. 11:22).
It is frequently mentioned as a wild animal, and is evidently the wild boar
(Arab. khanzir), which is common among the marshes of the Jordan valley
Sword - of the Hebrew was pointed, sometimes
two-edged, was worn in a sheath, and suspended from the girdle (Ex. 32:27;
1 Sam. 31:4; 1 Chr. 21:27; Ps. 149:6: Prov. 5:4; Ezek. 16:40; 21:3-5).
It is a symbol of divine chastisement (Deut. 32:25; Ps. 7:12; 78:62),
and of a slanderous tongue (Ps. 57:4; 64:3; Prov. 12:18). The word of
God is likened also to a sword (Heb. 4:12; Eph. 6:17; Rev. 1:16). Gideon's
watchword was, "The sword of the Lord" (Judg. 7:20).
Sycamine tree - mentioned only in Luke 17:6.
It is rendered by Luther "mulberry tree" (q.v.), which is most probably
the correct rendering. It is found of two species, the black mulberry (Morus
nigra) and the white mulberry (Mourea), which are common in Palestine. The
silk-worm feeds on their leaves. The rearing of them is one of the chief
industries of the peasantry of Lebanon and of other parts of the land. It
is of the order of the fig-tree. Some contend, however, that this name denotes
the sycamore-fig of Luke 19:4.
Sycamore - more properly sycomore (Heb.
shikmoth and shikmim, Gr. sycomoros), a tree which in its general character
resembles the fig-tree, while its leaves resemble those of the mulberry;
hence it is called the fig-mulberry (Ficus sycomorus). At Jericho, Zacchaeus
climbed a sycomore-tree to see Jesus as he passed by (Luke 19:4). This tree
was easily destroyed by frost (Ps. 78:47), and therefore it is found mostly
in the "vale" (1 Kings 10:27; 2 Chr. 1:15: in both passages the R.V. has
properly "lowland"), i.e., the "low country," the shephelah, where the climate
is mild. Amos (7:14) refers to its fruit, which is of an inferior character;
so also probably Jeremiah (24:2). It is to be distinguished from our sycamore
(the Acer pseudo-platanus), which is a species of maple often called a plane-tree.
Sychar - liar or drunkard (see Isa. 28:1,
7), has been from the time of the Crusaders usually identified with Sychem
or Shechem (John 4:5). It has now, however, as the result of recent explorations,
been identified with 'Askar, a small Samaritan town on the southern base
of Ebal, about a mile to the north of Jacob's well.
Sychem - See SHECHEM.
Syene - opening (Ezek. 29:10; 30:6), a town
of Egypt, on the borders of Ethiopia, now called Assouan, on the right bank
of the Nile, notable for its quarries of beautiful red granite called "syenite."
It was the frontier town of Egypt in the south, as Migdol was in the north-east.
Synagogue - (Gr. sunagoge, i.e., "an assembly"),
found only once in the Authorized Version of Ps. 74:8, where the margin
of Revised Version has "places of assembly," which is probably correct;
for while the origin of synagogues is unknown, it may well be supposed that
buildings or tents for the accommodation of worshippers may have existed
in the land from an early time, and thus the system of synagogues would
be gradually developed.
Some, however, are of opinion that it was specially during the Babylonian
captivity that the system of synagogue worship, if not actually introduced,
was at least reorganized on a systematic plan (Ezek. 8:1; 14:1). The exiles
gathered together for the reading of the law and the prophets as they
had opportunity, and after their return synagogues were established all
over the land (Ezra 8:15; Neh. 8:2). In after years, when the Jews were
dispersed abroad, wherever they went they erected synagogues and kept
up the stated services of worship (Acts 9:20; 13:5; 17:1; 17:17; 18:4).
The form and internal arrangements of the synagogue would greatly depend
on the wealth of the Jews who erected it, and on the place where it was
built. "Yet there are certain traditional pecularities which have doubtless
united together by a common resemblance the Jewish synagogues of all ages
and countries. The arrangements for the women's place in a separate gallery
or behind a partition of lattice-work; the desk in the centre, where the
reader, like Ezra in ancient days, from his 'pulpit of wood,' may 'open
the book in the sight of all of people and read in the book of the law
of God distinctly, and give the sense, and cause them to understand the
reading' (Neh. 8:4, 8); the carefully closed ark on the side of the building
nearest to Jerusalem, for the preservation of the rolls or manuscripts
of the law; the seats all round the building, whence 'the eyes of all
them that are in the synagogue' may 'be fastened' on him who speaks (Luke
4:20); the 'chief seats' (Matt. 23:6) which were appropriated to the 'ruler'
or 'rulers' of the synagogue, according as its organization may have been
more or less complete;", these were features common to all the synagogues.
Where perfected into a system, the services of the synagogue, which
were at the same hours as those of the temple, consisted, (1) of prayer,
which formed a kind of liturgy, there were in all eighteen prayers; (2)
the reading of the Scriptures in certain definite portions; and (3) the
exposition of the portions read. (See Luke 4:15, 22; Acts 13:14.)
The synagogue was also sometimes used as a court of judicature, in which
the rulers presided (Matt. 10:17; Mark 5:22; Luke 12:11; 21:12; Acts 13:15;
22:19); also as public schools.
The establishment of synagogues wherever the Jews were found in sufficient
numbers helped greatly to keep alive Israel's hope of the coming of the
Messiah, and to prepare the way for the spread of the gospel in other
lands. The worship of the Christian Church was afterwards modelled after
that of the synagogue.
Christ and his disciples frequently taught in the synagogues (Matt.
13:54; Mark 6:2; John 18:20; Acts 13:5, 15, 44; 14:1; 17:2-4, 10, 17;
18:4, 26; 19:8).
To be "put out of the synagogue," a phrase used by John (9:22; 12:42;
16:2), means to be excommunicated.
Syntyche - fortunate; affable, a female
member of the church at Philippi, whom Paul beseeches to be of one mind
with Euodias (Phil. 4:2,3).
Syracuse - a city on the south-east coast
of Sicily, where Paul landed and remained three days when on his way to
Rome (Acts 28:12). It was distinguished for its magnitude and splendour.
It is now a small town of some 13,000 inhabitants.
Syria - (Heb. Aram), the name in the Old
Testament given to the whole country which lay to the north-east of Phoenicia,
extending to beyond the Euphrates and the Tigris. Mesopotamia is called
(Gen. 24:10; Deut. 23:4) Aram-naharain (=Syria of the two rivers), also
Padan-aram (Gen. 25:20). Other portions of Syria were also known by separate
names, as Aram-maahah (1 Chr. 19:6), Aram-beth-rehob (2 Sam. 10:6), Aram-zobah
(2 Sam. 10:6, 8). All these separate little kingdoms afterwards became subject
to Damascus. In the time of the Romans, Syria included also a part of Palestine
and Asia Minor.
"From the historic annals now accessible to us, the history of Syria
may be divided into three periods: The first, the period when the power
of the Pharaohs was dominant over the fertile fields or plains of Syria
and the merchant cities of Tyre and Sidon, and when such mighty conquerors
as Thothmes III. and Rameses II. could claim dominion and levy tribute
from the nations from the banks of the Euphrates to the borders of the
Libyan desert. Second, this was followed by a short period of independence,
when the Jewish nation in the south was growing in power, until it reached
its early zenith in the golden days of Solomon; and when Tyre and Sidon
were rich cities, sending their traders far and wide, over land and sea,
as missionaries of civilization, while in the north the confederate tribes
of the Hittites held back the armies of the kings of Assyria. The third,
and to us most interesting, period is that during which the kings of Assyria
were dominant over the plains of Syria; when Tyre, Sidon, Ashdod, and
Jerusalem bowed beneath the conquering armies of Shalmaneser, Sargon,
and Sennacherib; and when at last Memphis and Thebes yielded to the power
of the rulers of Nineveh and Babylon, and the kings of Assyria completed
with terrible fulness the bruising of the reed of Egypt so clearly foretold
by the Hebrew prophets.", Boscawen.
Syriac - (2 Kings 18:26; Ezra 4:7; Dan.
2:4), more correctly rendered "Aramaic," including both the Syriac and the
Chaldee languages. In the New Testament there are several Syriac words,
such as "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?" (Mark 15:34; Matt. 27:46 gives the
Heb. form, "Eli, Eli"), "Raca" (Matt. 5:22), "Ephphatha" (Mark 7:34), "Maran-atha"
(1 Cor. 16:22).
A Syriac version of the Old Testament, containing all the canonical
books, along with some apocryphal books (called the Peshitto, i.e., simple
translation, and not a paraphrase), was made early in the second century,
and is therefore the first Christian translation of the Old Testament.
It was made directly from the original, and not from the LXX. Version.
The New Testament was also translated from Greek into Syriac about the
same time. It is noticeable that this version does not contain the Second
and Third Epistles of John, 2 Peter, Jude, and the Apocalypse. These were,
however, translated subsequently and placed in the version. (See VERSION.)
Syrophenician - "a Greek, a Syrophenician
by nation" (Mark 7:26), i.e., a Gentile born in the Phoenician part of
Syria. (See PHENICIA.)
When our Lord retired into the borderland of Tyre and Sidon (Matt. 15:21),
a Syro-phoenician woman came to him, and earnestly besought him, in behalf
of her daughter, who was grievously afflicted with a demon. Her faith
in him was severely tested by his silence (Matt. 15:23), refusal (24),
and seeming reproach that it was not meet to cast the children's bread
to dogs (26). But it stood the test, and her petition was graciously granted,
because of the greatness of her faith (28).
Taanach - a sandy place, an ancient royal
city of the Canaanites, on the south-western border of the plain of Esdraelon,
4 miles south of Megiddo. Its king was conquered by Joshua (12:21). It was
assigned to the Levites of the family of Kohath (17:11-18; 21:25). It is
mentioned in the song of Deborah (Judg. 5:19). It is identified with the
small modern village of Ta'annuk.
Taanath-shiloh - approach to Shiloh, a place
on the border of Ephraim (Josh. 16:6), probably the modern T'ana, a ruin
7 miles south-east of Shechem, on the ridge east of the Mukhnah plain.
Tabbaoth - impressions; rings, "the children
of," returned from the Captivity (Ezra 2:43).
Tabbath - famous, a town in the tribe of
Ephraim (Judg. 7:22), to the south of Bethshean, near the Jordan.
Tabeal - goodness of God, the father of
one whom the kings of Syria and Samaria in vain attempted to place on the
throne of Ahaz (Isa. 7:6).
Tabeel - a Persian governor of Samaria,
who joined others in the attempt to prevent the rebuilding of Jerusalem
Taberah - burning, a place in the wilderness
of Paran, where the "fire of the Lord" consumed the murmuring Israelites
(Num. 11:3; Deut. 9:22). It was also called Kibroth-hattaavah (q.v.).
Tabering - playing on a small drum or tabret.
In Nahum 2:7, where alone it occurs, it means beating on the breast, as
players beat on the tabret.
Tabernacle - (1.) A house or dwelling-place
(Job 5:24; 18:6, etc.).
(2.) A portable shrine (comp. Acts 19:24) containing the image of Moloch
(Amos 5:26; marg. and R.V., "Siccuth").
(3.) The human body (2 Cor. 5:1, 4); a tent, as opposed to a permanent
(4.) The sacred tent (Heb. mishkan, "the dwelling-place"); the movable
tent-temple which Moses erected for the service of God, according to the
"pattern" which God himself showed to him on the mount (Ex. 25:9; Heb.
8:5). It is called "the tabernacle of the congregation," rather "of meeting",
i.e., where God promised to meet with Israel (Ex. 29:42); the "tabernacle
of the testimony" (Ex. 38:21; Num. 1:50), which does not, however, designate
the whole structure, but only the enclosure which contained the "ark of
the testimony" (Ex. 25:16, 22; Num. 9:15); the "tabernacle of witness"
(Num. 17:8); the "house of the Lord" (Deut. 23:18); the "temple of the
Lord" (Josh. 6:24); a "sanctuary" (Ex. 25:8).
A particular account of the materials which the people provided for
the erection and of the building itself is recorded in Ex. 25-40. The
execution of the plan mysteriously given to Moses was intrusted to Bezaleel
and Aholiab, who were specially endowed with wisdom and artistic skill,
probably gained in Egypt, for this purpose (Ex. 35:30-35). The people
provided materials for the tabernacle so abundantly that Moses was under
the necessity of restraining them (36:6). These stores, from which they
so liberally contributed for this purpose, must have consisted in a great
part of the gifts which the Egyptians so readily bestowed on them on the
eve of the Exodus (12:35, 36).
The tabernacle was a rectangular enclosure, in length about 45 feet
(i.e., reckoning a cubit at 18 inches) and in breadth and height about
15. Its two sides and its western end were made of boards of acacia wood,
placed on end, resting in sockets of brass, the eastern end being left
open (Ex. 26:22). This framework was covered with four coverings, the
first of linen, in which figures of the symbolic cherubim were wrought
with needlework in blue and purple and scarlet threads, and probably also
with threads of gold (Ex. 26:1-6; 36:8-13). Above this was a second covering
of twelve curtains of black goats'-hair cloth, reaching down on the outside
almost to the ground (Ex. 26:7-11). The third covering was of rams' skins
dyed red, and the fourth was of badgers' skins (Heb. tahash, i.e., the
dugong, a species of seal), Ex. 25:5; 26:14; 35:7, 23; 36:19; 39:34.
Internally it was divided by a veil into two chambers, the exterior
of which was called the holy place, also "the sanctuary" (Heb. 9:2) and
the "first tabernacle" (6); and the interior, the holy of holies, "the
holy place," "the Holiest," the "second tabernacle" (Ex. 28:29; Heb. 9:3,
7). The veil separating these two chambers was a double curtain of the
finest workmanship, which was never passed except by the high priest once
a year, on the great Day of Atonement. The holy place was separated from
the outer court which enclosed the tabernacle by a curtain, which hung
over the six pillars which stood at the east end of the tabernacle, and
by which it was entered.
The order as well as the typical character of the services of the tabernacle
are recorded in Heb. 9; 10:19-22.
The holy of holies, a cube of 10 cubits, contained the "ark of the testimony",
i.e., the oblong chest containing the two tables of stone, the pot of
manna, and Aaron's rod that budded.
The holy place was the western and larger chamber of the tabernacle.
Here were placed the table for the shewbread, the golden candlestick,
and the golden altar of incense.
Round about the tabernacle was a court, enclosed by curtains hung upon
sixty pillars (Ex. 27:9-18). This court was 150 feet long and 75 feet
broad. Within it were placed the altar of burnt offering, which measured
7 1/2 feet in length and breadth and 4 1/2 feet high, with horns at the
four corners, and the laver of brass (Ex. 30:18), which stood between
the altar and the tabernacle.
The whole tabernacle was completed in seven months. On the first day
of the first month of the second year after the Exodus, it was formally
set up, and the cloud of the divine presence descended on it (Ex. 39:22-43;
40:1-38). It cost 29 talents 730 shekels of gold, 100 talents 1,775 shekels
of silver, 70 talents 2,400 shekels of brass (Ex. 38:24-31).
The tabernacle was so constructed that it could easily be taken down
and conveyed from place to place during the wanderings in the wilderness.
The first encampment of the Israelites after crossing the Jordan was at
Gilgal, and there the tabernacle remained for seven years (Josh. 4:19).
It was afterwards removed to Shiloh (Josh. 18:1), where it remained during
the time of the Judges, till the days of Eli, when the ark, having been
carried out into the camp when the Israelites were at war with the Philistines,
was taken by the enemy (1 Sam. 4), and was never afterwards restored to
its place in the tabernacle. The old tabernacle erected by Moses in the
wilderness was transferred to Nob (1 Sam. 21:1), and after the destruction
of that city by Saul (22:9; 1 Chr. 16:39, 40), to Gibeon. It is mentioned
for the last time in 1 Chr. 21:29. A new tabernacle was erected by David
at Jerusalem (2 Sam. 6:17; 1 Chr. 16:1), and the ark was brought from
Perez-uzzah and deposited in it (2 Sam. 6:8-17; 2 Chr. 1:4).
The word thus rendered ('ohel) in Ex. 33:7 denotes simply a tent, probably
Moses' own tent, for the tabernacle was not yet erected.
Tabernacles, Feast of - the third of the
great annual festivals of the Jews (Lev. 23:33-43). It is also called the
"feast of ingathering" (Ex. 23:16; Deut. 16:13). It was celebrated immediately
after the harvest, in the month Tisri, and the celebration lasted for eight
days (Lev. 23:33-43). During that period the people left their homes and
lived in booths formed of the branches of trees. The sacrifices offered
at this time are mentioned in Num. 29:13-38. It was at the time of this
feast that Solomon's temple was dedicated (1 Kings 8:2). Mention is made
of it after the return from the Captivity. This feast was designed (1) to
be a memorial of the wilderness wanderings, when the people dwelt in booths
(Lev. 23:43), and (2) to be a harvest thanksgiving (Neh. 8:9-18). The Jews,
at a later time, introduced two appendages to the original festival, viz.,
(1) that of drawing water from the Pool of Siloam, and pouring it upon the
altar (John 7:2, 37), as a memorial of the water from the rock in Horeb;
and (2) of lighting the lamps at night, a memorial of the pillar of fire
by night during their wanderings.
"The feast of Tabernacles, the harvest festival of the Jewish Church,
was the most popular and important festival after the Captivity. At Jerusalem
it was a gala day. It was to the autumn pilgrims, who arrived on the 14th
(of the month Tisri, the feast beginning on the 15th) day, like entrance
into a silvan city. Roofs and courtyards, streets and squares, roads and
gardens, were green with boughs of citron and myrtle, palm and willow.
The booths recalled the pilgrimage through the wilderness. The ingathering
of fruits prophesied of the spiritual harvest.", Valling's Jesus Christ,
Tabitha - (in Greek called Dorcas), gazelle,
a disciple at Joppa. She was distinguished for her alms-deeds and good works.
Peter, who was sent for from Lydda on the occasion of her death, prayed
over the dead body, and said, "Tabitha, arise." And she opened her eyes
and sat up; and Peter "gave her his hand, and raised her up; and calling
the saints and widows, he presented her alive" (Acts 9:36-43).
Tables - (Mark 7:4) means banqueting-couches
or benches, on which the Jews reclined when at meals. This custom, along
with the use of raised tables like ours, was introduced among the Jews
after the Captivity. Before this they had, properly speaking, no table.
That which served the purpose was a skin or piece of leather spread out
on the carpeted floor. Sometimes a stool was placed in the middle of this
skin. (See ABRAHAM'S BOSOM; BANQUET; MEALS.)
Tablet - probably a string of beads worn
round the neck (Ex. 35:22; Num. 31:50). In Isa. 3:20 the Hebrew word means
a perfume-box, as it is rendered in the Revised Version.
Tabor - a height. (1.) Now Jebel et-Tur,
a cone-like prominent mountain, 11 miles west of the Sea of Galilee. It
is about 1,843 feet high. The view from the summit of it is said to be
singularly extensive and grand. This is alluded to in Ps. 89:12; Jer.
46:18. It was here that Barak encamped before the battle with Sisera (q.v.)
Judg. 4:6-14. There is an old tradition, which, however, is unfounded,
that it was the scene of the transfiguration of our Lord. (See HERMON.)
"The prominence and isolation of Tabor, standing, as it does, on the border-land
between the northern and southern tribes, between the mountains and the
central plain, made it a place of note in all ages, and evidently led
the psalmist to associate it with Hermon, the one emblematic of the south,
the other of the north." There are some who still hold that this was the
scene of the transfiguration (q.v.).
(2.) A town of Zebulum (1 Chr. 6:77).
(3.) The "plain of Tabor" (1 Sam. 10:3) should be, as in the Revised
Version, "the oak of Tabor." This was probably the Allon-bachuth of Gen.
Tabret - (Heb. toph), a timbrel (q.v.) or
tambourine, generally played by women (Gen. 31:27; 1 Sam. 10:5; 18:6). In
Job 17:6 the word (Heb. topheth) "tabret" should be, as in the Revised Version,
"an open abhorring" (marg., "one in whose face they spit;" lit., "a spitting
in the face").
Tabrimon - good is Rimmon, the father of
Benhadad, king of Syria (1 Kings 15:18).
Taches - hooks or clasps by which the tabernacle
curtains were connected (Ex. 26:6, 11, 33; 35:11).
Tachmonite - =Hach'monite, a name given
to Jashobeam (2 Sam. 23:8; comp. 1 Chr. 11:11).
Tackling - (Isa. 33:23), the ropes attached
to the mast of a ship. In Acts 27:19 this word means generally the furniture
of the ship or the "gear" (27:17), all that could be removed from the ship.
Tadmor - palm, a city built by Solomon
"in the wilderness" (2 Chr. 8:4). In 1 Kings 9:18, where the word occurs
in the Authorized Version, the Hebrew text and the Revised Version read
"Tamar," which is properly a city on the southern border of Palestine
and toward the wilderness (comp. Ezek. 47:19; 48:28). In 2 Chr. 8:14 Tadmor
is mentioned in connection with Hamath-zobah. It is called Palmyra by
the Greeks and Romans. It stood in the great Syrian wilderness, 176 miles
from Damascus and 130 from the Mediterranean and was the centre of a vast
commercial traffic with Western Asia. It was also an important military
station. (See SOLOMON.) "Remains of ancient temples and palaces, surrounded
by splendid colonnades of white marble, many of which are yet standing,
and thousands of prostrate pillars, scattered over a large extent of space,
attest the ancient magnificence of this city of palms, surpassing that
of the renowned cities of Greece and Rome."
Tahapanes - =Tahpanhes=Tehaphnehes, (called
"Daphne" by the Greeks, now Tell Defenneh), an ancient Egyptian city, on
the Tanitic branch of the Nile, about 16 miles from Pelusium. The Jews from
Jerusalem fled to this place after the death of Gedaliah (q.v.), and settled
there for a time (Jer. 2:16; 43:7; 44:1; 46:14). A platform of brick-work,
which there is every reason to believe was the pavement at the entry of
Pharaoh's palace, has been discovered at this place. "Here," says the discoverer,
Mr. Petrie, "the ceremony described by Jeremiah [43:8-10; "brick-kiln",
i.e., pavement of brick] took place before the chiefs of the fugitives assembled
on the platform, and here Nebuchadnezzar spread his royal pavilion" (R.V.,
Tahpenes - the wife of Pharaoh, who gave
her sister in marriage to Hadad the Edomite (1 Kings 11:19, 20).
Tahtim-hodshi - the land of the newly inhabited,
(2 Sam. 24:6). It is conjectured that, instead of this word, the reading
should be, "the Hittites of Kadesh," the Hittite capital, on the Orontes.
It was apparently some region east of the Jordan and north of Gilead.
Tale - (1.) Heb. tokhen, "a task," as weighed
and measured out = tally, i.e., the number told off; the full number (Ex.
5:18; see 1 Sam. 18:27; 1 Chr. 9:28). In Ezek. 45:11 rendered "measure."
(2.) Heb. hegeh, "a thought;" "meditation" (Ps. 90:9); meaning properly
"as a whisper of sadness," which is soon over, or "as a thought." The
LXX. and Vulgate render it "spider;" the Authorized Version and Revised
Version, "as a tale" that is told. In Job 37:2 this word is rendered "sound;"
Revised Version margin, "muttering;" and in Ezek. 2:10, "mourning."
Talent - of silver contained 3,000 shekels
(Ex. 38:25, 26), and was equal to 94 3/7 lbs. avoirdupois. The Greek talent,
however, as in the LXX., was only 82 1/4 lbs. It was in the form of a circular
mass, as the Hebrew name kikkar denotes. A talent of gold was double
the weight of a talent of silver (2 Sam. 12:30). Parable of the talents
(Matt. 18:24; 25:15).
Talitha cumi - (Mark 5:41), a Syriac or
Aramaic expression, meaning, "Little maid, arise." Peter, who was present
when the miracle was wrought, recalled the actual words used by our Lord,
and told them to Mark.
Talmai - abounding in furrows. (1.) One
of the Anakim of Hebron, who were slain by the men of Judah under Caleb
(Num. 13:22; Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:10).
(2.) A king of Geshur, to whom Absalom fled after he had put Amnon to
death (2 Sam. 3:3; 13:37). His daughter, Maachah, was one of David's wives,
and the mother of Absalom (1 Chr. 3:2).
Talmon - oppressed. (1.) A Levite porter
(1 Chr. 9:17; Neh. 11:19).
(2.) One whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel to Jerusalem (Ezra
2:42; Neh. 7:45); probably the same as (1).
Tamar - palm. (1.) A place mentioned by
Ezekiel (47:19; 48:28), on the southeastern border of Palestine. Some suppose
this was "Tadmor" (q.v.).
(2.) The daughter-in-law of Judah, to whose eldest son, Er, she was
married (Gen. 38:6). After her husband's death, she was married to Onan,
his brother (8), and on his death, Judah promised to her that his third
son, Shelah, would become her husband. This promise was not fulfilled,
and hence Tamar's revenge and Judah's great guilt (38:12-30).
(3.) A daughter of David (2 Sam. 13:1-32; 1 Chr. 3:9), whom Amnon shamefully
outraged and afterwards "hated exceedingly," thereby illustrating the
law of human nature noticed even by the heathen, "Proprium humani ingenii
est odisse quem laeseris", i.e., "It is the property of human nature to
hate one whom you have injured."
(4.) A daughter of Absalom (2 Sam. 14:27).
Tamarisk - Heb. 'eshel (Gen. 21:33; 1 Sam.
22:6; 31:13, in the R.V.; but in A.V., "grove," "tree"); Arab. asal. Seven
species of this tree are found in Palestine. It is a "very graceful tree,
with long feathery branches and tufts closely clad with the minutest of
leaves, and surmounted in spring with spikes of beautiful pink blosoms,
which seem to envelop the whole tree in one gauzy sheet of colour" (Tristram's
Tammuz - a corruption of Dumuzi, the Accadian
sun-god (the Adonis of the Greeks), the husband of the goddess Ishtar. In
the Chaldean calendar there was a month set apart in honour of this god,
the month of June to July, the beginning of the summer solstice. At this
festival, which lasted six days, the worshippers, with loud lamentations,
bewailed the funeral of the god, they sat "weeping for Tammuz" (Ezek. 8:14).
The name, also borrowed from Chaldea, of one of the months of the Hebrew
Tanhumeth - consolation, a Netophathite;
one of the captains who supported Gedaliah (2 Kings 25:23; Jer. 40:8).
Tanis - (Ezek. 30:14, marg.). See ZOAN.
Tappuah - apple-region. (1.) A town in the
valley or lowland of Judah; formerly a royal city of the Canaanites (Josh.
12:17; 15:34). It is now called Tuffuh, about 12 miles west of Jerusalem.
(2.) A town on the border of Ephraim (Josh. 16:8). The "land" of Tappuah
fell to Manasseh, but the "city" to Ephraim (17:8).
(3.) En-tappuah, the well of the apple, probably one of the springs
near Yassuf (Josh. 17:7).
Tarah - stopping; station, an encampment
of the Hebrews in the wilderness (Num. 33:27, 28).
Tares - the bearded darnel, mentioned only
in Matt. 13:25-30. It is the Lolium temulentum, a species of rye-grass,
the seeds of which are a strong soporific poison. It bears the closest resemblance
to wheat till the ear appears, and only then the difference is discovered.
It grows plentifully in Syria and Palestine.
Target - (1 Sam. 17:6, A.V., after the LXX.
and Vulg.), a kind of small shield. The margin has "gorget," a piece of
armour for the throat. The Revised Version more correctly renders the Hebrew
word (kidon) by "javelin." The same Hebrew word is used in Josh. 8:18 (A.V.,
"spear;" R.V., "javelin"); Job 39:23 (A.V., "shield;" R.V., "javelin");
41:29 (A.V., "spear;" R.V., "javelin").
Tarshish - a Sanscrit or Aryan word, meaning
"the sea coast." (1.) One of the "sons" of Javan (Gen. 10:4; 1 Chr. 1:7).
(2.) The name of a place which first comes into notice in the days of
Solomon. The question as to the locality of Tarshish has given rise to
not a little discussion. Some think there was a Tarshish in the East,
on the Indian coast, seeing that "ships of Tarshish" sailed from Eziongeber,
on the Red Sea (1 Kings 9:26; 22:48; 2 Chr. 9:21). Some, again, argue
that Carthage was the place so named. There can be little doubt, however,
that this is the name of a Phoenician port in Spain, between the two mouths
of the Guadalquivir (the name given to the river by the Arabs, and meaning
"the great wady" or water-course). It was founded by a Carthaginian colony,
and was the farthest western harbour of Tyrian sailors. It was to this
port Jonah's ship was about to sail from Joppa. It has well been styled
"the Peru of Tyrian adventure;" it abounded in gold and silver mines.
It appears that this name also is used without reference to any locality.
"Ships of Tarshish" is an expression sometimes denoting simply ships intended
for a long voyage (Isa. 23:1, 14), ships of a large size (sea-going ships),
whatever might be the port to which they sailed. Solomon's ships were
so styled (1 Kings 10:22; 22:49).
Tarsus - the chief city of Cilicia.
It was distinguished for its wealth and for its schools of learning, in
which it rivalled, nay, excelled even Athens and Alexandria, and hence
was spoken of as "no mean city." It was the native place of the Apostle
Paul (Acts 21:39). It stood on the banks of the river Cydnus, about 12
miles north of the Mediterranean. It is said to have been founded by Sardanapalus,
king of Assyria. It is now a filthy, ruinous Turkish town, called Tersous.
Tartak - prince of darkness, one of the
gods of the Arvites, who colonized part of Samaria after the deportation
of Israel by Shalmaneser (2 Kings 17:31).
Tartan - an Assyrian word, meaning "the
commander-in-chief." (1.) One of Sennacherib's messengers to Hezekiah (2
Kings 18:17). (2.) One of Sargon's generals (Isa. 20:1).
Tatnai - gift, a Persian governor (Heb.
pehah, i.e., "satrap;" modern "pasha") "on this side the river", i.e., of
the whole tract on the west of the Euphrates. This Hebrew title pehah
is given to governors of provinces generally. It is given to Nehemiah (5:14)
and to Zerubbabel (Hag. 1:1). It is sometimes translated "captain" (1 Kings
20:24; Dan. 3:2, 3), sometimes also "deputy" (Esther 8:9; 9:3). With others,
Tatnai opposed the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 5:6); but at the command
of Darius, he assisted the Jews (6:1-13).
Taverns, The three - a place on the great
"Appian Way," about 11 miles from Rome, designed for the reception of travellers,
as the name indicates. Here Paul, on his way to Rome, was met by a band
of Roman Christians (Acts 28:15). The "Tres Tabernae was the first mansio
or mutatio, that is, halting-place for relays, from Rome, or the last on
the way to the city. At this point three roads run into the Via Appia, that
from Tusculum, that from Alba Longa, and that from Antium; so necessarily
here would be a halting-place, which took its name from the three shops
there, the general store, the blacksmith's, and the refreshment-house...Tres
Tabernae is translated as Three Taverns, but it more correctly means three
shops" (Forbes's Footsteps of St. Paul, p.20).
Taxes - first mentioned in the command (Ex.
30:11-16) that every Jew from twenty years and upward should pay an annual
tax of "half a shekel for an offering to the Lord." This enactment was faithfully
observed for many generations (2 Chr. 24:6; Matt. 17:24).
Afterwards, when the people had kings to reign over them, they began,
as Samuel had warned them (1 Sam. 8:10-18), to pay taxes for civil purposes
(1 Kings 4:7; 9:15; 12:4). Such taxes, in increased amount, were afterwards
paid to the foreign princes that ruled over them.
In the New Testament the payment of taxes, imposed by lawful rulers,
is enjoined as a duty (Rom. 13:1-7; 1 Pet. 2:13, 14). Mention is made
of the tax (telos) on merchandise and travellers (Matt. 17:25); the annual
tax (phoros) on property (Luke 20:22; 23:2); the poll-tax (kensos, "tribute,"
Matt. 17:25; 22:17; Mark 12:14); and the temple-tax ("tribute money" =
two drachmas = half shekel, Matt. 17:24-27; comp. Ex. 30:13). (See TRIBUTE.)
Taxing - (Luke 2:2; R.V., "enrolment"),
"when Cyrenius was governor of Syria," is simply a census of the people,
or an enrolment of them with a view to their taxation. The decree for
the enrolment was the occasion of Joseph and Mary's going up to Bethlehem.
It has been argued by some that Cyrenius (q.v.) was governor of Cilicia
and Syria both at the time of our Lord's birth and some years afterwards.
This decree for the taxing referred to the whole Roman world, and not
to Judea alone. (See CENSUS.)
Tebeth - (Esther 2:16), a word probably
of Persian origin, denoting the cold time of the year; used by the later
Jews as denoting the tenth month of the year. Assyrian tebituv, "rain."
Teil tree - (an old name for the lime-tree,
the tilia), Isa. 6:13, the terebinth, or turpentine-tree, the Pistacia terebinthus
of botanists. The Hebrew word here used (elah) is rendered oak (q.v.) in
Gen. 35:4; Judg. 6:11, 19; Isa. 1:29, etc. In Isa. 61:3 it is rendered in
the plural "trees;" Hos. 4:13, "elm" (R.V., "terebinth"). Hos. 4:13, "elm"
(R.V., "terebinth"). In 1 Sam. 17:2, 19 it is taken as a proper name, "Elah"
(R.V. marg., "terebinth").
"The terebinth of Mamre, or its lineal successor, remained from the
days of Abraham till the fourth century of the Christian era, and on its
site Constantine erected a Christian church, the ruins of which still
This tree "is seldom seen in clumps or groves, never in forests, but
stands isolated and weird-like in some bare ravine or on a hill-side where
nothing else towers above the low brushwood" (Tristram).
Tekel - weighed (Dan. 5:27).
Tekoa, Tekoah - pitching of tents; fastening
down, a town of Judah, about 12 miles south of Jerusalem, and visible from
the city. From this place Joab procured a "wise woman," who pretended to
be in great affliction, and skilfully made her case known to David. Her
address to the king was in the form of an apologue, similar to that of Nathan
(2 Sam. 12:1-6). The object of Joab was, by the intervention of this woman,
to induce David to bring back Absalom to Jerusalem (2 Sam. 14:2, 4, 9).
This was also the birth-place of the prophet Amos (1:1).
It is now the village of Teku'a, on the top of a hill among ruins, 5
miles south of Bethlehem, and close to Beth-haccerem ("Herod's mountain").