Week - From the beginning, time was divided into weeks, each consisting
of six days of working and one of rest (Gen. 2:2, 3; 7:10; 8:10, 12; 29:28).
The references to this division of days becomes afterwards more frequent
(Ex. 34:22; Lev. 12:5; Num. 28:26; Deut. 16:16; 2 Chr. 8:13; Jer. 5:24;
Dan. 9:24-27; 10:2, 3). It has been found to exist among almost all nations.
Weeks, Feast of - See PENTECOST.
Weights - Reduced to English troy-weight,
the Hebrew weights were: (1.) The gerah (Lev. 27:25; Num. 3:47), a Hebrew
word, meaning a grain or kernel, and hence a small weight. It was the twentieth
part of a shekel, and equal to 12 grains.
(2.) Bekah (Ex. 38:26), meaning "a half" i.e., "half a shekel," equal
to 5 pennyweight.
(3.) Shekel, "a weight," only in the Old Testament, and frequently in
its original form (Gen. 23:15, 16; Ex. 21:32; 30:13, 15; 38:24-29, etc.).
It was equal to 10 pennyweight.
(4.) Ma'neh, "a part" or "portion" (Ezek. 45:12), equal to 60 shekels,
i.e., to 2 lbs. 6 oz.
(5.) Talent of silver (2 Kings 5:22), equal to 3,000 shekels, i.e.,
(6.) Talent of gold (Ex. 25:39), double the preceding, i.e., 250 lbs.
Well - (Heb. beer), to be distinguished
from a fountain (Heb. 'ain). A "beer" was a deep shaft, bored far under
the rocky surface by the art of man, which contained water which percolated
through the strata in its sides. Such wells were those of Jacob and Beersheba,
etc. (see Gen. 21:19, 25, 30, 31; 24:11; 26:15, 18-25, 32, etc.). In the
Pentateuch this word beer, so rendered, occurs twenty-five times.
Westward - sea-ward, i.e., toward the Mediterranean
Whale - The Hebrew word tan (plural,
tannin) is so rendered in Job 7:12 (A.V.; but R.V., "sea-monster"). It is
rendered by "dragons" in Deut. 32:33; Ps. 91:13; Jer. 51:34; Ps. 74:13 (marg.,
"whales;" and marg. of R.V., "sea-monsters"); Isa. 27:1; and "serpent" in
Ex. 7:9 (R.V. marg., "any large reptile," and so in ver. 10, 12). The words
of Job (7:12), uttered in bitter irony, where he asks, "Am I a sea or a
whale?" simply mean, "Have I a wild, untamable nature, like the waves of
the sea, which must be confined and held within bounds, that they cannot
pass?" "The serpent of the sea, which was but the wild, stormy sea itself,
wound itself around the land, and threatened to swallow it up...Job inquires
if he must be watched and plagued like this monster, lest he throw the world
into disorder" (Davidson's Job).
The whale tribe are included under the general Hebrew name tannin
(Gen. 1:21; Lam. 4:3). "Even the sea-monsters [tanninim] draw out the
breast." The whale brings forth its young alive, and suckles them.
It is to be noticed of the story of Jonah's being "three days and three
nights in the whale's belly," as recorded in Matt. 12:40, that here the
Gr. ketos means properly any kind of sea-monster of the shark or the whale
tribe, and that in the book of Jonah (1:17) it is only said that "a great
fish" was prepared to swallow Jonah. This fish may have been, therefore,
some great shark. The white shark is known to frequent the Mediterranean
Sea, and is sometimes found 30 feet in length.
Wheat - one of the earliest cultivated grains.
It bore the Hebrew name hittah, and was extensively cultivated in
Palestine. There are various species of wheat. That which Pharaoh saw in
his dream was the Triticum compositum, which bears several ears upon one
stalk (Gen. 41:5). The "fat of the kidneys of wheat" (Deut. 32:14), and
the "finest of the wheat" (Ps. 81:16; 147:14), denote the best of the kind.
It was exported from Palestine in great quantities (1 Kings 5:11; Ezek.
27:17; Acts 12:20).
Parched grains of wheat were used for food in Palestine (Ruth 2:14;
1 Sam. 17:17; 2 Sam. 17:28). The disciples, under the sanction of the
Mosaic law (Deut. 23:25), plucked ears of corn, and rubbing them in their
hands, ate the grain unroasted (Matt. 12:1; Mark 2:23; Luke 6:1). Before
any of the wheat-harvest, however, could be eaten, the first-fruits had
to be presented before the Lord (Lev. 23:14).
Wheel - (Heb. galgal; rendered "wheel" in
Ps. 83:13, and "a rolling thing" in Isa. 17:13; R.V. in both, "whirling
dust"). This word has been supposed to mean the wild artichoke, which assumes
the form of a globe, and in autumn breaks away from its roots, and is rolled
about by the wind in some places in great numbers.
White - a symbol of purity (2 Chr. 5:12;
Ps. 51:7; Isa. 1:18; Rev. 3:18; 7:14). Our Lord, at his transfiguration,
appeared in raiment "white as the light" (Matt. 17:2, etc.).
Widows - to be treated with kindness (Ex.
22:22; Deut. 14:29; 16:11, 14; 24:17, 19-21; 26:12; 27:19, etc.). In the
New Testament the same tender regard for them is inculcated (Acts 6:1-6;
1 Tim. 5:3-16) and exhibited.
Wife - The ordinance of marriage was sanctioned
in Paradise (Gen. 2:24; Matt. 19:4-6). Monogamy was the original law under
which man lived, but polygamy early commenced (Gen. 4:19), and continued
to prevail all down through Jewish history. The law of Moses regulated but
did not prohibit polygamy. A man might have a plurality of wives, but a
wife could have only one husband. A wife's legal rights (Ex. 21:10) and
her duties (Prov. 31:10-31; 1 Tim. 5:14) are specified. She could be divorced
in special cases (Deut. 22:13-21), but could not divorce her husband. Divorce
was restricted by our Lord to the single case of adultery (Matt. 19:3-9).
The duties of husbands and wives in their relations to each other are distinctly
set forth in the New Testament (1 Cor. 7:2-5; Eph. 5:22-33; Col. 3:18, 19;
1 Pet. 3:1-7).
Wilderness - (1.) Heb. midhbar, denoting
not a barren desert but a district or region suitable for pasturing sheep
and cattle (Ps. 65:12; Isa. 42:11; Jer. 23:10; Joel 1:19; 2:22); an uncultivated
place. This word is used of the wilderness of Beersheba (Gen. 21:14), on
the southern border of Palestine; the wilderness of the Red Sea (Ex. 13:18);
of Shur (15:22), a portion of the Sinaitic peninsula; of Sin (17:1), Sinai
(Lev. 7:38), Moab (Deut. 2:8), Judah (Judg. 1:16), Ziph, Maon, En-gedi (1
Sam. 23:14, 24; 24:1), Jeruel and Tekoa (2 Chr. 20:16, 20), Kadesh (Ps.
"The wilderness of the sea" (Isa. 21:1). Principal Douglas, referring
to this expression, says: "A mysterious name, which must be meant to describe
Babylon (see especially ver. 9), perhaps because it became the place of
discipline to God's people, as the wilderness of the Red Sea had been
(comp. Ezek. 20:35). Otherwise it is in contrast with the symbolic title
in Isa. 22:1. Jerusalem is the "valley of vision," rich in spiritual husbandry;
whereas Babylon, the rival centre of influence, is spiritually barren
and as restless as the sea (comp. 57:20)." A Short Analysis of the O.T.
(2.) Jeshimon, a desert waste (Deut. 32:10; Ps. 68:7).
(3.) 'Arabah, the name given to the valley from the Dead Sea to the
eastern branch of the Red Sea. In Deut. 1:1; 2:8, it is rendered "plain"
(4.) Tziyyah, a "dry place" (Ps. 78:17; 105:41).
(5.) Tohu, a "desolate" place, a place "waste" or "unoccupied" (Deut.
32:10; Job 12:24; comp. Gen. 1:2, "without form"). The wilderness region
in the Sinaitic peninsula through which for forty years the Hebrews wandered
is generally styled "the wilderness of the wanderings." This entire region
is in the form of a triangle, having its base toward the north and its
apex toward the south. Its extent from north to south is about 250 miles,
and at its widest point it is about 150 miles broad. Throughout this vast
region of some 1,500 square miles there is not a single river. The northern
part of this triangular peninsula is properly the "wilderness of the wanderings"
(et-Tih). The western portion of it is called the "wilderness of Shur"
(Ex. 15:22), and the eastern the "wilderness of Paran."
The "wilderness of Judea" (Matt. 3:1) is a wild, barren region, lying
between the Dead Sea and the Hebron Mountains. It is the "Jeshimon" mentioned
in 1 Sam. 23:19.
Willows - (1.) Heb. 'arabim (Lev. 23:40;
Job 40:22; Isa. 15:7; 44:3, 4; Ps. 137:1, 2). This was supposed to be the
weeping willow, called by Linnaeus Salix Babylonica, from the reference
in Ps. 137. This tree is frequently found "on the coast, overhanging wells
and pools. There is a conspicuous tree of this species over a pond in the
plain of Acre, and others on the Phoenician plain." There are several species
of the salix in Palestine, but it is not indigenous to Babylonia, nor was
it cultivated there. Some are of opinion that the tree intended is the tamarisk
(2.) Heb. tzaphtzaphah (Ezek. 17:5), called by the Arabs the safsaf,
the general name for the willow. This may be the Salix AEgyptica of naturalists.
Tristram thinks that by the "willow by the water-courses," the Nerium
oleander, the rose-bay oleander, is meant. He says, "It fringes the Upper
Jordan, dipping its wavy crown of red into the spray in the rapids under
Hermon, and is nutured by the oozy marshes in the Lower Jordan nearly
as far as to Jericho...On the Arnon, on the Jabbok, and the Yarmuk it
forms a continuous fringe. In many of the streams of Moab it forms a complete
screen, which the sun's rays can never penetrate to evaporate the precious
moisture. The wild boar lies safely ensconced under its impervious cover."
Wimple - Isa. 3:22, (R.V., "shawls"), a
wrap or veil. The same Hebrew word is rendered "vail" (R.V., "mantle") in
Window - properly only an opening in a house
for the admission of light and air, covered with lattice-work, which might
be opened or closed (2 Kings 1:2; Acts 20:9). The spies in Jericho and Paul
at Damascus were let down from the windows of houses abutting on the town
wall (Josh. 2:15; 2 Cor. 11:33). The clouds are metaphorically called the
"windows of heaven" (Gen. 7:11; Mal. 3:10). The word thus rendered in Isa.
54:12 ought rather to be rendered "battlements" (LXX., "bulwarks;" R.V.,
"pinnacles"), or as Gesenius renders it, "notched battlements, i.e., suns
or rays of the sun"= having a radiated appearance like the sun.
Winds - blowing from the four quarters of
heaven (Jer. 49:36; Ezek. 37:9; Dan. 8:8; Zech. 2:6). The east wind was
parching (Ezek. 17:10; 19:12), and is sometimes mentioned as simply denoting
a strong wind (Job 27:21; Isa. 27:8). This wind prevails in Palestine from
February to June, as the west wind (Luke 12:54) does from November to February.
The south was a hot wind (Job 37:17; Luke 12:55). It swept over the Arabian
peninsula. The rush of invaders is figuratively spoken of as a whirlwind
(Isa. 21:1); a commotion among the nations of the world as a striving of
the four winds (Dan. 7:2). The winds are subject to the divine power (Ps.
Wine - The common Hebrew word for wine is
yayin, from a root meaning "to boil up," "to be in a ferment." Others
derive it from a root meaning "to tread out," and hence the juice of the
grape trodden out. The Greek word for wine is oinos_, and the Latin _vinun.
But besides this common Hebrew word, there are several others which are
(1.) Ashishah (2 Sam. 6:19; 1 Chr. 16:3; Cant. 2:5; Hos. 3:1), which,
however, rather denotes a solid cake of pressed grapes, or, as in the
Revised Version, a cake of raisins.
(2.) 'Asis, "sweet wine," or "new wine," the product of the same year
(Cant. 8:2; Isa. 49:26; Joel 1:5; 3:18; Amos 9:13), from a root meaning
"to tread," hence juice trodden out or pressed out, thus referring to
the method by which the juice is obtained. The power of intoxication is
ascribed to it.
(3.) Hometz. See VINEGAR.
(4.) Hemer, Deut. 32:14 (rendered "blood of the grape") Isa. 27:2 ("red
wine"), Ezra 6:9; 7:22; Dan. 5:1, 2, 4. This word conveys the idea of
"foaming," as in the process of fermentation, or when poured out. It is
derived from the root hamar, meaning "to boil up," and also "to
be red," from the idea of boiling or becoming inflamed.
(5.) 'Enabh, a grape (Deut. 32:14). The last clause of this verse should
be rendered as in the Revised Version, "and of the blood of the grape
['enabh] thou drankest wine [hemer]." In Hos. 3:1 the phrase in Authorized
Version, "flagons of wine," is in the Revised Version correctly "cakes
of raisins." (Comp. Gen. 49:11; Num. 6:3; Deut. 23:24, etc., where this
Hebrew word is rendered in the plural "grapes.")
(6.) Mesekh, properly a mixture of wine and water with spices that increase
its stimulating properties (Isa. 5:22). Ps. 75:8, "The wine [yayin] is
red; it is full of mixture [mesekh];" Prov. 23:30, "mixed wine;" Isa.
65:11, "drink offering" (R.V., "mingled wine").
(7.) Tirosh, properly "must," translated "wine" (Deut. 28:51); "new
wine" (Prov. 3:10); "sweet wine" (Micah 6:15; R.V., "vintage"). This Hebrew
word has been traced to a root meaning "to take possession of" and hence
it is supposed that tirosh is so designated because in intoxicating it
takes possession of the brain. Among the blessings promised to Esau (Gen.
27:28) mention is made of "plenty of corn and tirosh." Palestine is called
"a land of corn and tirosh" (Deut. 33:28; comp. Isa. 36:17). See also
Deut. 28:51; 2 Chr. 32:28; Joel 2:19; Hos. 4:11, ("wine [yayin] and new
wine [tirosh] take away the heart").
(8.) Sobhe (root meaning "to drink to excess," "to suck up," "absorb"),
found only in Isa. 1:22, Hos. 4:18 ("their drink;" Gesen. and marg. of
R.V., "their carouse"), and Nah. 1:10 ("drunken as drunkards;" lit., "soaked
according to their drink;" R.V., "drenched, as it were, in their drink",
i.e., according to their sobhe).
(9.) Shekar, "strong drink," any intoxicating liquor; from a root meaning
"to drink deeply," "to be drunken", a generic term applied to all fermented
liquors, however obtained. Num. 28:7, "strong wine" (R.V., "strong drink").
It is sometimes distinguished from wine, c.g., Lev. 10:9, "Do not drink
wine [yayin] nor strong drink [shekar];" Num. 6:3; Judg. 13:4, 7; Isa.
28:7 (in all these places rendered "strong drink"). Translated "strong
drink" also in Isa. 5:11; 24:9; 29:9; 56:12; Prov. 20:1; 31:6; Micah 2:11.
(10.) Yekebh (Deut. 16:13, but in R.V. correctly "wine-press"), a vat
into which the new wine flowed from the press. Joel 2:24, "their vats;"
3:13, "the fats;" Prov. 3:10, "Thy presses shall burst out with new wine
[tirosh];" Hag. 2:16; Jer. 48:33, "wine-presses;" 2 Kings 6:27; Job. 24:11.
(11.) Shemarim (only in plural), "lees" or "dregs" of wine. In Isa.
25:6 it is rendered "wines on the lees", i.e., wine that has been kept
on the lees, and therefore old wine.
(12.) Mesek, "a mixture," mixed or spiced wine, not diluted with water,
but mixed with drugs and spices to increase its strength, or, as some
think, mingled with the lees by being shaken (Ps. 75:8; Prov. 23:30).
In Acts 2:13 the word gleukos, rendered "new wine," denotes properly
"sweet wine." It must have been intoxicating.
In addition to wine the Hebrews also made use of what they called debash,
which was obtained by boiling down must to one-half or one-third of its
original bulk. In Gen. 43:11 this word is rendered "honey." It was a kind
of syrup, and is called by the Arabs at the present day dibs. This word
occurs in the phrase "a land flowing with milk and honey" (debash), Ex.
3:8, 17; 13:5; 33:3; Lev. 20:24; Num. 13: 27. (See HONEY.)
Our Lord miraculously supplied wine at the marriage feast in Cana of
Galilee (John 2:1-11). The Rechabites were forbidden the use of wine (Jer.
35). The Nazarites also were to abstain from its use during the period
of their vow (Num. 6:1-4); and those who were dedicated as Nazarites from
their birth were perpetually to abstain from it (Judg. 13:4, 5; Luke 1:15;
7:33). The priests, too, were forbidden the use of wine and strong drink
when engaged in their sacred functions (Lev. 10:1, 9-11). "Wine is little
used now in the East, from the fact that Mohammedans are not allowed to
taste it, and very few of other creeds touch it. When it is drunk, water
is generally mixed with it, and this was the custom in the days of Christ
also. The people indeed are everywhere very sober in hot climates; a drunken
person, in fact, is never seen", (Geikie's Life of Christ). The sin of
drunkenness, however, must have been not uncommon in the olden times,
for it is mentioned either metaphorically or literally more than seventy
times in the Bible.
A drink-offering of wine was presented with the daily sacrifice (Ex.
29:40, 41), and also with the offering of the first-fruits (Lev. 23:13),
and with various other sacrifices (Num. 15:5, 7, 10). Wine was used at
the celebration of the Passover. And when the Lord's Supper was instituted,
the wine and the unleavened bread then on the paschal table were by our
Lord set apart as memorials of his body and blood.
Several emphatic warnings are given in the New Testament against excess
in the use of wine (Luke 21:34; Rom. 13:13; Eph. 5:18; 1 Tim. 3:8; Titus
Winefat - (Mark 12:1). The original
word (hypolenion) so rendered occurs only here in the New Testament. It
properly denotes the trough or lake (lacus), as it was called by the Romans,
into which the juice of the grapes ran from the trough above it. It is
here used, however, of the whole apparatus. In the parallel passage in
Matt. 21:33 the Greek word lenos is used. This properly denotes
the upper one of the two vats. (See WINE-PRESS.)
Wine-press - Consisted of two vats or receptacles,
(1) a trough (Heb. gath, Gr. lenos) into which the grapes were thrown and
where they were trodden upon and bruised (Isa. 16:10; Lam. 1:15; Joel 3:13);
and (2) a trough or vat (Heb. yekebh, Gr. hypolenion) into which the juice
ran from the trough above, the gath (Neh. 13:15; Job 24:11; Isa. 63:2, 3;
Hag. 2:16; Joel 2:24). Wine-presses are found in almost every part of Palestine.
They are "the only sure relics we have of the old days of Israel before
the Captivity. Between Hebron and Beersheba they are found on all the hill
slopes; they abound in southern Judea; they are no less common in the many
valleys of Carmel; and they are numerous in Galilee." The "treading of the
wine-press" is emblematic of divine judgment (Isa. 63:2; Lam. 1:15; Rev.
Winnow - Corn was winnowed, (1.) By being
thrown up by a shovel against the wind. As a rule this was done in the evening
or during the night, when the west wind from the sea was blowing, which
was a moderate breeze and fitted for the purpose. The north wind was too
strong, and the east wind came in gusts. (2.) By the use of a fan or van,
by which the chaff was blown away (Ruth 3:2; Isa. 30:24; Jer. 4:11, 12;
Wise men - mentioned in Dan. 2:12 included
three classes, (1) astrologers, (2) Chaldeans, and (3) soothsayers. The
word in the original (hakamim) probably means "medicine men. In Chaldea
medicine was only a branch of magic. The "wise men" of Matt. 2:7, who came
from the East to Jerusalem, were magi from Persia or Arabia.
Wise, wisdom - a moral rather than an intellectual
quality. To be "foolish" is to be godless (Ps. 14:1; comp. Judg. 19:23;
2 Sam. 13:13). True wisdom is a gift from God to those who ask it (Job 28:12-28;
Prov. 3:13-18; Rom. 1:22; 16:27; 1 Cor. 1:17-21; 2:6-8; James 1:5). "Wisdom"
in Prov. 1:20; 8:1; 9:1-5 may be regarded not as a mere personification
of the attribute of wisdom, but as a divine person, "Christ the power of
God and the wisdom of God" (1 Cor. 1:24). In Matt. 11:19 it is the personified
principle of wisdom that is meant.
Witch - Occurs only in Ex. 22:18, as the
rendering of mekhashshepheh, the feminine form of the word, meaning
"enchantress" (R.V., "sorceress"), and in Deut. 18:10, as the rendering
of mekhashshepheth, the masculine form of the word, meaning "enchanter."
Witchcraft - (1 Sam. 15:23; 2 Kings 9:22;
2 Chr. 33:6; Micah 5:12; Nahum 3:4; Gal. 5:20). In the popular sense of
the word no mention is made either of witches or of witchcraft in Scripture.
The "witch of En-dor" (1 Sam. 28) was a necromancer, i.e., one who feigned
to hold converse with the dead. The damsel with "a spirit of divination"
(Acts 16:16) was possessed by an evil spirit, or, as the words are literally
rendered, "having a spirit, a pithon." The reference is to the heathen
god Apollo, who was regarded as the god of prophecy.
Witness - More than one witness was required
in criminal cases (Deut. 17:6; 19:15). They were the first to execute the
sentence on the condemned (Deut. 13:9; 17:7; 1 Kings 21:13; Matt. 27:1;
Acts 7:57, 58). False witnesses were liable to punishment (Deut. 19:16-21).
It was also an offence to refuse to bear witness (Lev. 5:1).
Witness of the Spirit - (Rom. 8:16), the
consciousness of the gracious operation of the Spirit on the mind, "a certitude
of the Spirit's presence and work continually asserted within us", manifested
"in his comforting us, his stirring us up to prayer, his reproof of our
sins, his drawing us to works of love, to bear testimony before the world,"
Wizard - a pretender to supernatural knowledge
and power, "a knowing one," as the original Hebrew word signifies. Such
an one was forbidden on pain of death to practise his deceptions (Lev. 19:31;
20:6, 27; 1 Sam. 28:3; Isa. 8:19; 19:3).
Wolf - Heb. zeeb, frequently referred to
in Scripture as an emblem of treachery and cruelty. Jacob's prophecy, "Benjamin
shall ravin as a wolf" (Gen. 49:27), represents the warlike character of
that tribe (see Judg. 19-21). Isaiah represents the peace of Messiah's kingdom
by the words, "The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb" (Isa. 11:6). The
habits of the wolf are described in Jer. 5:6; Hab. 1:8; Zeph. 3:3; Ezek.
22:27; Matt. 7:15; 10:16; Acts 20:29. Wolves are still sometimes found in
Palestine, and are the dread of shepherds, as of old.
Woman - was "taken out of man" (Gen. 2:23),
and therefore the man has the preeminence. "The head of the woman is the
man;" but yet honour is to be shown to the wife, "as unto the weaker vessel"
(1 Cor. 11:3, 8, 9; 1 Pet. 3:7). Several women are mentioned in Scripture
as having been endowed with prophetic gifts, as Miriam (Ex. 15:20), Deborah
(Judg. 4:4, 5), Huldah (2 Kings 22:14), Noadiah (Neh. 6:14), Anna (Luke
2:36, 37), and the daughters of Philip the evangelist (Acts 21:8, 9). Women
are forbidden to teach publicly (1 Cor. 14:34, 35; 1 Tim. 2:11, 12). Among
the Hebrews it devolved upon women to prepare the meals for the household
(Gen. 18:6; 2 Sam. 13:8), to attend to the work of spinning (Ex. 35:26;
Prov. 31:19), and making clothes (1 Sam. 2:19; Prov. 31:21), to bring water
from the well (Gen. 24:15; 1 Sam. 9:11), and to care for the flocks (Gen.
29:6; Ex. 2:16).
The word "woman," as used in Matt. 15:28, John 2:4 and 20:13, 15, implies
tenderness and courtesy and not disrespect. Only where revelation is known
has woman her due place of honour assigned to her.
Wood - See FOREST.
Wood-offering - (Neh. 10:34; 13:31). It
would seem that in the time of Nehemiah arrangements were made, probably
on account of the comparative scarcity of wood, by which certain districts
were required, as chosen by lot, to furnish wood to keep the altar fire
perpetually burning (Lev. 6:13).
Wool - one of the first material used for
making woven cloth (Lev. 13:47, 48, 52, 59; 19:19). The first-fruit of wool
was to be offered to the priests (Deut. 18:4). The law prohibiting the wearing
of a garment "of divers sorts, as of woollen and linen together" (Deut.
22:11) may, like some other laws of a similar character, have been intended
to express symbolically the separateness and simplicity of God's covenant
people. The wool of Damascus, famous for its whiteness, was of great repute
in the Tyrian market (Ezek. 27:18).
Word of God - (Heb. 4:12, etc.). The
Bible so called because the writers of its several books were God's organs
in communicating his will to men. It is his "word," because he speaks
to us in its sacred pages. Whatever the inspired writers here declare
to be true and binding upon us, God declares to be true and binding. This
word is infallible, because written under the guidance of the Holy Spirit,
and therefore free from all error of fact or doctrine or precept. (See
INSPIRATION; BIBLE.) All saving knowledge is obtained from the word of
God. In the case of adults it is an indispensable means of salvation,
and is efficacious thereunto by the gracious influence of the Holy Spirit
(John 17:17; 2 Tim. 3:15, 16; 1 Pet. 1:23).
Word, The - (Gr. Logos), one of the titles
of our Lord, found only in the writings of John (John 1:1-14; 1 John 1:1;
Rev. 19:13). As such, Christ is the revealer of God. His office is to make
God known. "No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which
is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him" (John 1:18). This title
designates the divine nature of Christ. As the Word, he "was in the beginning"
and "became flesh." "The Word was with God " and "was God," and was the
Creator of all things (comp. Ps.33: 6; 107:20; 119:89; 147:18; Isa. 40:8).
Works, Covenant of - entered into by
God with Adam as the representative of the human race (comp. Gen. 9:11,
12; 17:1-21), so styled because perfect obedience was its condition, thus
distinguishing it from the covenant of grace. (See COVENANT OF WORKS.)
Works, Good - The old objection against
the doctrine of salvation by grace, that it does away with the necessity
of good works, and lowers the sense of their importance (Rom. 6), although
it has been answered a thousand times, is still alleged by many. They say
if men are not saved by works, then works are not necessary. If the most
moral of men are saved in the same way as the very chief of sinners, then
good works are of no moment. And more than this, if the grace of God is
most clearly displayed in the salvation of the vilest of men, then the worse
men are the better.
The objection has no validity. The gospel of salvation by grace shows
that good works are necessary. It is true, unchangeably true, that without
holiness no man shall see the Lord. "Neither adulterers, nor thieves,
nor covetous, nor drunkards" shall inherit the kingdom of God.
Works are "good" only when, (1) they spring from the principle of love
to God. The moral character of an act is determined by the moral principle
that prompts it. Faith and love in the heart are the essential elements
of all true obedience. Hence good works only spring from a believing heart,
can only be wrought by one reconciled to God (Eph. 2:10; James 2:18:22).
(2.) Good works have the glory of God as their object; and (3) they have
the revealed will of God as their only rule (Deut. 12:32; Rev. 22:18,
Good works are an expression of gratitude in the believer's heart (John
14:15, 23; Gal. 5:6). They are the fruits of the Spirit (Titus 2:10-12),
and thus spring from grace, which they illustrate and strengthen in the
Good works of the most sincere believers are all imperfect, yet like
their persons they are accepted through the mediation of Jesus Christ
(Col. 3:17), and so are rewarded; they have no merit intrinsically, but
are rewarded wholly of grace.
Worm - (1.) Heb. sas (Isa. 51:8), denotes
the caterpillar of the clothes-moth.
(2.) The manna bred worms (tola'im), but on the Sabbath there was not
any worm (rimmah) therein (Ex. 16:20, 24). Here these words refer to caterpillars
or larvae, which feed on corrupting matter.
These two Hebrew words appear to be interchangeable (Job 25:6; Isa.
14:11). Tola'im in some places denotes the caterpillar (Deut. 28:39; Jonah
4:7), and rimmah, the larvae, as bred from putridity (Job 17:14; 21:26;
24:20). In Micah 7:17, where it is said, "They shall move out of their
holes like worms," perhaps serpents or "creeping things," or as in the
Revised Version, "crawling things," are meant.
The word is used figuratively in Job 25:6; Ps. 22:6; Isa. 41:14; Mark
9:44, 46, 48; Isa. 66:24.
Wormwood - Heb. la'anah, the Artemisia absinthium
of botanists. It is noted for its intense bitterness (Deut. 29:18; Prov.
5:4; Jer. 9:15; Amos 5:7). It is a type of bitterness, affliction, remorse,
punitive suffering. In Amos 6:12 this Hebrew word is rendered "hemlock"
(R.V., "wormwood"). In the symbolical language of the Apocalypse (Rev. 8:10,
11) a star is represented as falling on the waters of the earth, causing
the third part of the water to turn wormwood.
The name by which the Greeks designated it, absinthion, means "undrinkable."
The absinthe of France is distilled from a species of this plant. The
"southernwood" or "old man," cultivated in cottage gardens on account
of its fragrance, is another species of it.
Worship - homage rendered to God which it
is sinful (idolatry) to render to any created being (Ex. 34:14; Isa. 2:8).
Such worship was refused by Peter (Acts 10:25,26) and by an angel (Rev.
Worshipper - (Gr. neocoros = temple-sweeper
(Acts 19:35) of the great goddess Diana). This name neocoros appears on
most of the extant Ephesian coins
Wrestle - (Eph. 6:12). See GAMES.
Writing - The art of writing must have been
known in the time of the early Pharaohs. Moses is commanded "to write for
a memorial in a book" (Ex. 17:14) a record of the attack of Amalek. Frequent
mention is afterwards made of writing (28:11, 21, 29, 36; 31:18; 32:15,
16; 34:1, 28; 39:6, 14, 30). The origin of this art is unknown, but there
is reason to conclude that in the age of Moses it was well known. The inspired
books of Moses are the most ancient extant writings, although there are
written monuments as old as about B.C. 2000. The words expressive of "writing,"
"book," and "ink," are common to all the branches or dialects of the Semitic
language, and hence it has been concluded that this art must have been known
to the earliest Semites before they separated into their various tribes,
and nations, and families.
"The Old Testament and the discoveries of Oriental archaeology alike
tell us that the age of the Exodus was throughout the world of Western
Asia an age of literature and books, of readers and writers, and that
the cities of Palestine were stored with the contemporaneous records of
past events inscribed on imperishable clay. They further tell us that
the kinsfolk and neighbours of the Israelites were already acquainted
with alphabetic writing, that the wanderers in the desert and the tribes
of Edom were in contact with the cultured scribes and traders of Ma'in
[Southern Arabia], and that the 'house of bondage' from which Israel had
escaped was a land where the art of writing was blazoned not only on the
temples of the gods, but also on the dwellings of the rich and powerful.",
Sayce. (See DEBIR; PHOENICIA.)
The "Book of the Dead" was a collection of prayers and formulae, by
the use of which the souls of the dead were supposed to attain to rest
and peace in the next world. It was composed at various periods from the
earliest time to the Persian conquest. It affords an interesting glimpse
into the religious life and system of belief among the ancient Egyptians.
We learn from it that they believed in the existence of one Supreme Being,
the immortality of the soul, judgement after death, and the resurrection
of the body. It shows, too, a high state of literary activity in Egypt
in the time of Moses. It refers to extensive libraries then existing.
That of Ramessium, in Thebes, e.g., built by Rameses II., contained 20,000
When the Hebrews entered Canaan it is evident that the art of writing
was known to the original inhabitants, as appears, e.g., from the name
of the city Debir having been at first Kirjath-sepher, i.e., the "city
of the book," or the "book town" (Josh. 10:38; 15:15; Judg. 1:11).
The first mention of letter-writing is in the time of David (2 Sam.
11:14, 15). Letters are afterwards frequently spoken of (1 Kings 21:8,
9, 11; 2 Kings 10:1, 3, 6, 7; 19:14; 2 Chr. 21:12-15; 30:1, 6-9, etc.).
Yarn - Found only in 1 Kings 10:28, 2 Chr.
1:16. The Heb. word mikveh, i.e., "a stringing together," so rendered, rather
signifies a host, or company, or a string of horses. The Authorized Version
has: "And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and linen yarn: the king's
merchants received the linen yarn at a price;" but the Revised Version correctly
renders: "And the horses which Solomon had were brought out of Egypt; the
king's merchants received them in droves, each drove at a price."
Year - Heb. shanah, meaning "repetition"
or "revolution" (Gen. 1:14; 5:3). Among the ancient Egyptians the year consisted
of twelve months of thirty days each, with five days added to make it a
complete revolution of the earth round the sun. The Jews reckoned the year
in two ways, (1) according to a sacred calendar, in which the year began
about the time of the vernal equinox, with the month Abib; and (2) according
to a civil calendar, in which the year began about the time of the autumnal
equinox, with the month Nisan. The month Tisri is now the beginning of the
Yeshebi - the Hebrew word rendered "inhabitants"
in Josh. 17:7, but probably rather the name of the village Yeshepheh, probably
Yassuf, 8 miles south of Shechem.
Yoke - (1.) Fitted on the neck of oxen for
the purpose of binding to them the traces by which they might draw the plough,
etc. (Num. 19:2; Deut. 21:3). It was a curved piece of wood called 'ol.
(2.) In Jer. 27:2; 28:10, 12 the word in the Authorized Version rendered
"yoke" is motah, which properly means a "staff," or as in the Revised
These words in the Hebrew are both used figuratively of severe bondage,
or affliction, or subjection (Lev. 26:13; 1 Kings 12:4; Isa. 47:6; Lam.
1:14; 3:27). In the New Testament the word "yoke" is also used to denote
servitude (Matt. 11:29, 30; Acts 15:10; Gal. 5:1).
(3.) In 1 Sam. 11:7, 1 Kings 19:21, Job 1:3 the word thus translated
is tzemed, which signifies a pair, two oxen yoked or coupled together,
and hence in 1 Sam. 14:14 it represents as much land as a yoke of oxen
could plough in a day, like the Latin jugum. In Isa. 5:10 this
word in the plural is translated "acres."
Yoke-fellow - (Phil. 4:3), one of the apostle's
fellow-labourers. Some have conjectured that Epaphroditus is meant. Wyckliffe
renders the phrase "the german felowe", i.e., "thee, germane [=genuine]
Zaanaim - wanderings; the unloading of tents,
so called probably from the fact of nomads in tents encamping amid the cities
and villages of that region, a place in the north-west of Lake Merom, near
Kedesh, in Naphtali. Here Sisera was slain by Jael, "the wife of Heber the
Kenite," who had pitched his tent in the "plain [R.V., 'as far as the oak']
of Zaanaim" (Judg. 4:11).
It has been, however, suggested by some that, following the LXX. and
the Talmud, the letter b, which in Hebrew means "in," should be taken
as a part of the word following, and the phrase would then be "unto the
oak of Bitzanaim," a place which has been identified with the ruins of
Bessum, about half-way between Tiberias and Mount Tabor.
Zaanan - place of flocks, mentioned only
in Micah 1:11. It may be identified with Zenan, in the plain country of
Judah (Josh. 15:37).
Zaanannim - =Zaanaim, (Josh. 19:33).
Zaavan - terror, one of the "dukes of Edom"
(Gen. 36:27); called also Zavan (1 Chr. 1:42).
Zabad - gift. (1.) One of David's valiant
men (1 Chr. 11:41), the descendant of Ahlai, of the "children of Sheshan"
(2.) A descendant of Tahath (7:21).
(3.) The son of Shemath. He conspired against Joash, king of Judah,
and slew him (2 Chr. 24:25, 26). He is called also Jozachar (2 Kings 12:21).
(4.) Ezra 10:27.
(5.) Ezra 10:33.
(6.) Ezra 10:43.
Zabbai - wanderer; pure. (1.) Ezra 10:28.
(2.) The father of Baruch, who "earnestly repaired" part of the wall
of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:20; marg., "Zaccai").
Zabbud - gift, Ezra 8:14.
Zabdi - gift of Jehovah. (1.) An ancestor
of Achan (Josh. 7:1, 17, 18). He is probably the "Zimri" of 1 Chr. 2:6.
(2.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:19).
(3.) Called "the Shiphmite," one of David's officers, who had charge
of his vineyards (1 Chr. 27:27).
(4.) A Levite, one of the sons of Asaph (Neh. 11:17); probably the same
as Zichri (1 Chr. 9:15), and Zaccur (Neh. 12:35).
Zabdiel - gift of God. (1.) The father of
Jashobeam, who was one of David's officers (1 Chr. 27:2).
(2.) An overseer of the priests after the Captivity (Neh. 11:14).
Zabud - gift, the son of Nathan, who was
"king's friend" in the court of Solomon (1 Kings 4:5).
Zabulon - (Matt. 4:13, 15; Rev. 7:8).
Zaccai - pure, one whose "sons" returned
with Zerubbabel to Jerusalem (Ezra 2:9; Neh. 7:14). (See ZABBAI.)
Zacchaeus - pure, a superintendant of customs;
a chief tax-gather (publicanus) at Jericho (Luke 19:1-10). "The collection
of customs at Jericho, which at this time produced and exported a considerable
quantity of balsam, was undoubtedly an important post, and would account
for Zacchaeus being a rich man." Being short of stature, he hastened on
before the multitude who were thronging about Christ as he passed through
Jericho on his way to Jerusalem, and climbed up a sycamore tree that he
might be able to see him. When our Lord reached the spot he looked up to
the publican among the branches, and addressing him by name, told him to
make haste and come down, as he intended that day to abide at his house.
This led to the remarkable interview recorded by the evangelist, and to
the striking parable of the ten pounds (Luke 19:12-27). At Er-riha (Jericho)
there is a large, venerable looking square tower, which goes by the traditional
name of the House of Zacchaeus.
Zaccur - mindful. (1.) Father of Shammua,
who was one of the spies sent out by Moses (Num. 13:4).
(2.) A Merarite Levite (1 Chr. 24:27).
(3.) A son of Asaph, and chief of one of the courses of singers as arranged
by David (1 Chr. 25:2, 10).
(4.) Son of Imri (Neh. 3:2).
(5.) A Levite (Neh. 10:12).
(6.) The son of Mattaniah (Neh. 13:13).
Zachariah - remembered by the Lord. (1.)
Son of Jeroboam II., king of Israel. On the death of his father there was
an interregnum of ten years, at the end of which he succeeded to the throne,
which he occupied only six months, having been put to death by Shallum,
who usurped the throne. "He did that which was evil in the sight of the
Lord, as his fathers had done" (2 Kings 14:29; 15:8-12). In him the dynasty
of Jehu came to an end.
(2.) The father of Abi, who was the mother of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:2).
Zacharias - (1.) A priest of the course
of Abia, the eighth of the twenty-four courses into which the priests had
been originally divided by David (1 Chr. 23:1-19). Only four of these courses
or "families" of the priests returned from the Exile (Ezra 2:36-39); but
they were then re-distributed under the old designations. The priests served
at the temple twice each year, and only for a week each time. Zacharias's
time had come for this service. During this period his home would be one
of the chambers set apart for the priests on the sides of the temple ground.
The offering of incense was one of the most solemn parts of the daily worship
of the temple, and lots were drawn each day to determine who should have
this great honour, an honour which no priest could enjoy more than once
during his lifetime.
While Zacharias ministered at the golden altar of incense in the holy
place, it was announced to him by the angel Gabriel that his wife Elisabeth,
who was also of a priestly family, now stricken in years, would give birth
to a son who was to be called John, and that he would be the forerunner
of the long-expected Messiah (Luke 1:12-17). As a punishment for his refusing
to believe this message, he was struck dumb and "not able to speak until
the day that these things should be performed" (20). Nine months passed
away, and Elisabeth's child was born, and when in answer to their inquiry
Zacharias wrote on a "writing tablet," "His name is John," his mouth was
opened, and he praised God (60-79). The child (John the Baptist), thus
"born out of due time," "waxed strong in spirit" (1:80).
(2.) The "son of Barachias," mentioned as having been slain between
the temple and the altar (Matt. 23:35; Luke 11:51). "Barachias" here may
be another name for Jehoiada, as some think. (See ZECHARIAH.)
Zacher - memorial, a son of Jehiel (1 Chr.
8:31; 9:35); called Zechariah (9:37).
Zadok - righteous. (1.) A son of Ahitub,
of the line of Eleazer (2 Sam. 8:17; 1 Chr. 24:3), high priest in the time
of David (2 Sam. 20:25) and Solomon (1 Kings 4:4). He is first mentioned
as coming to take part with David at Hebron (1 Chr. 12:27, 28). He was probably
on this account made ruler over the Aaronites (27:17). Zadok and Abiathar
acted as high priests on several important occasions (1 Chr. 15:11; 2 Sam.
15:24-29, 35, 36); but when Adonijah endeavoured to secure the throne, Abiathar
went with him, and therefore Solomon "thrust him out from being high priest,"
and Zadok, remaining faithful to David, became high priest alone (1 Kings
2:27, 35; 1 Chr. 29:22). In him the line of Phinehas resumed the dignity,
and held it till the fall of Jerusalem. He was succeeded in his sacred office
by his son Azariah (1 Kings 4:2; comp. 1 Chr. 6:3-9).
(2.) The father of Jerusha, who was wife of King Uzziah, and mother
of King Jotham (2 Kings 15:33; 2 Chr. 27:1).
(3.) "The scribe" set over the treasuries of the temple by Nehemiah
along with a priest and a Levite (Neh. 13:13).
(4.) The sons of Baana, one of those who assisted in rebuilding the
wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:4).
Zair - little, a place probably east of
the Dead Sea, where Joram discomfited the host of Edom who had revolted
from him (2 Kings 8:21).
Zalmon - shady. (1.) One of David's warriors,
called the Ahohite (2 Sam. 23:28); called also Ilai (1 Chr. 11:29).
(2.) A wood near Shechem, from which Abimelech and his party brought
boughs and "put them to the hold" of Shechem, "and set the hold on fire"
(Judg. 9:48). Probably the southern peak of Gerizim, now called Jebel
Sulman. (See SALMON.)
Zalmonah - shady, one of the stations of
the Israelites in the wilderness (Num. 33:41, 42).
Zalmunna - one of the two kings of Midian
whom the "Lord delivered" into the hands of Gideon. He was slain afterwards
with Zebah (Judg. 8:5-21). (See ZEBAH.)
Zamzummims - a race of giants; "a people
great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims" (Deut. 2:20, 21). They were overcome
by the Ammonites, "who called them Zamzummims." They belonged to the Rephaim,
and inhabited the country afterwards occupied by the Ammonites. It has been
conjectured that they might be Ham-zuzims, i.e., Zuzims dwelling in Ham,
a place apparently to the south of Ashteroth (Gen. 14:5), the ancient Rabbath-ammon.
Zanoah - marsh. (1.) A town in the low country
or shephelah of Judah, near Zorah (Josh. 15:34). It was re-occupied after
the return from the Captivity (Neh. 11:30). Zanu'ah in Wady Ismail, 10 miles
west of Jerusalem, occupies probably the same site.
(2.) A town in the hill country of Judah, some 10 miles to the south-west
of Hebron (Josh. 15:56).
Zaphnath-paaneah - the name which Pharaoh
gave to Joseph when he raised him to the rank of prime minister or grand
vizier of the kingdom (Gen. 41:45). This is a pure Egyptian word, and has
been variously explained. Some think it means "creator," or "preserver of
life." Brugsch interprets it as "governor of the district of the place of
life", i.e., of Goshen, the chief city of which was Pithom, "the place of
life." Others explain it as meaning "a revealer of secrets," or "the man
to whom secrets are revealed."
Zarephath - smelting-shop, "a workshop for
the refining and smelting of metals", a small Phoenician town, now Surafend,
about a mile from the coast, almost midway on the road between Tyre and
Sidon. Here Elijah sojourned with a poor widow during the "great famine,"
when the "heaven was shut up three years and six months" (Luke 4:26; 1 Kings
17:10). It is called Sarepta in the New Testament (Luke 4:26).
Zaretan - When the Hebrews crossed the Jordan,
as soon as the feet of the priests were dipped in the water, the flow of
the stream was arrested. The point of arrest was the "city of Adam beside
Zaretan," probably near Succoth, at the mouth of the Jabbok, some 30 miles
up the river from where the people were encamped. There the water "stood
and rose upon an heap." Thus the whole space of 30 miles of the river-bed
was dry, that the tribes might pass over (Josh. 3:16, 17; comp. Ps. 104:3).
Zareth-shahar - the splendour of the dawn,
a city "in the mount of the valley" (Josh. 13:19). It is identified with
the ruins of Zara, near the mouth of the Wady Zerka Main, on the eastern
shore of the Dead Sea, some 3 miles south of the Callirrhoe. Of this town
but little remains. "A few broken basaltic columns and pieces of wall about
200 yards back from the shore, and a ruined fort rather nearer the sea,
about the middle of the coast line of the plain, are all that are left"
(Tristram's Land of Moab).
Zarthan - a place near Succoth, in the
plain of the Jordan, "in the clay ground," near which Hiram cast the brazen
utensils for the temple (1 Kings 7:46); probably the same as Zartan. It
is also called Zeredathah (2 Chr. 4:17). (See ZEREDA.)
Zatthu - a sprout, Neh. 10:14.
Zattu - id., one whose descendants returned
from the Captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:8; Neh. 7:13); probably the same
Zaza - plenty, a descendant of Judah (1
Zeal - an earnest temper; may be enlightened
(Num. 25:11-13; 2 Cor. 7:11; 9:2), or ignorant and misdirected (Rom. 10:2;
Phil. 3:6). As a Christian grace, it must be grounded on right principles
and directed to right ends (Gal. 4:18). It is sometimes ascribed to God
(2 Kings 19:31; Isa. 9:7; 37:32; Ezek. 5:13).
Zealots - a sect of Jews which originated
with Judas the Gaulonite (Acts 5:37). They refused to pay tribute to the
Romans, on the ground that this was a violation of the principle that God
was the only king of Israel. They rebelled against the Romans, but were
soon scattered, and became a lawless band of mere brigands. They were afterwards
called Sicarii, from their use of the sica, i.e., the Roman dagger.
Zebadiah - gift of Jehovah. (1.) A son of
Asahel, Joab's brother (1 Chr. 27:7).
(2.) A Levite who took part as one of the teachers in the system of
national education instituted by Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 17:7, 8).
(3.) The son of Ishmael, "the ruler of the house of Judah in all the
king's matters" (2 Chr. 19:8-11).
(4.) A son of Beriah (1 Chr. 8:15).
(5.) A Korhite porter of the Lord's house (1 Chr. 26:2). Three or four
others of this name are also mentioned.
Zebah - man-killer, or sacrifice, one of
the two kings who led the vast host of the Midianites who invaded the land
of Israel, and over whom Gideon gained a great and decisive victory (Judg.
8). Zebah and Zalmunna had succeeded in escaping across the Jordan with
a remnant of the Midianite host, but were overtaken at Karkor, probably
in the Hauran, and routed by Gideon. The kings were taken alive and brought
back across the Jordan; and confessing that they had personally taken part
in the slaughter of Gideon's brothers, they were put to death (comp. 1 Sam.
12:11; Isa. 10:26; Ps. 83:11).
Zebaim - (Ezra 2:57; Neh. 7:59). "Pochereth
of Zebaim" should be read as in the Revised Version, "Pochereth-hazzebaim"
("snaring the antelopes"), probably the name of some hunter.
Zebedee - a Galilean fisherman, the husband
of Salome (q.v.), and the father of James and John, two of our Lord's disciples
(Matt. 4:21; 27:56; Mark 15:40). He seems to have been a man of some position
in Capernaum, for he had two boats (Luke 5:4) and "hired servants" (Mark
1:20) of his own. No mention is made of him after the call of his two sons
Zeboim - gazelles or roes. (1.) One of the
"five cities of the plain" of Sodom, generally coupled with Admah (Gen.
10:19; 14:2; Deut. 29:23; Hos. 11:8). It had a king of its own (Shemeber),
and was therefore a place of some importance. It was destroyed along with
the other cities of the plain.
(2.) A valley or rugged glen somewhere near Gibeah in Benjamin (1 Sam.
13:18). It was probably the ravine now bearing the name Wady Shakh-ed-Dub'a,
or "ravine of the hyena," north of Jericho.
(3.) A place mentioned only in Neh. 11:34, inhabited by the Benjamites
after the Captivity.
Zebudah - given, the wife of Josiah and
mother of Jehoiakim (2 Kings 23:36).
Zebul - habitation, the governor of Shechem
under Abimelech (Judg. 9:28, 30, 36). He informed his master of the intention
of the people of Shechem to transfer their allegiance to the Hivite tribe
of Hamor. This led to Abimelech's destroying the city, when he put its entire
population to the sword, and sowed the ruins with salt (Judg. 9:28-45).
Zebulonite - the designation of Elon, the
judge who belonged to the tribe of Zebulun (Judg. 12:11, 12).
Zebulun - dwelling, the sixth and youngest
son of Jacob and Leah (Gen. 30:20). Little is known of his personal history.
He had three sons (46:14).
Zebulun, Lot of - in Galilee, to the north
of Issachar and south of Asher and Naphtali (Josh. 19:10-16), and between
the Sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean. According to ancient prophecy
this part of Galilee enjoyed a large share of our Lord's public ministry
(Isa. 9:1, 2; Matt. 4:12-16).
Zebulun, Tribe of - numbered at Sinai (Num.
1:31) and before entering Canaan (26:27). It was one of the tribes which
did not drive out the Canaanites, but only made them tributary (Judg. 1:30).
It took little interest in public affairs. It responded, however, readily
to the summons of Gideon (6:35), and afterwards assisted in enthroning David
at Hebron (1 Chr. 12:33, 40). Along with the other northern tribes, Zebulun
was carried away into the land of Assyria by Tiglath-pileser (2 Kings 15:29).
In Deborah's song the words, "Out of Zebulun they that handle the pen
of the writer" (Judg. 5:14) has been rendered in the R.V., "They that
handle the marshal's staff." This is a questionable rendering. "The word
sopher ('scribe' or 'writer') defines the word shebhet ('rod'
or 'pen') with which it is conjoined. The 'rod of the scribe' on the Assyrian
monuments was the stylus of wood or metal, with the help of which the
clay tablet was engraved, or the papyrus inscribed with characters. The
scribe who wielded it was the associate and assistant of the 'lawgivers.'"
Zechariah - Jehovah is renowned or remembered.
(1.) A prophet of Judah, the eleventh of the twelve minor prophets. Like
Ezekiel, he was of priestly extraction. He describes himself (1:1) as "the
son of Berechiah." In Ezra 5:1 and 6:14 he is called "the son of Iddo,"
who was properly his grandfather. His prophetical career began in the second
year of Darius (B.C. 520), about sixteen years after the return of the first
company from exile. He was contemporary with Haggai (Ezra 5:1).
His book consists of two distinct parts, (1) chapters 1 to 8, inclusive,
and (2) 9 to the end. It begins with a preface (1:1-6), which recalls
the nation's past history, for the purpose of presenting a solemn warning
to the present generation. Then follows a series of eight visions (1:7-6:8),
succeeding one another in one night, which may be regarded as a symbolical
history of Israel, intended to furnish consolation to the returned exiles
and stir up hope in their minds. The symbolical action, the crowning of
Joshua (6:9-15), describes how the kingdoms of the world become the kingdom
of God's Christ.
Chapters 7 and 8, delivered two years later, are an answer to the question
whether the days of mourning for the destruction of the city should be
any longer kept, and an encouraging address to the people, assuring them
of God's presence and blessing.
The second part of the book (ch. 9-14) bears no date. It is probable
that a considerable interval separates it from the first part. It consists
of two burdens.
The first burden (ch. 9-11) gives an outline of the course of God's
providential dealings with his people down to the time of the Advent.
The second burden (ch. 12-14) points out the glories that await Israel
in "the latter day", the final conflict and triumph of God's kingdom.
(2.) The son or grandson of Jehoiada, the high priest in the times of
Ahaziah and Joash. After the death of Jehoiada he boldly condemned both
the king and the people for their rebellion against God (2 Chr. 24:20),
which so stirred up their resentment against him that at the king's commandment
they stoned him with stones, and he died "in the court of the house of
the Lord" (24:21). Christ alludes to this deed of murder in Matt. 23:35,
Luke 11:51. (See ZACHARIAS .)
(3.) A prophet, who had "understanding in the seeing of God," in the
time of Uzziah, who was much indebted to him for his wise counsel (2 Chr.
Besides these, there is a large number of persons mentioned in Scripture
bearing this name of whom nothing is known.
(4.) One of the chiefs of the tribe of Reuben (1 Chr. 5:7).
(5.) One of the porters of the tabernacle (1 Chr. 9:21).
(6.) 1 Chr. 9:37.
(7.) A Levite who assisted at the bringing up of the ark from the house
of Obededom (1 Chr. 15:20-24).
(8.) A Kohathite Levite (1 Chr. 24:25).
(9.) A Merarite Levite (1 Chr. 27:21).
(10.) The father of Iddo (1 Chr. 27:21).
(11.) One who assisted in teaching the law to the people in the time
of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 17:7).
(12.) A Levite of the sons of Asaph (2 Chr. 20:14).
(13.) One of Jehoshaphat's sons (2 Chr. 21:2).
(14.) The father of Abijah, who was the mother of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:1).
(15.) One of the sons of Asaph (2 Chr. 29:13).
(16.) One of the "rulers of the house of God" (2 Chr. 35:8).
(17.) A chief of the people in the time of Ezra, who consulted him about
the return from captivity (Ezra 8:16); probably the same as mentioned
in Neh. 8:4,
(18.) Neh. 11:12.
(19.) Neh. 12:16.
(20.) Neh. 12:35,41.
(21.) Isa. 8:2.
Zedad - side; sloping place, a town in the
north of Palestine, near Hamath (Num. 34:8; Ezek. 47:15). It has been identified
with the ruins of Sudud, between Emesa (Hums) and Baalbec, but that is uncertain.
Zedekiah - righteousness of Jehovah. (1.)
The last king of Judah. He was the third son of Josiah, and his mother's
name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, and hence he was the
brother of Jehoahaz (2 Kings 23:31; 24:17, 18). His original name was Mattaniah;
but when Nebuchadnezzar placed him on the throne as the successor to Jehoiachin
he changed his name to Zedekiah. The prophet Jeremiah was his counsellor,
yet "he did evil in the sight of the Lord" (2 Kings 24:19, 20; Jer. 52:2,
3). He ascended the throne at the age of twenty-one years. The kingdom was
at that time tributary to Nebuchadnezzar; but, despite the strong remonstrances
of Jeremiah and others, as well as the example of Jehoiachin, he threw off
the yoke of Babylon, and entered into an alliance with Hophra, king of Egypt.
This brought up Nebuchadnezzar, "with all his host" (2 King 25:1), against
Jerusalem. During this siege, which lasted about eighteen months, "every
worst woe befell the devoted city, which drank the cup of God's fury to
the dregs" (2 Kings 25:3; Lam. 4:4, 5, 10). The city was plundered and laid
in ruins. Zedekiah and his followers, attempting to escape, were made captive
and taken to Riblah. There, after seeing his own children put to death,
his own eyes were put out, and, being loaded with chains, he was carried
captive (B.C. 588) to Babylon (2 Kings 25:1-7; 2 Chr. 36:12; Jer. 32:4,5;
34:2, 3; 39:1-7; 52:4-11; Ezek. 12:12), where he remained a prisoner, how
long is unknown, to the day of his death.
After the fall of Jerusalem, Nebuzaraddan was sent to carry out its
complete destruction. The city was razed to the ground. Only a small number
of vinedressers and husbandmen were permitted to remain in the land (Jer.
52:16). Gedaliah, with a Chaldean guard stationed at Mizpah, ruled over
Judah (2 Kings 25:22, 24; jer. 40:1, 2, 5, 6).
(2.) The son of Chenaanah, a false prophet in the days of Ahab (1 Kings
22:11, 24; 2 Chr. 18:10, 23).
(3.) The son of Hananiah, a prince of Judah in the days of Jehoiakim
Zeeb - the wolf, one of the two leaders
of the great Midianite host which invaded Israel and was utterly routed
by Gideon. The division of that host, which attempted to escape across the
Jordan, under Oreb and Zeeb, was overtaken by the Ephraimites, who, in a
great battle, completely vanquished them, their leaders being taken and
slain (Judg. 7:25; Ps. 83:11; Isa. 10:26).
Zelah - slope; side, a town in Benjamin,
where Saul and his son Jonathan were buried (2 Sam. 21:14). It was probably
Zelek - cleft, an Ammonite; one of David's
valiant men (2 Sam. 23:37).
Zelophehad - first-born, of the tribe of
Manasseh, and of the family of Gilead; died in the wilderness. Having left
no sons, his daughters, concerned lest their father's name should be "done
away from among his family," made an appeal to Moses, who, by divine direction,
appointed it as "a statute of judgment" in Israel that daughters should
inherit their father's portion when no sons were left (Num. 27:1-11). But
that the possession of Zelophehad might not pass away in the year of jubilee
from the tribe to which he belonged, it was ordained by Moses that his daughters
should not marry any one out of their father's tribe; and this afterwards
became a general law (Num. 36).
Zelotes - (Luke 6:15). See SIMON; ZEALOTS.